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author:("rieke, Burney")
1.  Seasonal Incidence of Medically Attended Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in a Community Cohort of Adults ≥50 Years Old 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e102586.
Background
Diagnostic testing for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is not routinely performed in adults. We estimated medically attended RSV seasonal incidence in a community cohort of adults ≥50 years old during four influenza seasons (2006–07 through 2009–10).
Methods
Patients seeking care for acute respiratory illness (ARI) were prospectively enrolled and tested for RSV by multiplex RT-PCR. Results from enrolled patients were used to estimate projected cases among non-enrolled patients with ARI. The seasonal incidence of medically attended RSV was the sum of actual and projected cases divided by the community cohort denominator. Since each enrollment period did not include the entire RSV season, incidence estimates were adjusted to account for the statewide proportion of RSV occurring outside the study enrollment period.
Results
There were 16,088 to 17,694 adults in the cohort each season and 164 RSV cases in all 4 seasons. The overall seasonal incidence of medically attended RSV was 154 episodes (95% CI, 132–180) per 10,000 persons; the incidence was highest in 2007–08 (179) and lowest in 2006–07 (110). Among persons 50–59, 60–69, and ≥70 years old, RSV incidence was 124 (95% CI, 99–156), 147 (95% CI, 110–196), and 199 (95% CI, 153–258), respectively.
Conclusions
The incidence of medically attended RSV increased with age and was similar during four seasons.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102586
PMCID: PMC4099308  PMID: 25025344
3.  Viruses in Nondisinfected Drinking Water from Municipal Wells and Community Incidence of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2012;120(9):1272-1279.
Background: Groundwater supplies for drinking water are frequently contaminated with low levels of human enteric virus genomes, yet evidence for waterborne disease transmission is lacking.
Objectives: We related quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)–measured enteric viruses in the tap water of 14 Wisconsin communities supplied by nondisinfected groundwater to acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) incidence.
Methods: AGI incidence was estimated from health diaries completed weekly by households within each study community during four 12-week periods. Water samples were collected monthly from five to eight households per community. Viruses were measured by qPCR, and infectivity assessed by cell culture. AGI incidence was related to virus measures using Poisson regression with random effects.
Results: Communities and time periods with the highest virus measures had correspondingly high AGI incidence. This association was particularly strong for norovirus genogroup I (NoV-GI) and between adult AGI and enteroviruses when echovirus serotypes predominated. At mean concentrations of 1 and 0.8 genomic copies/L of NoV-GI and enteroviruses, respectively, the AGI incidence rate ratios (i.e., relative risk) increased by 30%. Adenoviruses were common, but tap-water concentrations were low and not positively associated with AGI. The estimated fraction of AGI attributable to tap-water–borne viruses was between 6% and 22%, depending on the virus exposure–AGI incidence model selected, and could have been as high as 63% among children < 5 years of age during the period when NoV-GI was abundant in drinking water.
Conclusions: The majority of groundwater-source public water systems in the United States produce water without disinfection, and our findings suggest that populations served by such systems may be exposed to waterborne viruses and consequent health risks.
doi:10.1289/ehp.1104499
PMCID: PMC3440111  PMID: 22659405
acute gastrointestinal illness; drinking water; groundwater; public health; public water system; quantitative microbial risk assessment; quantitative polymerase chain reaction; viruses
4.  Concentration of Enteroviruses, Adenoviruses, and Noroviruses from Drinking Water by Use of Glass Wool Filters▿  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2008;74(10):2990-2996.
Available filtration methods to concentrate waterborne viruses are either too costly for studies requiring large numbers of samples, limited to small sample volumes, or not very portable for routine field applications. Sodocalcic glass wool filtration is a cost-effective and easy-to-use method to retain viruses, but its efficiency and reliability are not adequately understood. This study evaluated glass wool filter performance to concentrate the four viruses on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency contaminant candidate list, i.e., coxsackievirus, echovirus, norovirus, and adenovirus, as well as poliovirus. Total virus numbers recovered were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR); infectious polioviruses were quantified by integrated cell culture (ICC)-qRT-PCR. Recovery efficiencies averaged 70% for poliovirus, 14% for coxsackievirus B5, 19% for echovirus 18, 21% for adenovirus 41, and 29% for norovirus. Virus strain and water matrix affected recovery, with significant interaction between the two variables. Optimal recovery was obtained at pH 6.5. No evidence was found that water volume, filtration rate, and number of viruses seeded influenced recovery. The method was successful in detecting indigenous viruses in municipal wells in Wisconsin. Long-term continuous filtration retained viruses sufficiently for their detection for up to 16 days after seeding for qRT-PCR and up to 30 days for ICC-qRT-PCR. Glass wool filtration is suitable for large-volume samples (1,000 liters) collected at high filtration rates (4 liters min−1), and its low cost makes it advantageous for studies requiring large numbers of samples.
doi:10.1128/AEM.02246-07
PMCID: PMC2394941  PMID: 18359827
5.  Adamantane-Resistant Influenza Infection During the 2004–05 Season 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2008;14(1):173-176.
Adamantane-resistant influenza A is an emerging problem, but infections caused by resistant and susceptible viruses have not been compared. We identified adamantane resistance in 47% of 152 influenza A virus (H3N2) isolates collected during 2005. Resistant and susceptible viruses caused similar symptoms and illness duration. The prevalence of resistance was highest in children.
doi:10.3201/eid1401.070460
PMCID: PMC2600142  PMID: 18258102
Adamantane resistance; influenza; clinical feature; dispatch
6.  Impact of Statewide Program To Promote Appropriate Antimicrobial Drug Use 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2005;11(6):912-920.
