The antiviral factor CPSF6-358 restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection through an interaction with capsid (CA), preventing virus nuclear entry and integration. HIV-1 acquires resistance to CPSF6-358 through an N74D mutation of CA that impairs binding of the antiviral factor. Here we examined the determinants within CPSF6-358 that are necessary for CA-specific interaction. Residues 314 to 322 include amino acids that are essential for CPSF6-358 restriction of HIV-1. Fusion of CPSF6 residues 301 to 358 to rhesus TRIM5α is also sufficient to restrict wild-type but not N74D HIV-1. Restriction is lost if CPSF6 residues in the amino acid 314 to 322 interaction motif are mutated. Examination of the CA targeting motif in CPSF6-358 did not reveal evidence of positive selection. Given the sensitivity of different primate lentiviruses to CPSF6-358 and apparent conservation of this interaction, our data suggest that CPSF6-358-mediated targeting of HIV-1 could provide a broadly effective antiviral strategy.
The antiviral factor CPSF6-358 interferes with the nuclear entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 acquires resistance to CPSF6-358 through the N74D mutation of the capsid (CA), which alters its nuclear entry pathway. Here we show that compared to wild-type (WT) HIV-1, N74D HIV-1 is more sensitive to cyclosporine, has increased sensitivity to nevirapine, and is impaired in macrophage infection prior to reverse transcription. These phenotypes suggest a difference in the N74D reverse transcription complex that manifests early after infection and prior to interaction with the nuclear pore. Overall, our data indicate that N74D HIV-1 replication in transformed cells requires cyclophilin A but is dependent on other interactions in macrophages.
The cellular and viral determinants required for HIV-1 infection of nondividing cells have been a subject of intense scrutiny. Here we identify the 68 kDa subunit of cleavage factor Im, CPSF6, as an inhibitor of HIV-1 infection. When enriched in the cytoplasm by high level expression or mutation, CPSF6 prevents nuclear entry of the virus. Similar to TRIM5 and Fv1 type restrictions, CPSF6 targets the viral capsid (CA). N74D mutation of the HIV-1 CA leads to a loss of interaction with CPSF6 and evasion of the nuclear import restriction. Interestingly, N74D mutation of CA changes HIV-1 nucleoporin (NUP) requirements. Whereas wild-type HIV-1 requires NUP153, N74D HIV-1 mimics the NUP requirements of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and is more sensitive to NUP155 depletion. These findings reveal a remarkable flexibility in HIV-1 nuclear transport and highlight a single residue in CA as essential in regulating interactions with NUPs.
The human nuclear envelope proteins emerin and lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α) have been proposed to aid in the early replication steps of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and murine leukemia virus (MLV). However, whether these factors are essential for HIV-1 or MLV infection has been questioned. Prior studies in which conflicting results were obtained were highly dependent on RNA interference-mediated gene silencing. To shed light on these contradictory results, we examined whether HIV-1 or MLV could infect primary cells from mice deficient for emerin, LAP2α, or both emerin and LAP2α. We observed HIV-1 and MLV infectivity in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from emerin knockout, LAP2α knockout, or emerin and LAP2α double knockout mice to be comparable in infectivity to wild-type littermate-derived MEFs, indicating that both emerin and LAP2α were dispensable for HIV-1 and MLV infection of dividing, primary mouse cells. Because emerin has been suggested to be important for infection of human macrophages by HIV-1, we also examined HIV-1 transduction of macrophages from wild-type mice or knockout mice, but again we did not observe a difference in susceptibility. These findings prompted us to reexamine the role of human emerin in supporting HIV-1 and MLV infection. Notably, both viruses efficiently infected human cells expressing high levels of dominant-negative emerin. We thus conclude that emerin and LAP2α are not required for the early replication of HIV-1 and MLV in mouse or human cells.
