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1.  Chronic exposure to corticosterone enchances the neuroinflammatory and neurotoxic responses to methamphetamine 
Journal of neurochemistry  2012;122(5):995-1009.
Up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in brain (“neuroinflammation”) accompanies neurological disease and neurotoxicity. Previously, we documented a striatal neuroinflammatory response to acute administration of a neurotoxic dose of methamphetamine (METH), i.e. one associated with evidence of dopaminergic terminal damage and activation of microglia and astroglia. When we used minocycline to suppress METH-induced neuroinflammation, indices of dopaminergic neurotoxicity were not affected, but suppression of neuroinflammation was incomplete. Here, we administered the classic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid, corticosterone (CORT), in an attempt to completely suppress METH-related neuroinflammation. METH alone caused large increases in striatal proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine mRNA and subsequent astrocytic hypertrophy, microglial activation, and dopaminergic nerve terminal damage. Pre-treatment of mice with acute CORT failed to prevent neuroinflammatory responses to METH. Surprisingly, when mice were pre-treated with chronic CORT in the drinking water, an enhanced striatal neuroinflammatory response to METH was observed, an effect that was accompanied by enhanced METH-induced astrogliosis and dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Chronic CORT pre-treatment also sensitized frontal cortex and hippocampus to mount a neuroinflammatory response to METH. Because the levels of chronic CORT used are associated with high physiological stress, our data suggest that chronic CORT therapy or sustained physiological stress may sensitize the neuroinflammatory and neurotoxicity responses to METH.
doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2012.07864.x
PMCID: PMC4706460  PMID: 22776046
glucocorticoids; methamphetamine; microglial activation; neuroinflammation; neurotoxicity; stress
2.  Linking Genetic Counseling Content to Short-Term Outcomes in Individuals at Elevated Breast Cancer Risk 
Journal of genetic counseling  2014;23(5):838-848.
Few studies have linked actual genetic counseling content to short-term outcomes. Using the Self-regulation Model, the impact of cognitive and affective content in genetic counseling on short-term outcomes was studied in individuals at elevated risk of familial breast-ovarian cancer. Surveys assessed dependent variables: distress, perceived risk, and 6 knowledge measures (Meaning of Positive Test; Meaning of Negative Test; Personal Behavior; Practitioner Knowledge; Mechanisms of Cancer Inheritance; Frequency of Inherited Cancer) measured at pre- and post-counseling. Proportion of participant cognitive and affective and counselor cognitive and affective content during sessions (using LIWC software) were predictors in regressions. Knowledge increased for 5 measures and decreased for Personal Behavior, Distress and Perceived Risk. Controlling for age and education, results were significant/marginally significant for three measures. More counselor content was associated with decreases in knowledge of Personal Behavior. More participant and less counselor affective content was associated with gains in Practitioner Knowledge. More counselor cognitive, and interaction of counselor cognitive and affective content, were associated with higher perceived risk. Genetic counselors dominate the content of counseling sessions. Therefore, their content is tied more closely to short term outcomes than participant content. A lack of patient communication in sessions may pose problems for understanding of complex concepts.
doi:10.1007/s10897-014-9705-8
PMCID: PMC4157074  PMID: 24671341
Cancer; Oncology; Breast cancer; Genetic counseling; Perceived risk; Knowledge
3.  Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer 
Pancreas  2015;44(5):693-712.
Supplemental digital content is available in the text.
Abstract
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC.
doi:10.1097/MPA.0000000000000368
PMCID: PMC4467589  PMID: 25931254
biomarker; diabetes; screening; familial; imaging; pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
4.  Colorectal Cancer Screening in 3 Racial Groups 
Objectives
To understand predictors of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in African Americans, European Americans, and Native Americans as these groups differ in CRC incidence and mortality.
Methods
Participants were surveyed for knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors related to CRC.
Results
Predictive regression modeling found, after adjusting for race, CRC risk, and CRC worry, the odds of screening within guidelines were increased for men, those receiving doctor’s recommendation, those with polyp/tumor history, those under 70, those with more knowledge about CRC, and those with fewer barriers to screening. CRC screening rates did not differ by race.
Conclusions
These results reiterate the importance of knowledge, barriers, and physician recommendation for CRC screening in all racial groups.
doi:10.5555/ajhb.2007.31.5.502
PMCID: PMC4465257  PMID: 17555381
colorectal cancer; cancer screening; African Americans; Native Americans; underserved populations
5.  Racial Differences in Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices and Knowledge Within a Low-Income Population 
Cancer  2008;112(2):391-398.
BACKGROUND
Although colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among US women and is particularly deadly among African Americans, CRC screening rates remain low. Within a low-income population of women, the authors examined racial differences in practices, knowledge, and barriers related to CRC screening.
