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1.  Subgingival Microbiota in Adult Down Syndrome Periodontitis 
Journal of Periodontal Research  2012;47(4):500-507.
Objectives
The subgingival microbiota in Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome (non-DS) adults receiving periodic dental care was examined for 40 bacterial species with checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization, and related to clinical periodontal attachment loss (AL).
Methods
A total of 44 Down syndrome, 66 non-DS mentally retarded, and 83 mentally normal adults were clinically evaluated, with subgingival specimens removed and pooled per subject from three interproximal sites on different teeth, and assessed for the presence and levels of 40 bacterial species using species-specific whole genomic DNA probes and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Significant group differences in species proportions averaged across subjects were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and associations between subgingival species and mean subject AL within Down syndrome and non-DS subject groups were quantified with Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis.
Results
Down syndrome subjects exhibited greater AL than non-DS subjects (P = 0.05). Down syndrome subjects yielded most microbial species at levels similar to non-DS subjects, except for higher proportions of Selenomonas noxia, Propionibacterium acnes, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus oralis as compared to non-DS study subjects, higher Treponema socranskii than non-DS mentally retarded subjects, and higher Streptococcus constellatus relative to mentally normal subjects. Down syndrome adults classified with periodontitis revealed higher subgingival levels of T. socranskii than non-periodontitis Down syndrome subjects (P = 0.02). Higher subgingival proportions of S. constellatus, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum, S. noxia and Prevotella nigrescens showed significant positive correlations (r = 0.35 to 0.42), and Actinomyces naeslundii II and Actinomyces odontolyticus negative correlations (r = −0.36 to −0.40), with increasing mean subject AL in Down syndrome adults.
Conclusions
Individuals with DS show higher levels of some subgingival bacterial species and specific associations between certain subgingival bacterial species and loss of periodontal attachment. These findings are consistent with the notion that certain subgingival bacteria may contribute to the increased level of periodontal disease seen in DS individuals, and raise the question as to the reason for increased colonization in DS.
doi:10.1111/j.1600-0765.2011.01459.x
PMCID: PMC3323756  PMID: 22221039
subgingival microbiota; Down syndrome; periodontitis; periodontal
2.  Phagocytic Cell Activity and Periodontitis In Down Syndrome 
Oral Diseases  2011;18(4):346-352.
Background
this study investigated the phagocytic function of peripheral granulocytes and monocytes from adult individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and assessed the relation between phagocytic function and periodontal status.
Methods
55 DS individuals (18–56 years old), 74 mentally retarded (MR) individuals and 88 medically healthy controls (HC) participated in the study. Gingival inflammation index, plaque index, probing depth, periodontal attachment level (AL) and bleeding on probing were taken for each subject. Whole blood was collected for granulocyte/monocyte phagocytosis tests. Phagocytic function was determined by flow cytometry in terms of percentage of cells actively involved in phagocytosis, and phagocytic intensity (magnitude of the bacterial staining per cell).
Results
phagocytic intensity of both granulocytes and monocytes was comparable in HC and DS subjects. While AL was directly related to phagocytic intensity of both granulocytes (r=0.14, p=0.03) and monocytes (r=0.2, p=0.003) in all subjects, this relationship was stronger in DS than other subjects, even after controlling for known risk factors for periodontitis (p<0.05). Monocyte phagocytic intensity was the only necessary predictor of AL (p=0.003), indicating a similar relationship between AL and phagocytic activity in either cell type.
Conclusions
While granulocyte and monocyte phagocytic intensities are similar in Down and non-DS individuals, phagocytic intensity was associated with more AL in DS than non-DS individuals.
doi:10.1111/j.1601-0825.2011.01877.x
PMCID: PMC3292629  PMID: 22126098
Down syndrome; periodontitis; granulocytes; monocytes; phagocytosis
3.  Dental Care and Oral Disease in Alcohol Dependent Persons 
Dental/oral health of alcoholics and substance abusers is often neglected. It is not clear that alcohol dependence has effects on oral health beyond those expected in non-alcoholic persons of similar socioeconomic status (SES). Study objectives were to examine the personal dental care habits, ability to access professional dental care and the types of services received, and examine their effect on the oral health of alcoholics and substance abusers. Forty DSM-III-R diagnosed alcoholics and a comparison group of 25 non-alcoholic subjects matched for race, age, sex and SES were recruited. Subjects were medically healthy. Each subject received a comprehensive oral/dental examination and an interview was conducted to record personal dental hygiene habits, ability to access professional dental care and types of dental services provided.
Results
No statistical differences were found between the oral care habits of the groups. Forty-four percent of all subjects had access to charity professional dental care. Tooth extraction was the main dental service they received. Seventy-five percent of subjects brushed their teeth once or more per day. In the non-alcoholic group, brushing frequency was inversely associated with plaque levels (p < 0.05); in the alcoholic group brushing frequency showed no statistical effect on plaque levels. Access to professional dental care was inversely associated with periodontitis in the alcoholic group (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
Alcohol dependence may increase plaque levels above that seen in race, sex, age and SES-matched controls, but professional dental care can limit the subsequent development of periodontal disease in these people.
doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2008.11.009
PMCID: PMC2760312  PMID: 19150205
Dental care; Alcohol dependence; Drug abuse; Periodontal diseases

Results 1-3 (3)