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients does not clear the infection and can select for drug resistance over time. Not only is drug-resistant HIV-1 a concern for infected individuals on continual therapy, but it is an emerging problem in resource-limited settings where, in efforts to stem mother-to-child-transmission of HIV-1, transient nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) therapy given during labor can select for NNRTI resistance in both mother and child. Questions of HIV-1 persistence and drug resistance are highly amenable to exploration within animals models, where therapy manipulation is less constrained. We examined a pigtail macaque infection model responsive to anti-HIV-1 therapy to study the development of resistance. Pigtail macaques were infected with a pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus encoding HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT-SHIV) to examine the impact of prior exposure to a NNRTI on subsequent ART comprised of a NNRTI and two nucleoside RT inhibitors. K103N resistance-conferring mutations in RT rapidly accumulated in 2/3 infected animals after NNRTI monotherapy and contributed to virologic failure during ART in 1/3 animals. By contrast, ART effectively suppressed RT-SHIV in 5/6 animals. These data indicate that suboptimal therapy facilitates HIV-1 drug resistance and suggest that this model can be used to investigate persisting viral reservoirs.
Control over the simultaneous delivery of different functionalities and their synchronized intracellular activation can greatly benefit the fields of RNA and DNA biomedical nanotechnologies and allow for the production of nanoparticles and various switching devices with controllable functions. We present a system of multiple split functionalities embedded in the cognate pairs of RNA–DNA hybrids which are programmed to recognize each other, re-associate and form a DNA duplex while also releasing the split RNA fragments which upon association regain their original functions. Simultaneous activation of three different functionalities (RNAi, Förster resonance energy transfer and RNA aptamer) confirmed by multiple in vitro and cell culture experiments prove the concept. To automate the design process, a novel computational tool that differentiates between the thermodynamic stabilities of RNA–RNA, RNA–DNA and DNA–DNA duplexes was developed. Moreover, here we demonstrate that besides being easily produced by annealing synthetic RNAs and DNAs, the individual hybrids carrying longer RNAs can be produced by RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription of single-stranded DNA templates.
Retroviruses integrate into cellular DNA nonrandomly. Lentiviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) favor the bodies of active genes and gene-enriched transcriptionally active regions of chromosomes. The interaction between lentiviral integrase and the cellular protein lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF)/p75 underlies the targeting of gene bodies, whereas recent research has highlighted roles for the HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein and cellular factors implicated in viral nuclear import, including transportin 3 (TNPO3) and nucleoporin 358 (NUP358), in the targeting of gene-dense regions of chromosomes. Here, we show that CA mutations, which include the substitution of Asp for Asn74 (N74D), significantly reduce the dependency of HIV-1 on LEDGF/p75 during infection and that this difference correlates with the efficiency of viral DNA integration. The distribution of integration sites mapped by Illumina sequencing confirms that the N74D mutation reduces integration into gene-rich regions of chromosomes and gene bodies and reveals previously unrecognized roles for NUP153 (another HIV-1 cofactor implicated in viral nuclear import) and LEDGF/p75 in the targeting of the viral preintegration complex to gene-dense regions of chromatin. A role for the CA protein in determining the dependency of HIV-1 on LEDGF/p75 during infection highlights a connection between the viral capsid and chromosomal DNA integration.
It has been proposed that most drug-resistant mutants, resulting from a single-nucleotide change, exist at low frequency in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) populations in vivo prior to the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). To test this hypothesis and to investigate the emergence of resistant mutants with drug selection, we developed a new ultrasensitive allele-specific PCR (UsASP) assay, which can detect drug resistance mutations at a frequency of ≥0.001% of the virus population. We applied this assay to plasma samples obtained from macaques infected with an SIV variant containing HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) (RT-simian-human immunodeficiency [SHIV]mne), before and after they were exposed to a short course of efavirenz (EFV) monotherapy. We detected RT inhibitor (RTI) resistance mutations K65R and M184I but not K103N in 2 of 2 RT-SHIV-infected macaques prior to EFV exposure. After three doses over 4 days of EFV monotherapy, 103N mutations (AAC and AAT) rapidly emerged and increased in the population to levels of ∼20%, indicating that they were present prior to EFV exposure. The rapid increase of 103N mutations from <0.001% to 20% of the viral population indicates that the replicating virus population size in RT-SHIV-infected macaques must be 106 or more infected cells per replication cycle.