METHODS
Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 941 women (white, n = 186; African American, n = 755) older than age 50 years who were living in subsidized housing communities in 11 cities in North and South Carolina. Women were asked questions about their CRC screening history and their knowledge and beliefs concerning CRC screening.
RESULTS
Half (49%) of the women interviewed were within CRC screening guidelines, and this did not vary by race (P = .17). However, African American women were half as likely as white women to report having had a screening colonoscopy within the past 10 years (odds ratio [OR], 0.46; P < .001). Awareness of tests for CRC was low overall (39%) and was lower among African Americans than whites (OR, 0.44; P < .001). Compared with white women, African American women were less likely to report embarrassment as a barrier (OR, 0.59; P = .008) and more likely to report lack of insurance coverage (OR, 1.75; P = .098).
CONCLUSIONS
Efforts must continue to increase women’s knowledge of both CRC screening tests and colon cancer risk factors. Among these low-income women, routine encounters with the healthcare system may present opportunities to reduce deficits in CRC knowledge and to improve overall CRC screening rates.
doi:10.1002/cncr.23156
PMCID: PMC4465260  PMID: 18041073
colorectal cancer; health services accessibility; vulnerable populations; cancer screening; disparities
6.  Early Activation of STAT3 Regulates Reactive Astrogliosis Induced by Diverse Forms of Neurotoxicity 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e102003.
Astrogliosis, a cellular response characterized by astrocytic hypertrophy and accumulation of GFAP, is a hallmark of all types of central nervous system (CNS) injuries. Potential signaling mechanisms driving the conversion of astrocytes into “reactive” phenotypes differ with respect to the injury models employed and can be complicated by factors such as disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). As denervation tools, neurotoxicants have the advantage of selective targeting of brain regions and cell types, often with sparing of the BBB. Previously, we found that neuroinflammation and activation of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway in astrocytes precedes up regulation of GFAP in the MPTP mouse model of dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Here we show that multiple mechanistically distinct mouse models of neurotoxicity (MPTP, AMP, METH, MDA, MDMA, KA, TMT) engender the same neuroinflammatory and STAT3 activation responses in specific regions of the brain targeted by each neurotoxicant. The STAT3 effects seen for TMT in the mouse could be generalized to the rat, demonstrating cross-species validity for STAT3 activation. Pharmacological antagonists of the neurotoxic effects blocked neuroinflammatory responses, pSTAT3tyr705 and GFAP induction, indicating that damage to neuronal targets instigated astrogliosis. Selective deletion of STAT3 from astrocytes in STAT3 conditional knockout mice markedly attenuated MPTP-induced astrogliosis. Monitoring STAT3 translocation in GFAP-positive cells indicated that effects of MPTP, METH and KA on pSTAT3tyr705 were localized to astrocytes. These findings strongly implicate the STAT3 pathway in astrocytes as a broadly triggered signaling pathway for astrogliosis. We also observed, however, that the acute neuroinflammatory response to the known inflammogen, LPS, can activate STAT3 in CNS tissue without inducing classical signs of astrogliosis. Thus, acute phase neuroinflammatory responses and neurotoxicity-induced astrogliosis both signal through STAT3 but appear to do so through different modules, perhaps localized to different cell types.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102003
PMCID: PMC4098997  PMID: 25025494
7.  M13-templated magnetic nanoparticles for targeted in vivo imaging of prostate cancer 
Nature nanotechnology  2012;7(10):677-682.
Molecular imaging allows clinicians to visualize the progression of tumours and obtain relevant information for patient diagnosis and treatment1. Owing to their intrinsic optical, electrical and magnetic properties, nanoparticles are promising contrast agents for imaging dynamic molecular and cellular processes such as protein-protein interactions, enzyme activity or gene expression2. Until now, nanoparticles have been engineered with targeting ligands such as antibodies and peptides to improve tumour specificity and uptake. However, excessive loading of ligands can reduce the targeting capabilities of the ligand3,4,5 and reduce the ability of the nanoparticle to bind to a finite number of receptors on cells6. Increasing the number of nanoparticles delivered to cells by each targeting molecule would lead to higher signal-to-noise ratios and improve image contrast. Here, we show that M13 filamentous bacteriophage can be used as a scaffold to display targeting ligands and multiple nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging of cancer cells and tumours in mice. Monodisperse iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles assemble along the M13 coat, and its distal end is engineered to display a peptide that targets SPARC glycoprotein, which is overexpressed in various cancers. Compared with nanoparticles that are directly functionalized with targeting peptides, our approach improves contrast because each SPARC-targeting molecule delivers a large number of nanoparticles into the cells. Moreover, the targeting ligand and nanoparticles could be easily exchanged for others, making this platform attractive for in vivo high-throughput screening and molecular detection.
