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1.  Adjuvant chemotherapy and acute toxicity in hypofractionated radiotherapy for early breast cancer 
AIM: To evaluate the effect of chemotherapy to the acute toxicity of a hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) schedule for breast cancer.
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 116 breast cancer patients with T1, 2N0Mx. The patients received 3-D conformal radiotherapy with a total physical dose of 50.54 Gy or 53.2 Gy in 19 or 20 fractions according to stage, over 23-24 d. The last three to four fractions were delivered as a sequential tumor boost. All patients were monitored for acute skin toxicity according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. The maximum monitored value was taken as the final grading score. Multivariate analysis was performed for the contribution of age, chemotherapy and 19 vs 20 fractions to the radiation acute skin toxicity.
RESULTS: The acute radiation induced skin toxicity was as following: grade I 27.6%, grade II 7.8% and grade III 2.6%. No significant correlation was noted between toxicity grading and chemotherapy (P = 0.154, χ2 test). The mean values of acute toxicity score in terms of chemotherapy or not, were 0.64 and 0.46 respectively (P = 0.109, Mann Whitney test). No significant correlation was also noted between acute skin toxicity and radiotherapy fractions (P = 0.47, χ2 test). According to univariate analysis, only chemotherapy contributed significantly to the development of acute skin toxicity but with a critical value of P = 0.05. However, in multivariate analysis, chemotherapy lost its statistical significance. None of the patients during the 2-years of follow-up presented any locoregional relapse.
CONCLUSION: There is no clear evidence that chemotherapy has an impact to acute skin toxicity after an HFRT schedule. A randomized trial is needed for definite conclusions.
PMCID: PMC4233416  PMID: 25405195
Hypofractionated radiotherapy; Breast cancer; Acute toxicity; Chemotherapy; Retrospective analysis
2.  Carotid sinus malfunction presenting with presyncopal episodes during radiation therapy for head and neck cancer 
JRSM Open  2014;5(6):2054270414527937.
We report the case of a 67-year-old Caucasian man with unexplained presyncopal episodes during radiation therapy for oropharyngeal cancer.
PMCID: PMC4100225  PMID: 25057400
baroreflex failure; carotid sinus syndrome; head and neck; radiation therapy
3.  Transformation of Physical DVHs to Radiobiologically Equivalent Ones in Hypofractionated Radiotherapy Analyzing Dosimetric and Clinical Parameters: A Practical Approach for Routine Clinical Practice in Radiation Oncology 
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to transform DVHs from physical to radiobiological ones as well as to evaluate their reliability by correlations of dosimetric and clinical parameters for 50 patients with prostate cancer and 50 patients with breast cancer, who were submitted to Hypofractionated Radiotherapy. Methods and Materials. To achieve this transformation, we used both the linear-quadratic model (LQ model) and the Niemierko model. The outcome of radiobiological DVHs was correlated with acute toxicity score according to EORTC/RTOG criteria. Results. Concerning the prostate radiotherapy, there was a significant correlation between RTOG acute rectal toxicity and D50 (P < 0.001) and V60 (P = 0.001) dosimetric parameters, calculated for α/β = 10 Gy. Moreover, concerning the breast radiotherapy there was a significant correlation between RTOG skin toxicity and V≥60 dosimetric parameter, calculated for both α/β = 2.3 Gy (P < 0.001) and α/β = 10 Gy (P < 0.001). The new tool seems reliable and user-friendly. Conclusions. Our proposed model seems user-friendly. Its reliability in terms of agreement with the presented acute radiation induced toxicity was satisfactory. However, more patients are needed to extract safe conclusions.
PMCID: PMC3852578  PMID: 24348743
4.  Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in Adult Degenerative Scoliosis for Spine Support: Study for Pain Evaluation and Mobility Improvement 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:626502.
We evaluate the efficacy-safety of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) as primary treatment in adult degenerative scoliosis. During the last 4 years, PV was performed in 18 adult patients (68 vertebral bodies) with back pain due to degenerative scoliotic spine. Under anaesthesia and fluoroscopy, direct access to most deformed vertebral bodies was obtained by 13G needles, and PMMA for vertebroplasty was injected. Scoliosis' inner arch was supported. Clinical evaluation included immediate and delayed studies of patient's general condition and neurological status. An NVS scale helped assessing pain relief, life quality, and mobility improvement. Comparing patients' scores prior to (mean value 8.06 ± 1.3 NVS units), the morning after (mean value 3.11 ± 1.2 NVS units), at 12 (mean value 1.67 ± 1.5 NVS units), and 24 months after vertebroplasty (mean value 1.67 ± 1.5 NVS units) treatment, patients presented a mean decrease of 6.39 ± 1.6 NVS units on terms of life quality improvement and pain relief (P = 0.000). Overall mobility improved in 18/18 (100%) patients. No complications were observed. During follow-up period (mean value 17.66 months), all patients underwent a mean of 1.3 sessions for facet joint and nerve root infiltrations. Percutaneous vertebroplasty in the inner arch seems to be an effective technique for supporting adult degenerative scoliotic spine.
PMCID: PMC3821888  PMID: 24260742
5.  Evaluation of acute/late toxicity and local recurrence in T1–T2 glottic carcinoma treated with accelerated hypofractionated 3D-conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) 
Radiology and Oncology  2013;47(2):185-191.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy, as well as the acute and late toxicity of an accelerated hypofractionated 3DCRT schedule as radical treatment in patients with organ confined glottic cancer cT1-2N0.
Patients and methods.