The HIV-1 genome enters cells inside a shell comprised of capsid (CA) protein. Variation in CA sequence alters HIV-1 infectivity and escape from host restriction factors. However, apart from the Cyclophilin A-binding loop, CA has no known interfaces with which to interact with cellular cofactors. Here we describe a novel protein-protein interface in the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 CA, determined by X-ray crystallography, which mediates both viral restriction and host cofactor dependence. The interface is highly conserved across lentiviruses and is accessible in the context of a hexameric lattice. Mutation of the interface prevents binding to and restriction by CPSF6-358, a truncated cytosolic form of the RNA processing factor, cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 6 (CPSF6). Furthermore, mutations that prevent CPSF6 binding also relieve dependence on nuclear entry cofactors TNPO3 and RanBP2. These results suggest that the HIV-1 capsid mediates direct host cofactor interactions to facilitate viral infection.
In order to infect a host cell, HIV-1 must interact with and exploit cellular cofactors. Mutations within capsid, the protein shell that surrounds the virus, have been shown to affect virus usage of these cofactors and susceptibility to host antiviral proteins. However, with the exception of the Cyclophilin A-binding loop, there is no defined protein interface on the capsid that mediates interactions with cellular proteins. Here, we describe the identification of a conserved interface on HIV-1 capsid that binds the host protein CPSF6 and determines viral dependence on nuclear transport cofactors. This data illustrates how host-virus interactions allow HIV-1 to hitch a ride into the nucleus and reveals a potential new target for antiviral drugs.
Although xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been previously linked to prostate cancer and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, recent data indicate that results interpreted as evidence of human XMRV infection reflect laboratory contamination rather than authentic in vivo infection. Nevertheless, XMRV is a retrovirus of undefined pathogenic potential that is able to replicate in human cells. Here we describe a comprehensive analysis of two male pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) experimentally infected with XMRV. Following intravenous inoculation with >1010 RNA copy equivalents of XMRV, viral replication was limited and transient, peaking at ≤2,200 viral RNA (vRNA) copies/ml plasma and becoming undetectable by 4 weeks postinfection, though viral DNA (vDNA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells remained detectable through 119 days of follow-up. Similarly, vRNA was not detectable in lymph nodes by in situ hybridization despite detectable vDNA. Sequencing of cell-associated vDNA revealed extensive G-to-A hypermutation, suggestive of APOBEC-mediated viral restriction. Consistent with limited viral replication, we found transient upregulation of type I interferon responses that returned to baseline by 2 weeks postinfection, no detectable cellular immune responses, and limited or no spread to prostate tissue. Antibody responses, including neutralizing antibodies, however, were detectable by 2 weeks postinfection and maintained throughout the study. Both animals were healthy for the duration of follow-up. These findings indicate that XMRV replication and spread were limited in pigtailed macaques, predominantly by APOBEC-mediated hypermutation. Given that human APOBEC proteins restrict XMRV infection in vitro, human XMRV infection, if it occurred, would be expected to be characterized by similarly limited viral replication and spread.