doi:10.1038/nnano.2012.146
PMCID: PMC4059198  PMID: 22983492
8.  Imaging VCAM-1 as an indicator of treatment efficacy in metastatic ovarian cancer 
The inability to successfully treat women with ovarian cancer is due in large part to the advanced stage of disease at diagnosis, the development of platinum resistance, and the lack of sensitive methods to monitor tumor progression and response to treatment. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is expressed on the mesothelium of ovarian cancer patients. We investigated VCAM-1 expression as a marker of peritoneal metastasis and tumor response to platinum-based chemotherapy.
Methods
Peritoneal or omental biopsies obtained from women diagnosed with Stage I, Stage II or Stage III/IV ovarian cancer were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The effects of carboplatin on mesothelial VCAM-1 expression were determined in cultured cells by Western blot. Radiolabeled VCAM-1-specific peptide imaging probes and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were employed in a mouse model of ovarian cancer peritoneal metastasis to identify VCAM-1 as a viable imaging target.
Results
VCAM-1 expression correlated with tumor stage. All specimens from Stage I patients were negative, while 29% of Stage II patients and the 73% of Stage III/IV patients were positive. While the majority of women with advanced stage disease expressed VCAM-1, the incidence of expression was reduced among women who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, suggesting a role for chemotherapy in regulating VCAM-1 expression. Treatment of mesothelial cells in culture with carboplatin resulted in a transient decrease in VCAM-1 expression 4 hours after treatment that returned to baseline within 16 to 24 hours. In vivo imaging of VCAM-1 also demonstrated an acute decrease in expression 4 hours after carboplatin administration that recovered within 48 hours in mice harboring platinum-resistant tumors. Chronic VCAM-1 expression reflected the effect of platinum-based treatment on tumor burden. Specifically, carboplatin treatment of mice with platinum-sensitive tumors showed reduced VCAM-1 expression, which correlated with reduced tumor burden; mice with platinum-resistant tumors retained elevated VCAM-1 expression and tumor burden following treatment.
Conclusions
Clinically relevant VCAM-1-specific imaging probes identify VCAM-1 expression as an indicator of ovarian cancer peritoneal metastasis and therapeutic response to platinum-based agents. These observations support testing the utility of VCAM-1 imaging probes to monitor treatment response in ovarian cancer patients, thus providing the potential to improve management of women with this disease.
doi:10.2967/jnumed.112.117796
PMCID: PMC3992874  PMID: 24029657
VCAM-1; ovarian cancer; metastasis; SPECT/CT imaging
9.  Tissue proteomics in pancreatic cancer study: discovery, emerging technologies and challenges 
Proteomics  2013;13(0):710-721.
Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal disease that is difficult to diagnose and treat. The advances of proteomics technology, especially quantitative proteomics, have stimulated a great interest to apply this technology for pancreatic cancer study. A variety of tissue proteomics approaches have been applied to investigate pancreatic cancer and the associated diseases. These studies were carried out with various goals, aiming to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying pancreatic tumorigenesis, to improve therapeutic treatment and to identify cancer associated protein signatures, signaling events as well as interactions between cancer cells and tumor microenvironment. Here, we provide an overview on the tissue proteomics studies of pancreatic cancer reported in the past few years in light of discovery and technology development.
doi:10.1002/pmic.201200319
PMCID: PMC3805502  PMID: 23125171
Proteomics; pancreatic cancer; mass spectrometry; biomarker; chronic pancreatitis; tissues; pancreas; formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue
10.  Loss of Id3 Increases VCAM-1 Expression, Macrophage Accumulation and Atherogenesis in Ldlr−/− Mice 
Objective
Id3 promotes B cells homing to the aorta and atheroprotection in Apoe−/− mice. We sought to determine the impact of loss of Id3 in the Ldlr−/− mouse model of diet-induced atherosclerosis and identify novel Id3 targets in the vessel wall.
Methods and Results
Ex vivo optical imaging confirmed that Id3−/− Ldlr−/− mice have significantly fewer aortic B cells than Id3+/+ Ldlr−/− mice. Following 8 and 16 weeks of Western diet, Id3−/− Ldlr−/− mice developed significantly more atherosclerosis than Id3+/+ Ldlr−/− mice, with Id3+/− Ldlr−/− mice demonstrating an intermediate phenotype. There were no differences in serum lipid levels between genotypes. Immunostaining demonstrated that aortas from Id3−/− Ldlr−/− mice had greater intimal macrophage density and CCL20 and VCAM-1 expression compared with Id3+/+ Ldlr−/− mice. Real time PCR demonstrated increased VCAM-1 mRNA levels in the aortas of Id3−/− Ldlr−/− mice. Primary VSMCs from Id3−/− mice expressed greater amounts of VCAM-1 protein compared with control. Gain and loss of function studies in primary VSMCs identified a role for Id3 in repressing VCAM-1 promoter activation. ChIP demonstrated interaction of E12 with the VCAM-1 promoter which is inhibited by Id3.
