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1.  Oxidative Stress and Modification of Renal Vascular Permeability Are Associated with Acute Kidney Injury during P. berghei ANKA Infection 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e44004.
Malaria associated-acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. However, the causes that lead to a framework of malaria-associated AKI are still poorly characterized. Some clinical studies speculate that oxidative stress products, a characteristic of Plasmodium infection, as well as proinflammatory response induced by the parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the development of malaria-associated AKI during infection by P. berghei ANKA, with special attention to the role played by the inflammatory response and the involvement of oxidative stress. For that, we took advantage of an experimental model of severe malaria that showed significant changes in the renal pathophysiology to investigate the role of malaria infection in the renal microvascular permeability and tissue injury. Therefore, BALB/c mice were infected with P. berghei ANKA. To assess renal function, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and ratio of proteinuria and creatininuria were evaluated. The products of oxidative stress, as well as cytokine profile were quantified in plasma and renal tissue. The change of renal microvascular permeability, tissue hypoxia and cellular apoptosis were also evaluated. Parasite infection resulted in renal dysfunction. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of adhesion molecule, proinflammatory cytokines and products of oxidative stress, associated with a decrease mRNA expression of HO-1 in kidney tissue of infected mice. The measurement of lipoprotein oxidizability also showed a significant increase in plasma of infected animals. Together, our findings support the idea that products of oxidative stress, as well as the immune response against the parasite are crucial to changes in kidney architecture and microvascular endothelial permeability of BALB/c mice infected with P. berghei ANKA.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044004
PMCID: PMC3432099  PMID: 22952850
2.  Regulatory T Cells Accumulate in the Lung Allergic Inflammation and Efficiently Suppress T-Cell Proliferation but Not Th2 Cytokine Production 
Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells are vital for peripheral tolerance and control of tissue inflammation. In this study, we characterized the phenotype and monitored the migration and activity of regulatory T cells present in the airways of allergic or tolerant mice after allergen challenge. To induce lung allergic inflammation, mice were sensitized twice with ovalbumin/aluminum hydroxide gel and challenged twice with intranasal ovalbumin. Tolerance was induced by oral administration of ovalbumin for 5 consecutive days prior to OVA sensitization and challenge. We detected regulatory T cells (Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ T cells) in the airways of allergic and tolerant mice; however, the number of regulatory T cells was more than 40-fold higher in allergic mice than in tolerant mice. Lung regulatory T cells expressed an effector/memory phenotype (CCR4highCD62LlowCD44highCD54highCD69+) that distinguished them from naive regulatory T cells (CCR4intCD62LhighCD44intCD54intCD69−). These regulatory T cells efficiently suppressed pulmonary T-cell proliferation but not Th2 cytokine production.
doi:10.1155/2012/721817
PMCID: PMC3227414  PMID: 22162718
3.  Identification of an IL-17–producing NK1.1neg iNKT cell population involved in airway neutrophilia 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2007;204(5):995-1001.
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are an important source of both T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines, through which they can exert beneficial, as well as deleterious, effects in a variety of inflammatory diseases. This functional heterogeneity raises the question of how far phenotypically distinct subpopulations are responsible for such contrasting activities. In this study, we identify a particular set of iNKT cells that lack the NK1.1 marker (NK1.1neg) and secrete high amounts of interleukin (IL)-17 and low levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-4. NK1.1neg iNKT cells produce IL-17 upon synthetic (α-galactosylceramide [α-GalCer] or PBS-57), as well as natural (lipopolysaccharides or glycolipids derived from Sphingomonas wittichii and Borrelia burgdorferi), ligand stimulation. NK1.1neg iNKT cells are more frequent in the lung, which is consistent with a role in the natural immunity to inhaled antigens. Indeed, airway neutrophilia induced by α-GalCer or lipopolysaccharide instillation was significantly reduced in iNKT-cell–deficient Jα18−/− mice, which produced significantly less IL-17 in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid than wild-type controls. Furthermore, airway neutrophilia was abolished by a single treatment with neutralizing monoclonal antibody against IL-17 before α-GalCer administration. Collectively, our findings reveal that NK1.1neg iNKT lymphocytes represent a new population of IL-17–producing cells that can contribute to neutrophil recruitment through preferential IL-17 secretion.
doi:10.1084/jem.20061551
PMCID: PMC2118594  PMID: 17470641

Results 1-3 (3)