Between June of 2004 and September 2010, 47 retrospectively selected patients (29 males, 18 females) diagnosed with organ confined T1 or T2 glottic cancer, were treated with external 3DCRT in an accelerated hypofractionation schedule. The median age was 70 years. A dose of 64.4 Gy in 28 daily fractions was prescribed. The primary study endpoints were to assess the acute and late effects of radiation toxicity, according to the EORTC/ RTOG scale, as well as the therapeutic impact of this schedule in terms of local recurrence.
The median follow up was 36 months. At the end of radiotherapy, grade I, II and III acute toxicity was observed in 34, 9 and4 patients, respectively. Late grade I and II toxicity was observed in 25 and in 8 patients respectively. Only two local recurrences were observed, 15 and 24 months post 3DCRT respectively.
Our radiotherapy schedule achieves a high locoregional control rate with the advantage of voice preservation. The proposed hypofractionated schedule can be recommended as a standard radiotherapy treatment, since these results are comparable with those of conventional fractionation schedules.
PMCID: PMC3691085  PMID: 23801916
early glottic cancer; accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy; toxicity; local recurrence
6.  Feasibility and radiation induced toxicity regarding the first application of transperineal implementation of biocompatible balloon for high dose radiotherapy in patients with prostate carcinoma 
To evaluate the feasibility of the transperineal implementation of biocompatible balloon (Prospace) and the acute toxicity of high dose 3DCRT in patients with localized low risk prostate cancer.
Materials and methods
Between December 2011 and April 2012, fifteen patients were treated with external 3DCRT consisted of 76–78 Gy in 38–39 daily fractions (2.0 Gy/ fraction). Before 3DCRT, we placed the Prospace though the perineum by a minimally invasive procedure in the intermediate space between the rectum and the prostate. The primary study endpoint was the evaluation of acute toxicity according to the EORTC/RTOG radiation toxicity scale. Erectile function was evaluated with the IIEF-5 questionnaire. Rectosigmoidoscopy was performed at baseline, at the end of 3DCRT and 3 months thereafter in order to assess also the rectal toxicity according to Subjective-RectoSigmoid (S-RS) scale. The evaluation of pain related to Prospace implementation was done with the visual analogue score (VAS).
The acute toxicities were as follows: grade I GI toxicity in two patients and for GU toxicity, three patients with grade I of nocturia, four patients with grade I of frequency, two patients with grade I and two patients with grade II of dysouria. The mean score of rectal toxicity according to S-RS score was 1.8(±0.6). The mean VAS score related to Prospace was 1.4(±0.5). Erectile function was unchanged. The Prospace device was found stable in sequential CTs during irradiation.
The implementation of PROSPACE was feasible, while the acute radiation toxicity was low and comparable with IMRT techniques.
PMCID: PMC3679742  PMID: 23566526
Acute toxicity; Biocompatible balloon; Prostate cancer; Radiotherapy
8.  Oral squamous cell cancer: early detection and the role of alcohol and smoking 
Oral squamous cell carcinoma has a remarkable incidence worldwide and a fairly onerous prognosis, encouraging further research on factors that might modify disease outcome.
Data sources
A web-based search for all types of articles published was initiated using Medline/Pub Med, with the key words such as oral cancer, alcohol consumption, genetic polymorphisms, tobacco smoking and prevention. The search was restricted to articles published in English, with no publication date restriction (last update 2010).
Review Methods
In this review article, we approach the factors for a cytologic diagnosis during OSCC development and the markers used in modern diagnostic technologies as well. We also reviewed available studies of the combined effects of alcohol drinking and genetic polymorphisms on alcohol-related cancer risk.
The interaction of smoking and alcohol significantly increases the risk for aero-digestive cancers. The interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption seems to be responsible for a significant amount of disease.
Published scientific data show promising pathways for the future development of more effective prognosis. There is a clear need for new prognostic indicators, which could be used in diagnostics and, therefore a better selection of the most effective treatment can be achieved.
PMCID: PMC3022893  PMID: 21211041
9.  Acute occlusion of the celiac axis and its branches with perforation of gastric fundus and splenic infarction, findings on spiral computed tomography: a case report 
Cases Journal  2010;3:82.
We present the contrast-enhanced spiral CT findings in a case of acute celiac artery occlusion with gastric perforation and total splenic infarction. Spiral CT depicted thrombus in the celiac axis and its branches, stenosis of the superior mesenteric artery, splenic infarction and lack of enhancement of the gastric wall with a large necrotic gap. Spiral CT enabled prompt diagnosis and therapy in this rare condition in a patient with suspicion of acute mesenteric ischemia.
PMCID: PMC2856538  PMID: 20403212
10.  Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review 
Advances in Urology  2009;2009:327945.
Low-dose rate brachytherapy has become a mainstream treatment option for men diagnosed with prostate cancer because of excellent long-term treatment outcomes in low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients. To a great extend due to patient lead advocacy for minimally invasive treatment options, high-quality prostate implants have become widely available in the US, Europe, and Japan. High-dose-rate (HDR) afterloading brachytherapy in the management of localised prostate cancer has practical, physical, and biological advantages over low-dose-rate seed brachytherapy. There are no free live sources used, no risk of source loss, and since the implant is a temporary procedure following discharge no issues with regard to radioprotection use of existing facilities exist. Patients with localized prostate cancer may benefit from high-dose-rate brachytherapy, which may be used alone in certain circumstances or in combination with external-beam radiotherapy in other settings. The purpose of this paper is to present the essentials of brachytherapies techniques along with the most important studies that support their effectiveness in the treatment of prostate cancer.
PMCID: PMC2735748  PMID: 19730753

Results 1-10 (10)