Conclusions
Id3 is an atheroprotective transcription regulator with targets in both B cells and vessel wall cells leading to reduced macrophages accumulation and reduced atherosclerosis formation.
doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.300352
PMCID: PMC3509414  PMID: 23042815
11.  Plectin-1 is a Biomarker of Malignant Pancreatic Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms 
Introduction
Pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) are now identified with increasing frequency. The detection of carcinoma in IPMN is difficult and suffers from high false-positive and false-negative rates, often resulting in inappropriate treatment decisions. Improved detection of malignancy using novel biomarkers may therefore improve diagnostic accuracy. One such promising novel biomarker is Plectin-1 (Plec-1).
Methods
Using immunohistochemistry, Plec-1 expression was assayed in benign (low and moderate dysplasia, n=6) as well as malignant IPMN (high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma, n=31) and lymph node metastases from carcinoma arising in IPMN (n=12). Furthermore, cyst fluids from benign (n=3) and malignant IPMN (n=4) were evaluated for Plec-1 expression.
Results and discussion
Twenty-six of 31 malignant IPMN and all 12 lymph node metastases were Plec-1 positive. In contrast, only one of six benign IPMN expressed Plec-1. The specificity of Plec-1 in distinguishing malignant IPMN from benign IPMN was 83% and its sensitivity 84%. Furthermore, all (four out of four) cyst fluids from malignant IPMN, but none of the three benign IPMN, were Plec-1 positive. These data support Plec-1 as an excellent biomarker for the early detection of carcinoma arising in IPMN.
doi:10.1007/s11605-009-1001-9
PMCID: PMC3806105  PMID: 19760374
Plectin-1; Biomarker; Malignant IPMN; Benign IPMN
12.  Perceived Risk of Cervical Cancer in Appalachian Women 
Objective
To examine perceptions of cervical cancer risk in elevated-risk Appalachians.
Methods
Appalachian women (n=571) completed interviews examining self-regulation model factors relevant to perceived risk of cervical cancer.
Results
Women with good/very good knowledge of cervical cancer, greater worry, and history of sexually transmitted infection had higher odds of rating their perceived risk as somewhat/much higher than did other women. Former smokers, compared to never smokers, had lower risk perceptions.
Conclusions
Self-regulation model factors are important to understanding perceptions of cervical cancer risk in underserved women. The relationship of smoking and worry to perceived risk may be a target for intervention.
doi:10.5993/AJHB.36.6.11
PMCID: PMC3746826  PMID: 23026042
cervical cancer; risk factors; risk perception
13.  B Cell Aortic Homing and Atheroprotection Depend on Id3 
Circulation Research  2011;110(1):e1-e12.
Rationale
B cells are abundant in the adventitia of normal and diseased vessels. Yet, the molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating homing of B cells to the vessel wall and B cell effects on atherosclerosis are poorly understood. Inhibitor of Differentiation-3 (Id3), is important for atheroprotection in mice and polymorphism in the human ID3 gene has been implicated as a potential risk marker of atherosclerosis in humans. Yet the role of Id3 in B cell regulation of atherosclerosis is unknown.
Objective
To determine if Id3 regulates B cell homing to the aorta and atheroprotection, and identify molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating this effect.
Methods and Results
Loss of Id3 in Apoe−/− mice resulted in early and increased atherosclerosis. Flow cytometry revealed a defect in Id3−/− Apoe−/− mice in the number of B cells in the aorta, but not the spleen, lymph nodes and circulation. Similarly, B cells transferred from Id3−/− Apoe−/− mice into B cell deficient micereconstituted spleen, lymph node and blood similarly to B cells from Id3+/+ Apoe−/− mice, but aortic reconstitution and B cell-mediated inhibition of diet-induced atherosclerosis was significantly impaired. In addition to retarding initiation of atherosclerosis, B cells homed to regions of existing atherosclerosis, reduced macrophage content in plaque and attenuated progression of disease. The chemokine receptor, CCR6, was identified as an important Id3 target mediating aortic homing and atheroprotection.