Lentiviruses such as HIV-1 traverse nuclear pore complexes (NPC) and infect terminally differentiated non-dividing cells, but how they do this is unclear. The cytoplasmic NPC protein Nup358/RanBP2 was identified as an HIV-1 co-factor in previous studies. Here we report that HIV-1 capsid (CA) binds directly to the cyclophilin domain of Nup358/RanBP2. Fusion of the Nup358/RanBP2 cyclophilin (Cyp) domain to the tripartite motif of TRIM5 created a novel inhibitor of HIV-1 replication, consistent with an interaction in vivo. In contrast to CypA binding to HIV-1 CA, Nup358 binding is insensitive to inhibition with cyclosporine, allowing contributions from CypA and Nup358 to be distinguished. Inhibition of CypA reduced dependence on Nup358 and the nuclear basket protein Nup153, suggesting that CypA regulates the choice of the nuclear import machinery that is engaged by the virus. HIV-1 cyclophilin-binding mutants CA G89V and P90A favored integration in genomic regions with a higher density of transcription units and associated features than wild type virus. Integration preference of wild type virus in the presence of cyclosporine was similarly altered to regions of higher transcription density. In contrast, HIV-1 CA alterations in another patch on the capsid surface that render the virus less sensitive to Nup358 or TRN-SR2 depletion (CA N74D, N57A) resulted in integration in genomic regions sparse in transcription units. Both groups of CA mutants are impaired in replication in HeLa cells and human monocyte derived macrophages. Our findings link HIV-1 engagement of cyclophilins with both integration targeting and replication efficiency and provide insight into the conservation of viral cyclophilin recruitment.
During infection HIV-1 enters the nucleus by crossing the nuclear membrane and incorporating itself into the host DNA by a process called integration. Here we show that the viral capsid protein gets tethered to a cyclophilin protein called Nup358, a component of the nuclear membrane gateways that allow transport between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Altering the capsid protein so that it cannot use Nup358 prevents viral replication in macrophages, a natural target cell type for HIV-1. Intriguingly, these viral mutants are not less infectious in certain immortalised cell lines suggesting that in these cells nuclear entry is regulated differently. In this case similar to wild type virus, the mutant viruses integrate into host chromosomes but they integrate into different regions suggesting that the pathway into the nucleus dictates where the virus ends up in the host chromatin. We also show that another cyclophilin, the cytoplasmic protein cyclophilin A, influences the engagement of Nup358 as well as other proteins involved in HIV-1 nuclear entry. We hypothesise that HIV-1 has evolved to use cyclophilins so that it can access a particular pathway into the nucleus because alternative pathways lead to defects in integration targeting and viral replication in human macrophages.
The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the genetics of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) populations has been incompletely characterized. We analyzed SIV genetic variation before, during, and after ART in a macaque model. Six pigtail macaques were infected with an SIV/HIV chimeric virus, RT-SHIVmne, in which SIV reverse transcriptase (RT) was replaced by HIV-1 RT. Three animals received a short course of efavirenz (EFV) monotherapy before combination ART was started. All macaques received 20 weeks of tenofovir, emtricitabine, and EFV. Plasma virus populations were analyzed by single-genome sequencing. Population diversity was measured by average pairwise difference, and changes in viral genetics were assessed by phylogenetic and panmixia analyses. After 20 weeks of ART, viral diversity was not different from pretherapy viral diversity despite more than 10,000-fold declines in viremia, indicating that, within this range, there is no relationship between diversity and plasma viremia. In two animals with consistent SIV RNA suppression to <15 copies/ml during ART, there was no evidence of viral evolution. In contrast, in the four macaques with viremias >15 copies/ml during therapy, there was divergence between pre- and during-ART virus populations. Drug resistance mutations emerged in two of these four animals, resulting in virologic failure in the animal with the highest level of pretherapy viremia. Taken together, these findings indicate that viral diversity does not decrease with suppressive ART, that ongoing replication occurs with viremias >15 copies/ml, and that in this macaque model of ART drug resistance likely emerges as a result of incomplete suppression and preexisting drug resistance mutations.
