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1.  The Time Course of Dynamic Computed Tomographic Appearance of Radiation Injury to the Cirrhotic Liver Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(6):e0125231.
This study aimed to evaluate the dynamic computed tomographic (CT) appearance of focal radiation injury to cirrhotic liver tissue around the tumor following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Seventy-seven patients with 92 HCCs were observed for >6 months. Sixty-four and 13 patients belonged to Child–Pugh class A and B, respectively. The median SBRT dose was 48 Gy/4fr. Dynamic CT scans were performed in non–enhanced, arterial, portal, and venous phases. The median follow-up period was 18 months. Dynamic CT appearances were classified into 3 types: type 1, hyperdensity in all enhanced phases; type 2, hypodensity in arterial and portal phases; type 3, isodensity in all enhanced phases. Half of the type 2 or 3 appearances significantly changed to type 1, particularly in patients belonging to Child–Pugh class A. After 3–6 months, Child–Pugh class B was a significant factor in type 3 patients. Thus, dynamic CT appearances were classified into 3 patterns and significantly changed over time into the enhancement group (type 1) in most patients belonging to Child–Pugh class A. Child–Pugh class B was a significant factor in the non–enhancement group (type 3).
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125231
PMCID: PMC4466204  PMID: 26067065
2.  Clinical experience of volumetric modulated arc therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma after extrapleural pneumonectomy 
Journal of Radiation Research  2015;56(2):315-324.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). A total of 15 patients who received VMAT after EPP were enrolled. All patients were males, and the median age was 67 years (Stage IB in two, II in six, and III in seven patients). The clinical target volume (CTV) included the entire preoperative ipsilateral hemithorax and involved nodal stations. The CTV was generally expanded by 10–15 mm beyond the planning target volume (PTV). The dose prescription was designed to cover 95% of the PTV with 54 Gy in 30 fractions. The median follow-up period was 11 months. Treatment-related toxicities were evaluated by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) ver. 4. One-year local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 55.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 25.6–85.8%], 29.3% (95% CI: 5.3–53.3%), and 43.1% (95% CI: 17.1–69.0%), respectively. According to the histological analysis, the one-year LC rate was significantly worse in patients with non-epithelial type (biphasic and sarcomatoid types) than in patients with epithelial type [epithelial type: 83.3% (95% CI, 53.5–100%), non-epithelial type: 0% (95% CI, 0%), P = 0.0011]. Grade 3 pneumonitis after VMAT was observed in three patients (20.0%); however, no patients died of pulmonary toxicity. VMAT appears to be relatively safe for patients with MPM after EPP because of the low pulmonary dose.
doi:10.1093/jrr/rru102
PMCID: PMC4380050  PMID: 25599996
volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT); malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM); extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP); radiation pneumonitis
3.  Primary central nervous system lymphoma in Japan: Changes in clinical features, treatment, and prognosis during 1985–2004 
Neuro-Oncology  2008;10(4):560-568.
We have conducted nationwide surveys of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) treated since 1985. In the present study, we newly collected data between 2000 and 2004 and investigated changes in clinical features and outcome over time. A total of 739 patients with histologically proven PCNSL undergoing radiotherapy were analyzed. Seventeen institutions were surveyed, and data on 131 patients were collected. These data were compared with updated data that were previously obtained for 466 patients treated during 1985–1994 and 142 patients treated during 1995–1999. Recent trends toward decrease in male/female ratio, increase in aged patients, and increase in patients with multiple lesions were seen. Regarding treatment, decrease in attempts at surgical tumor removal and increases in use of systemic chemotherapy and methotrexate (MTX)–containing regimens were observed. The median survival time was 18, 29, and 24 months for patients seen during 1985–1994, 1995–1999, and 2000–2004, respectively, and the respective 5-year survival rates were 15%, 30%, and 30%. In groups seen during 1995–1999 and during 2000–2004, patients who received systemic or MTX-containing chemotherapy had better prognosis than those who did not. Multivariate analysis of all patients seen during 1985–2004 suggested the usefulness of MTX-containing chemotherapy as well as the importance of age, lactate dehydrogenase level, and tumor multiplicity as prognostic factors. Thus, this study revealed several notable changes in clinical features of PCNSL patients. The prognosis improved during the last 10 years. Advantage of radiation plus chemotherapy, especially MTX-containing chemotherapy, over radiation alone was suggested.
doi:10.1215/15228517-2008-028
PMCID: PMC2666229  PMID: 18559969
brain neoplasm; chemotherapy; lymphoma; primary CNS lymphoma; radiotherapy
4.  Nerve tolerance to high-dose-rate brachytherapy in patients with soft tissue sarcoma: a retrospective study 
BMC Cancer  2005;5:79.
Background
Brachytherapy, interstitial tumor bed irradiation, following conservative surgery has been shown to provide excellent local control and limb preservation in patients with soft tissue sarcomas (STS), whereas little is known about the tolerance of peripheral nerves to brachytherapy. In particular, nerve tolerance to high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has never been properly evaluated. In this study, we examined the efficacy and radiation neurotoxicity of HDR brachytherapy in patients with STS in contact with neurovascular structures.
Methods
Between 1995 and 2000, seven patients with STS involving the neurovascular bundle were treated in our institute with limb-preserving surgery, followed by fractionated HDR brachytherapy. Pathological examination demonstrated that 6 patients had high-grade lesions with five cases of negative margins and one case with positive margins, and one patient had a low-grade lesion with a negative margin. Afterloading catheters placed within the tumor bed directly upon the preserved neurovascular structures were postoperatively loaded with Iridium-192 with a total dose of 50 Gy in 6 patients. One patient received 30 Gy of HDR brachytherapy combined with 20 Gy of adjuvant external beam radiation.
Results
With a median follow-up of 4 years, the 5-year actuarial overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control rates were 83.3, 68.6, and 83.3%, respectively. None of the 7 patients developed HDR brachytherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Of 5 survivors, 3 evaluable patients had values of motor nerve conduction velocity of the preserved peripheral nerve in the normal range.
Conclusion
In this study, there were no practical and electrophysiological findings of neurotoxicity of HDR brachytherapy. Despite the small number of patients, our encouraging results are valuable for limb-preserving surgery of unmanageable STS involving critical neurovascular structures.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-5-79
PMCID: PMC1181808  PMID: 16026629

Results 1-4 (4)