Conclusions
Together, these results are the first to identify the Id3-CCR6 pathway in B cells and demonstrate its role in aortic B cell homing and B cell mediated protection from early atherosclerosis.
doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.256438
PMCID: PMC3253259  PMID: 22034493
Atherosclerosis; B lymphocytes; Transcription factors; Helix-loop-helix; Homing
14.  Plectin-1 Targeted AAV Vector for the Molecular Imaging of Pancreatic Cancer 
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is highly malignant disease that is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the US. Gene therapy using AAV vectors to selectively deliver genes to PDAC cells is an attractive treatment option for pancreatic cancer. However, most AAV serotypes display a broad spectrum of tissue tropism and none of the existing serotypes specifically target PDAC cells. This study tests the hypothesis that AAV2 can be genetically re-engineered to specifically target PDAC cells by modifying the capsid surface to display a peptide that has previously been shown to bind plectin-1. Toward this end, a Plectin-1 Targeting Peptide (PTP) was inserted into the loop IV region of the AAV2 capsid, and the resulting capsid (AAV-PTP) was used in a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro, AAV-PTP was found to target all five human PDAC cell lines tested (PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2, HPAC, MPanc-96, and BxPC-3) preferentially over two non-neoplastic human pancreatic cell lines (human pancreatic ductal epithelial and human pancreatic stellate cells). In vivo, mice bearing subcutaneous tumor xenografts were generated using the PANC-1 cell line. Once tumors reached a size of ∼1–2 mm in diameter, the mice were injected intravenously with luciferase reporter vectors packaged in the either AAV-PTP or wild type AAV2 capsids. Luciferase expression was then monitored by bioluminescence imaging on days 3, 7, and 14 after vector injection. The results indicate that the AAV-PTP capsid displays a 37-fold preference for PANC-1 tumor xenographs over liver and other tissues; whereas the wild type AAV2 capsid displays a complementary preference for liver over tumors and other tissues. Together, these results establish proof-of-principle for the ability of PTP-modified AAV capsids to selectively target gene delivery to PDAC cells in vivo, which opens promising new avenues for the early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of pancreatic cancer.
doi:10.3389/fonc.2013.00084
PMCID: PMC3629297  PMID: 23616947
AAV; pancreatic cancer; gene therapy; targeted gene delivery; capsid modification; phage display
15.  Techniques for Molecular Imaging Probe Design 
Molecular imaging  2011;10(6):407-419.
Molecular imaging allows clinicians to visualize disease specific molecules, thereby providing relevant information in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. With advances in genomics and proteomics and underlying mechanisms of disease pathology, the number of targets identified has significantly outpaced the number of developed molecular imaging probes. There has been a concerted effort to bridge this gap with multidisciplinary efforts in chemistry, proteomics, physics, material science, and biology; all essential to progress in molecular imaging probe development. In this review, we will discuss target selection, screening techniques and probe optimization with the aim of developing clinically relevant molecularly targeted imaging agents.
PMCID: PMC3224676  PMID: 22201532
molecular imaging; probe discovery; screening; target
16.  Real-Time PCR Using Mycobacteriophage DNA for Rapid Phenotypic Drug Susceptibility Results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(3):754-761.
Managing drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires drug susceptibility testing, yet conventional drug susceptibility testing is slow, and molecular testing does not yield results for all antituberculous drugs. We addressed these challenges by utilizing real-time PCR of mycobacteriophage D29 DNA to evaluate the drug resistance of clinical M. tuberculosis isolates. Mycobacteriophages infect and replicate in viable bacterial cells faster than bacterial cells replicate and have been used for detection and drug resistance testing for M. tuberculosis either by using reporter cells or phages with engineered reporter constructs. Our primary protocol involved culturing M. tuberculosis isolates for 48 h with and without drugs at critical concentrations, followed by incubation with 103 PFU/ml of D29 mycobacteriophage for 24 h and then real-time PCR. Many drugs could be incubated instantly with M. tuberculosis and phage for 24 h alone. The change in phage DNA real-time PCR cycle threshold (CT) between control M. tuberculosis and M. tuberculosis treated with drugs was calculated and correlated with conventional agar proportion drug susceptibility results. Specifically, 9 susceptible clinical isolates, 22 multidrug-resistant (MDR), and 1 extensively drug-resistant (XDR) M. tuberculosis strains were used and CT control-CT drug cutoffs of between +0.3 and −6.0 yielded 422/429 (98%) accurate results for isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, ethambutol, amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ethionamide, para-aminosalicylic acid, cycloserine, and linezolid. Moreover, the ΔCT values correlated with isolate MIC for most agents. This D29 quantitative PCR assay offers a rapid, accurate, 1- to 3-day phenotypic drug susceptibility test for first- and second-line drugs and may suggest an approximate MIC.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01315-11
PMCID: PMC3295106  PMID: 22170929
17.  Cancer Recurrence Worry, Risk Perception, and Informational-Coping Styles among Appalachian Cancer Survivors 
Despite a growing literature on the psychosocial impact of the threat of cancer recurrence, underserved populations, such as those from the Appalachian region, have been understudied. To examine worry and perceived risk in cancer survivors, cancer patients at an ambulatory oncology clinic in a university hospital were surveyed. Appalachians had significantly higher worry than non-Appalachians. Cancer type and lower need for cognition were associated with greater worry. Those with missing perceived risk data were generally older, less educated, and lower in monitoring, blunting, and health literacy. Additional resources are needed to assist Appalachians and those with cancers with poor prognoses to cope with worry associated with cancer recurrence. More attention to prevention of cancer is critical to improve quality of life in underserved populations where risk of cancer is greater.