Recent genome-wide screens have highlighted an important role for transportin 3 in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and preintegration complex (PIC) nuclear import. Moreover, HIV-1 integrase interacted with recombinant transportin 3 protein under conditions whereby Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) integrase failed to do so, suggesting that integrase-transportin 3 interactions might underscore active retroviral PIC nuclear import. Here we correlate infectivity defects in transportin 3 knockdown cells with in vitro protein binding affinities for an expanded set of retroviruses that include simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) to critically address the role of integrase-transportin 3 interactions in viral infection. Lentiviruses, with the exception of FIV, display a requirement for transportin 3 in comparison to MLV and RSV, yielding an infection-based dependency ranking of SIV > HIV-1 > BIV and EIAV > MLV, RSV, and FIV. In vitro pulldown and surface plasmon resonance assays, in contrast, define a notably different integrase-transportin 3 binding hierarchy: FIV, HIV-1, and BIV > SIV and MLV > EIAV. Our results therefore fail to support a critical role for integrase binding in dictating transportin 3 dependency during retrovirus infection. In addition to integrase, capsid has been highlighted as a retroviral nuclear import determinant. Accordingly, MLV/HIV-1 chimera viruses pinpoint the genetic determinant of sensitization to transportin 3 knockdown to the HIV-1 capsid protein. We therefore conclude that capsid, not integrase, is the dominant viral factor that dictates transportin 3 dependency during HIV-1 infection.
Exogenous retroviruses are obligate cellular parasites that co-opt a number of host proteins and functions to enable their replication and spread. Several host factors that restrict HIV and other retroviral infections have also recently been described. Here we demonstrate that Mov10, a protein associated with P-bodies that has a putative RNA-helicase domain, when overexpressed in cells can inhibit the production of infectious retroviruses. Interestingly, reducing the endogenous Mov10 levels in virus-producing cells through siRNA treatment also modestly suppresses HIV infectivity. The actions of Mov10 are not limited to HIV, however, as ectopic expression of Mov10 restricts the production of other lentiviruses as well as the gammaretrovirus, murine leukemia virus. We found that HIV produced in the presence of high levels of Mov10 is restricted at the pre-reverse transcription stage in target cells. Finally, we show that either helicase mutation or truncation of the C-terminal half of Mov10, where a putative RNA-helicase domain is located, maintained most of its HIV inhibition; whereas removing the N-terminal half of Mov10 completely abolished its activity on HIV. Together these results suggest that Mov10 could be required during the lentiviral lifecycle and that its perturbation disrupts generation of infectious viral particles. Because Mov10 is implicated as part of the P-body complex, these findings point to the potential role of cytoplasmic RNA processing machinery in infectious retroviral production.
To study the dynamics of wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 RT variants, we developed a methodology that follows the fates of individual genomes over time within the viral quasispecies. Single genome sequences were obtained from 3 pigtail macaques infected with a recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus containing the RT coding region from HIV-1 (RT-SHIV) and treated with short-course efavirenz monotherapy 13 weeks post-infection followed by daily combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) beginning at week 17. Bioinformatics tools were constructed to trace individual genomes from the beginning of infection to the end of the treatment.
A well characterized challenge RT-SHIV inoculum was used to infect three monkeys. The RT-SHIV inoculum had 9 variant subpopulations and the dominant subpopulation accounted for 80% of the total genomes. In two of the three monkeys, the inoculated wild-type virus was rapidly replaced by new wild type variants. By week 13, the original dominant subpopulation in the inoculum was replaced by new dominant subpopulations, followed by emergence of variants carrying known NNRTI resistance mutations. However, during ART, virus subpopulations containing resistance mutations did not outgrow the wide-type subpopulations until a minor subpopulation carrying linked drug resistance mutations (K103N/M184I) emerged. We observed that persistent viremia during ART is primarily made up of wild type subpopulations. We also found that subpopulations carrying the V75L mutation, not known to be associated with NNRTI resistance, emerged initially in week 13 in two macaques. Eventually, all subpopulations from these two macaques carried the V75L mutation.
This study quantitatively describes virus evolution and population dynamics patterns in an animal model. The fact that wild type subpopulations remained as dominant subpopulations during ART treatment suggests that the presence or absence of at least some known drug resistant mutations may not greatly affect virus replication capacity in vivo. Additionally, the emergence and prevalence of V75L indicates that this mutation may provide the virus a selective advantage, perhaps escaping the host immure system surveillance. Our new method to quantitatively analyze viral population dynamics enabled us to observe the relative competitiveness and adaption of different viral variants and provided a valuable tool for studying HIV subpopulation emergence, persistence, and decline during ART.