The Wisconsin Antibiotic Resistance Network (WARN) was launched in 1999 to educate physicians and the public about judicious antimicrobial drug use. Public education included radio and television advertisements, posters, pamphlets, and presentations at childcare centers. Physician education included mailings, susceptibility reports, practice guidelines, satellite conferences, and presentations. We analyzed antimicrobial prescribing data for primary care physicians in Wisconsin and Minnesota (control state). Antimicrobial prescribing declined 19.8% in Minnesota and 20.4% in Wisconsin from 1998 to 2003. Prescribing by internists declined significantly more in Wisconsin than Minnesota, but the opposite was true for pediatricians. We conclude that the secular trend of declining antimicrobial drug use continued through 2003, but a large-scale educational program did not generate greater reductions in Wisconsin despite improved knowledge. State and local organizations should consider a balanced approach that includes limited statewide educational activities with increasing emphasis on local, provider-level interventions and policy development to promote careful antimicrobial drug use.
doi:10.3201/eid1106.050118
PMCID: PMC3367605  PMID: 15963287
Keywords: Drug resistance; drug utilization/trends; health education; outcome and process assessment; respiratory tract infections/drug therapy; physician
7.  Clinician Knowledge and Beliefs after Statewide Program to Promote Appropriate Antimicrobial Drug Use 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2005;11(6):904-911.
In 1999, Wisconsin initiated an educational campaign for primary care clinicians and the public to promote judicious antimicrobial drug use. We evaluated its impact on clinician knowledge and beliefs; Minnesota served as a control state. Results of pre- (1999) and post- (2002) campaign questionnaires indicated that Wisconsin clinicians perceived a significant decline in the proportion of patients requesting antimicrobial drugs (50% in 1999 to 30% in 2002; p<0.001) and in antimicrobial drug requests from parents for children (25% in 1999 to 20% in 2002; p = 0.004). Wisconsin clinicians were less influenced by nonpredictive clinical findings (purulent nasal discharge [p = 0.044], productive cough [p = 0.010]) in terms of antimicrobial drug prescribing. In 2002, clinicians from both states were less likely to recommend antimicrobial agent treatment for the adult case scenarios of viral respiratory illness. For the comparable pediatric case scenarios, only Wisconsin clinicians improved significantly from 1999 to 2002. Although clinicians in both states improved on several survey responses, greater overall improvement occurred in Wisconsin.
doi:10.3201/eid1106.050144
PMCID: PMC3367606  PMID: 15963286
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; reducing antimicrobial resistance; Drug resistance
8.  Demand for Prophylaxis after Bioterrorism-Related Anthrax Cases, 2001 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2005;11(1):42-47.
In 1991, most physicians in Minnesota and Wisconsin managed patients concerns about anthrax without dispensing prophylactic antimicrobial agents.
Media reports suggested increased public demand for anthrax prophylaxis after the intentional anthrax cases in 2001, but the magnitude of anthrax-related prescribing in unaffected regions was not assessed. We surveyed a random sample of 400 primary care clinicians in Minnesota and Wisconsin to assess requests for and provision of anthrax-related antimicrobial agents. The survey was returned by 239 (60%) of clinicians, including 210 in outpatient practice. Fifty-eight (28%) of those in outpatient practice received requests for anthrax-related antimicrobial agents, and 9 (4%) dispensed them. Outpatient fluoroquinolone use in both states was also analyzed with regression models to compare predicted and actual use in October and November 2001. Fluoroquinolone use as a proportion of total antimicrobial use was not elevated, and anthrax concerns accounted for an estimated 0.3% of all fluoroquinolone prescriptions. Most physicians in Minnesota and Wisconsin managed anthrax-related requests without dispensing antimicrobial agents.
doi:10.3201/eid1101.040272
PMCID: PMC3294341  PMID: 15705321
research, anthrax, fluoroquinolone, prophylaxis; drug resistance; bioterrorism
9.  A Multicenter Study of Bacterial Vaginosis in Women With or at Risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection 
Background: Bacterial vaginosis is a common gynecologic infection that has been associated with a variety of gynecologic and obstetric complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease, postabortal infection and premature delivery. Recent studies suggest that bacterial vaginosis may increase a woman’s risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We undertook this study to assess whether the prevalence and characteristics of bacterial vaginosis differed according to HIV status in high-risk US women.
Methods: Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was assessed by Gram’s stain and clinical criteria for 854 HIV-infected and 434 HIV-uninfected women enrolled in the HIV Epidemiology Research (HER) Study.Multiple logistic regression techniques were used to determine whether HIV infection independently predicted bacterial vaginosis.
Results: Almost half (46%) the women had bacterial vaginosis by Gram’s stain. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 47% in the HIV-positive women compared with 44% in the HIV-negativewomen; this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.36). After adjustment for other covariates, HIV-positive women were more likely than HIV-negative women to have bacterial vaginosis (odds ratio (OR) 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.70) by Gram's stain but not by clinical criteria (OR 1.16; CI 0.87-1.55). Among HIV-positive women, use of antiretroviral drugs was associated with a lower prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (adjusted OR 0.54; Cl 0.38 -0.77).
Conclusions: In this cross-sectional analysis of high-risk US women, HIV infection was positively correlated with bacterial vaginosis diagnosed by Gram’s stain.
doi:10.1155/S1064744901000242
PMCID: PMC1784649  PMID: 11516061

Results 1-9 (9)