doi:10.1080/07347332.2011.534014
PMCID: PMC3322407  PMID: 21240722
Appalachian region; cancer; health disparities; oncology; perceived risk; psychosocial factors
18.  Cancer Risk Assessment by Rural and Appalachian Family Medicine Physicians 
The Journal of Rural Health  2009;25(4):372-377.
Context
Challenges to the identification of hereditary cancer in primary care may be more pronounced in rural Appalachia, a medically underserved region.
Purpose
To examine primary care physicians’ identification of hereditary cancers.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey was mailed to family physicians in the midwestern and southeastern United States, stratified by rural/non-rural and Appalachian/non-Appalachian practice location (N=176). Identification of hereditary breast-ovarian cancer (BRCA1/2), hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), and other hereditary cancers was assessed.
Findings
Less than half of physicians (45%) reported having patients with cancer genetic testing. Most (70%) correctly identified the BRCA1/2-relevant scenario; 49% correctly identified the HNPCC-relevant scenario. Factor analysis of psychosocial variables revealed 2 factors: Confidence (knowledge, comfort, confidence) and Importance (responsible, important, effective, need) of identifying hereditary cancer. Greater confidence was associated with use of 3 generation pedigree in taking family history. Greater knowledge and access to genetic services were associated with use of genetic testing. More recent graduation year, greater knowledge, and greater confidence were associated with identifying the BRCA1/2-relevant scenario. Greater knowledge and confidence were associated with identifying the HNPCC-relevant scenario.
Conclusions
Although rural Appalachian physicians do not differ in ability to identify high risk individuals, access barriers may exist for genetic testing. Interventions are needed to boost physician confidence in identifying hereditary cancer and to improve availability and awareness of availability of genetic services.
doi:10.1111/j.1748-0361.2009.00246.x
PMCID: PMC3319913  PMID: 19780917
hereditary cancer; physicians; primary care; psychosocial factors; Appalachian region
19.  Development of Secreted Protein and Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) Targeted Nanoparticles for the Prognostic Molecular Imaging of Metastatic Prostate Cancer 
Journal of nanomedicine & nanotechnology  2011;2(112):2157-7439-2-112.
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-skin malignancy in the United States and presents with a wide range of aggressiveness from extremely slow-growing to highly aggressive. There is a clinical need to determine the metastatic potential of the primary tumor to design the most appropriate treatment plan ranging from watchful waiting to more aggressive, invasive surgical treatments. In this study we have developed a nanoparticle based imaging agent that targets SPARC (Secreted Protein Acidic Rich in Cysteine), a molecular marker of prostate cancer metastatic potential. Previous studies by this group used phage display to identify a peptide with high binding affinity and specificity for SPARC. In this study, the SPARC-targeted peptide sequence was used to design a biomaterial with improved pharmacokinetic properties by attaching it to a biocompatible nanoparticle that is also coupled to a fluorophore for in vivo imaging. Prostate cancer cell lines with varying degrees of SPARC expression were used to show the ability of the targeted nanoparticle to bind specifically to SPARC in vitro and in vivo including the clinically relevant bone and lung metastases. We show that in vivo imaging information correlates with the metastatic potential of the prostate tumor. This prognostic information could enable doctors to stratify patients and design personalized treatment strategies.
doi:10.4172/2157-7439.1000112
PMCID: PMC3273319  PMID: 22319675
20.  Plectin-1 as a novel biomarker for pancreatic cancer 
Purpose
We are in great need of specific biomarkers to detect pancreatic cancer (PDAC) at an early stage, ideally before invasion. Plectin-1 (Plec1) was recently identified as one such biomarker. However, its suitability as a specific biomarker for human pancreatic cancer, and its usability as an imaging target remain to be assessed.
Experimental Design
Specimens of human PDAC, chronic pancreatitis and normal pancreata were evaluated by IHC and Western blot analysis. To validate Plec1 as an imaging target, Plec1-targeting peptides (tPTP) were used as a contrast agent for single photon emission computed tomography in an orthotopic and liver metastasis murine model of PDAC.