Cells derived from native rodents have limits at distinct steps of HIV replication. Rat primary CD4 T-cells, but not macrophages, display a profound transcriptional deficit that is ameliorated by transient trans-complementation with the human Tat-interacting protein Cyclin T1 (hCycT1).
Here, we generated transgenic rats that selectively express hCycT1 in CD4 T-cells and macrophages. hCycT1 expression in rat T-cells boosted early HIV gene expression to levels approaching those in infected primary human T-cells. hCycT1 expression was necessary, but not sufficient, to enhance HIV transcription in T-cells from individual transgenic animals, indicating that endogenous cellular factors are critical co-regulators of HIV gene expression in rats. T-cells from hCD4/hCCR5/hCycT1-transgenic rats did not support productive infection of prototypic wild-type R5 HIV-1 strains ex vivo, suggesting one or more significant limitation in the late phase of the replication cycle in this primary rodent cell type. Remarkably, we identify a replication-competent HIV-1 GFP reporter strain (R7/3 YU-2 Env) that displays characteristics of a spreading, primarily cell-to-cell-mediated infection in primary T-cells from hCD4/hCCR5-transgenic rats. Moreover, the replication of this recombinant HIV-1 strain was significantly enhanced by hCycT1 transgenesis. The viral determinants of this so far unique replicative ability are currently unknown.
Thus, hCycT1 expression is beneficial to de novo HIV infection in a transgenic rat model, but additional genetic manipulations of the host or virus are required to achieve full permissivity.
The rising prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in women, especially in resource-limited settings, accentuates the need for accessible, inexpensive, and female-controlled preexposure prophylaxis strategies to prevent mucosal transmission of the virus. While many compounds can inactivate HIV-1 in vitro, evaluation in animal models for mucosal transmission of virus may help identify which approaches will be effective in vivo. Macaques challenged intravaginally with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251) provide a model to preclinically evaluate candidate microbicides. 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (BCD) prevents HIV-1 and SIV infection of target cells at subtoxic doses in vitro. Consistent with these findings, intravaginal challenge of macaques with SIVmac251 preincubated with BCD prevented mucosal transmission, as measured by plasma viremia and antiviral antibodies, through 10 weeks postchallenge. In an initial challenge, BCD applied topically prior to SIVmac251 prevented intravaginal transmission of virus compared to controls (P < 0.0001). However, upon a second virus challenge following BCD pretreatment, the majority of the previously protected animals became infected. The mechanism through which animals become infected at a frequency similar to that of controls after prior exposure to BCD and SIVmac251 in subsequent intravaginal virus challenges (P = 0.63), despite the potent antiviral properties of BCD, remains to be determined. These results highlight the unpredictability of antiviral compounds as topical microbicides and suggest that repeated exposures to candidate treatments should be considered for in vivo evaluation.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial in the generation and regulation of adaptive immunity. Given their pivotal role in marshalling immune responses, HIV has evolved ways to exploit DCs to facilitate viral dissemination and to evade antiviral immunity. Defining the mechanisms that underlie cell–cell transmission of HIV and understanding the role of DCs in this process should help us in the fight against HIV infection. This Review highlights the latest advances in our understanding of the interactions between DCs and HIV, and focuses on the mechanisms of DC-mediated viral dissemination.