Results
Plec1 expression was noted to be positive in all PDACs but negative in benign tissues. Plec1 expression increases during pancreatic carcinogenesis. It was found to be misexpressed in only 0–3.85% of early PDAC precursor lesions (PanINs-I/II) but in 60% of PanIN III lesions. Plec1 expression was further noted to be retained in all metastatic foci assayed and clearly highlighted these metastatic deposits in lymph nodes, liver and peritoneum. In vivo imaging using tPTP specifically highlighted the primary and metastatic tumors. Biodistribution studies performed after imaging demonstrate that the primary pancreatic tumors and liver metastasis retained 1.9–2.9 fold of tPTP over normal pancreas and 1.7-fold over normal liver.
Conclusions
Plec1 is the first biomarker to identify primary and metastatic PDAC by imaging and may also detect preinvasive PanIN III lesions. Strategies designed to image Plec1 could therefore improve detection and staging.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-0999
PMCID: PMC3044444  PMID: 21098698
Plectin; biomarker; imaging biomarker; pancreatic cancer; PanIN
21.  Developing a patient-centered outcome measure for complementary and alternative medicine therapies I: defining content and format 
Background
Patients receiving complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies often report shifts in well-being that go beyond resolution of the original presenting symptoms. We undertook a research program to develop and evaluate a patient-centered outcome measure to assess the multidimensional impacts of CAM therapies, utilizing a novel mixed methods approach that relied upon techniques from the fields of anthropology and psychometrics. This tool would have broad applicability, both for CAM practitioners to measure shifts in patients' states following treatments, and conventional clinical trial researchers needing validated outcome measures. The US Food and Drug Administration has highlighted the importance of valid and reliable measurement of patient-reported outcomes in the evaluation of conventional medical products. Here we describe Phase I of our research program, the iterative process of content identification, item development and refinement, and response format selection. Cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation are reported separately.
Methods
From a database of patient interviews (n = 177) from six diverse CAM studies, 150 interviews were identified for secondary analysis in which individuals spontaneously discussed unexpected changes associated with CAM. Using ATLAS.ti, we identified common themes and language to inform questionnaire item content and wording. Respondents' language was often richly textured, but item development required a stripping down of language to extract essential meaning and minimize potential comprehension barriers across populations. Through an evocative card sort interview process, we identified those items most widely applicable and covering standard psychometric domains. We developed, pilot-tested, and refined the format, yielding a questionnaire for cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation.
Results
The resulting questionnaire contained 18 items, in visual analog scale format, in which each line was anchored by the positive and negative extremes relevant to the experiential domain. Because of frequent informant allusions to response set shifts from before to after CAM therapies, we chose a retrospective pretest format. Items cover physical, emotional, cognitive, social, spiritual, and whole person domains.
Conclusions
This paper reports the success of a novel approach to the development of outcome instruments, in which items are extracted from patients' words instead of being distilled from pre-existing theory. The resulting instrument, focused on measuring shifts in patients' perceptions of health and well-being along pre-specified axes, is undergoing continued testing, and is available for use by cooperating investigators.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-135
PMCID: PMC3293761  PMID: 22206345
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM); patient-reported outcomes (PROs); patient-centered care; non-specific outcomes; questionnaire development; retrospective pre-test; well-being
22.  Developing a patient-centered outcome measure for complementary and alternative medicine therapies II: Refining content validity through cognitive interviews 
Background
Available measures of patient-reported outcomes for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) inadequately capture the range of patient-reported treatment effects. The Self-Assessment of Change questionnaire was developed to measure multi-dimensional shifts in well-being for CAM users. With content derived from patient narratives, items were subsequently focused through interviews on a new cohort of participants. Here we present the development of the final version in which the content and format is refined through cognitive interviews.
Methods
We conducted cognitive interviews across five iterations of questionnaire refinement with a culturally diverse sample of 28 CAM users. In each iteration, participant critiques were used to revise the questionnaire, which was then re-tested in subsequent rounds of cognitive interviews. Following all five iterations, transcripts of cognitive interviews were systematically coded and analyzed to examine participants' understanding of the format and content of the final questionnaire. Based on this data, we established summary descriptions and selected exemplar quotations for each word pair on the final questionnaire.
Results
The final version of the Self-Assessment of Change questionnaire (SAC) includes 16 word pairs, nine of which remained unchanged from the original draft. Participants consistently said that these stable word pairs represented opposite ends of the same domain of experience and the meanings of these terms were stable across the participant pool. Five pairs underwent revision and two word pairs were added. Four word pairs were eliminated for redundancy or because participants did not agree on the meaning of the terms. Cognitive interviews indicate that participants understood the format of the questionnaire and considered each word pair to represent opposite poles of a shared domain of experience.
Conclusions
We have placed lay language and direct experience at the center of questionnaire revision and refinement. In so doing, we provide an innovative model for the development of truly patient-centered outcome measures. Although this instrument was designed and tested in a CAM-specific population, it may be useful in assessing multi-dimensional shifts in well-being across a broader patient population.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-136
PMCID: PMC3439682  PMID: 22206409
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM); patient-reported outcomes (PROs); cognitive interviewing; patient-centered care; non-specific outcomes; questionnaire development; retrospective pre-test; well-being
23.  A Functional Proteomic Method for Biomarker Discovery 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(7):e22471.
The sequencing of the human genome holds out the hope for personalized medicine, but it is clear that analysis of DNA or RNA content alone is not sufficient to understand most disease processes. Proteomic strategies that allow unbiased identification of proteins and their post-transcriptional and -translation modifications are an essential complement to genomic strategies. However, the enormity of the proteome and limitations in proteomic methods make it difficult to determine the targets that are particularly relevant to human disease. Methods are therefore needed that allow rational identification of targets based on function and relevance to disease. Screening methodologies such as phage display, SELEX, and small-molecule combinatorial chemistry have been widely used to discover specific ligands for cells or tissues of interest, such as tumors. Those ligands can be used in turn as affinity probes to identify their cognate molecular targets when they are not known in advance. Here we report an easy, robust and generally applicable approach in which phage particles bearing cell- or tissue-specific peptides serve directly as the affinity probes for their molecular targets. For proof of principle, the method successfully identified molecular binding partners, three of them novel, for 15 peptides specific for pancreatic cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022471
PMCID: PMC3139652  PMID: 21811618
24.  Rapid Analysis of Vessel Elements (RAVE): A Tool for Studying Physiologic, Pathologic and Tumor Angiogenesis 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(6):e20807.
Quantification of microvascular network structure is important in a myriad of emerging research fields including microvessel remodeling in response to ischemia and drug therapy, tumor angiogenesis, and retinopathy. To mitigate analyst-specific variation in measurements and to ensure that measurements represent actual changes in vessel network structure and morphology, a reliable and automatic tool for quantifying microvascular network architecture is needed. Moreover, an analysis tool capable of acquiring and processing large data sets will facilitate advanced computational analysis and simulation of microvascular growth and remodeling processes and enable more high throughput discovery. To this end, we have produced an automatic and rapid vessel detection and quantification system using a MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) that vastly reduces time spent on analysis and greatly increases repeatability. Analysis yields numerical measures of vessel volume fraction, vessel length density, fractal dimension (a measure of tortuosity), and radii of murine vascular networks. Because our GUI is open sourced to all, it can be easily modified to measure parameters such as percent coverage of non-endothelial cells, number of loops in a vascular bed, amount of perfusion and two-dimensional branch angle. Importantly, the GUI is compatible with standard fluorescent staining and imaging protocols, but also has utility analyzing brightfield vascular images, obtained, for example, in dorsal skinfold chambers. A manually measured image can be typically completed in 20 minutes to 1 hour. In stark comparison, using our GUI, image analysis time is reduced to around 1 minute. This drastic reduction in analysis time coupled with increased repeatability makes this tool valuable for all vessel research especially those requiring rapid and reproducible results, such as anti-angiogenic drug screening.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020807
PMCID: PMC3111429  PMID: 21694777
25.  Molecular imaging agents: impact on diagnosis and therapeutics in oncology 
Imaging has become a crucial tool in oncology throughout the course of disease detection and management and is an integral part of clinical trials. Anatomic and functional imaging led the way, providing valuable information used in the diagnosis of disease, including data regarding the size and location of the tumor and on physiologic processes such as blood flow and perfusion. As understanding of cancer pathogenesis has advanced through the identification of genetic, biochemical, and cellular alterations in evolving tumors, emphasis has been made on developing methods to detect and serially monitor such alterations. This class of approaches is referred to as molecular imaging. Molecular imaging offers the potential for increasingly sensitive and specific visualization and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level. These approaches have become established as essential tools for cancer research, early cancer detection and staging and monitoring and predicting response to targeted therapies. Here, we will discuss recent advances in the development of molecular imaging agents and their implementation in basic cancer research as well as in more rationalized approaches to cancer care.
doi:10.1017/S1462399410001511
PMCID: PMC3027202  PMID: 20633310
Molecular Imaging; Tumor; Cancer; Targeted Molecular Imaging; Therapeutic Response; PET; MRI; SPECT

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