Dendritic cells (DCs) potently stimulate the cell-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, the mechanisms that underlie DC transmission of HIV-1 to CD4+ T cells are not fully understood. DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin, efficiently promotes HIV-1 trans infection. DC-SIGN is expressed in monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs), macrophage subsets, activated B lymphocytes, and various mucosal tissues. MDDC-mediated HIV-1 transmission to CD4+ T cells involves DC-SIGN-dependent and -independent mechanisms. DC-SIGN transmission of HIV-1 depends on the donor cell type. HIV-1 Nef can upregulate DC-SIGN expression and promote DC-T-cell clustering and HIV-1 spread. Nef also downregulates CD4 expression; however, the effect of the CD4 downmodulation on DC-mediated HIV-1 transmission has not been examined. Here, we report that CD4 expression levels correlate with inefficient HIV-1 transmission by monocytic cells expressing DC-SIGN. Expression of CD4 on Raji B cells strongly impaired DC-SIGN-mediated HIV-1 transmission to T cells. By contrast, enhanced HIV-1 transmission was observed when CD4 molecules on MDDCs and DC-SIGN-CD4-expressing cell lines were blocked with specific antibodies. Coexpression of CD4 and DC-SIGN in Raji cells promoted the internalization and intracellular retention of HIV-1. Interestingly, internalized HIV-1 particles were sorted and confined to late endosomal compartments that were positive for CD63 and CD81. Furthermore, in HIV-1-infected MDDCs, significant downregulation of CD4 by Nef expression correlated with enhanced viral transmission. These results suggest that CD4, which is present at various levels in DC-SIGN-positive primary cells, is a key regulator of HIV-1 transmission.
We investigated the relationship between the level of reverse transcriptase (RT) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles and susceptibility to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). HIV-1 virions containing different active levels of RT were generated. Susceptibility to the NNRTIs efavirenz and nevirapine was inversely proportional to the level of enzymatically active RT. However, the sensitivity of HIV-1 to the nucleoside analog 3TC was not affected by the level of RT per particle. These data indicate that the susceptibility of HIV-1 to NNRTIs is influenced by RT activity.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-encoded Tat provides transcriptional activation critical for efficient HIV-1 replication by interacting with cyclin T1 and recruiting P-TEFb to efficiently elongate the nascent HIV transcript. Tat-mediated transcriptional activation in mice is precluded by species-specific structural differences that prevent Tat interaction with mouse cyclin T1 and severely compromise HIV-1 replication in mouse cells. We investigated whether transgenic mice expressing human cyclin T1 under the control of a murine CD4 promoter/enhancer cassette that directs gene expression to CD4+ T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages (hu-cycT1 mice) would display Tat responsiveness in their CD4-expressing mouse cells and selectively increase HIV-1 production in this cellular population, which is infected primarily in HIV-1-positive individuals. To this end, we crossed hu-cycT1 mice with JR-CSF transgenic mice carrying the full-length HIV-1JR-CSF provirus under the control of the endogenous HIV-1 long terminal repeat and demonstrated that human cyclin T1 expression is sufficient to support Tat-mediated transactivation in primary mouse CD4 T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages and increases in vitro and in vivo HIV-1 production by these stimulated cells. Increased HIV-1 production by CD4+ T lymphocytes was paralleled with their specific depletion in the peripheral blood of the JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice, which increased over time. In addition, increased HIV-1 transgene expression due to human cyclin T1 expression was associated with increased lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 production by JR-CSF mouse monocytes/macrophages in vitro. Therefore, the JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice should provide an improved mouse system for investigating the pathogenesis of various aspects of HIV-1-mediated disease and the efficacies of therapeutic interventions.
Topical antimicrobicides hold great promise in reducing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Amphibian skin provides a rich source of broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides including some that have antiviral activity. We tested 14 peptides derived from diverse amphibian species for the capacity to inhibit HIV infection. Three peptides (caerin 1.1, caerin 1.9, and maculatin 1.1) completely inhibited HIV infection of T cells within minutes of exposure to virus at concentrations that were not toxic to target cells. These peptides also suppressed infection by murine leukemia virus but not by reovirus, a structurally unrelated nonenveloped virus. Preincubation with peptides prevented viral fusion to target cells and disrupted the HIV envelope. Remarkably, these amphibian peptides also were highly effective in inhibiting the transfer of HIV by dendritic cells (DCs) to T cells, even when DCs were transiently exposed to peptides 8 h after virus capture. These data suggest that amphibian-derived peptides can access DC-sequestered HIV and destroy the virus before it can be transferred to T cells. Thus, amphibian-derived antimicrobial peptides show promise as topical inhibitors of mucosal HIV transmission and provide novel tools to understand the complex biology of HIV capture by DCs.
Antiviral resistance is a significant obstacle in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. Because nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) specifically target HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and do not effectively inhibit simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) RT, the development of animal models to study the evolution of antiviral resistance has been problematic. To facilitate in vivo studies of NNRTI resistance, we examined whether a SIV that causes immunopathogenesis in pigtail macaques could be made sensitive to NNRTIs. Two simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) were derived from the genetic background of SIVmne: SIV-RT-YY contains RT substitutions intended to confer NNRTI susceptibility (V181Y and L188Y), and RT-SHIVmne contains the entire HIV-1 RT coding region. Both mutant viruses grew to high titers in vitro but had reduced fitness relative to wild-type SIVmne. Although the HIV-1 RT was properly processed into p66 and p51 subunits in RT-SHIVmne particles, the RT-SHIVmne virions had lower levels of RT per viral genomic RNA than HIV-1. Correspondingly, there was decreased RT activity in RT-SHIVmne and SIV-RT-YY particles. HIV-1 and RT-SHIVmne were similarly susceptible to the NNRTIs efavirenz, nevirapine, and UC781. However, SIV-RT-YY was less sensitive to NNRTIs than HIV-1 or RT-SHIVmne. Classical NNRTI resis tance mutations were selected in RT-SHIVmne after in vitro drug treatment and were monitored in a sensitive allele-specific real-time RT-PCR assay. Collectively, these results indicate that RT-SHIVmne may be a useful model in macaques for the preclinical evaluation of NNRTIs and for studies of the development of drug resistance in vivo.
Development of a mouse model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection has advanced through the progressive identification of host cell factors required for HIV-1 replication. Murine cells lack HIV-1 receptor molecules, do not support efficient viral gene expression, and lack factors necessary for the assembly and release of virions. Many of these blocks have been described using mouse fibroblast cell lines. Here we identify a postentry block to HIV-1 infection in mouse T-cell lines that has not been detected in mouse fibroblasts. While murine fibroblastic lines are comparable to human T-cell lines in permissivity to HIV-1 transduction, infection of murine T cells is 100-fold less efficient. Virus entry occurs efficiently in murine T cells. However, reduced efficiency of the completion of reverse transcription and nuclear transfer of the viral preintegration complex are observed. Although this block has similarities to the restriction of murine retroviruses by Fv1, there is no correlation of HIV-1 susceptibility with cellular Fv1 genotypes. In addition, the block to HIV-1 infection in murine T-cell lines cannot be saturated by a high virus dose. Further studies of this newly identified block may lend insight into the early events of retroviral replication and reveal new targets for antiretroviral interventions.
GM3, a major ganglioside of T lymphocytes, promotes human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry via interactions with HIV-1 receptors and the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). Increased GM3 levels in T lymphocytes and the appearance of anti-GM3 antibodies in AIDS patients have been reported earlier. In this study, we investigated the effect of GM3 regulation on HIV-1 entry by utilizing a mouse cell line (B16F10), which expresses exceptionally high levels of GM3. Strikingly, B16 cells bearing CD4, CXCR4, and/or CCR5 were highly resistant to CD4-dependent HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion. In contrast, these targets supported membrane fusion mediated by CD4-requiring HIV-2, SIV, and CD4-independent HIV-1 Envs. Coreceptor function was not impaired by GM3 overexpression as indicated by Ca2+ fluxes mediated by the CXCR4 ligand SDF-1α and the CCR5 ligand MIP-1β. Reduction in GM3 levels of B16 target cells resulted in a significant recovery of CD4-dependent HIV-1 Env-mediated fusion. We propose that GM3 in the plasma membrane blocks HIV-1 Env-mediated fusion by interfering with the lateral association of HIV-1 receptors. Our findings offer a novel mechanism of interplay between membrane lipids and receptors by which host cells may escape viral infections.