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1.  Understanding the Burden of Adult Female Acne 
Objective: Typically regarded as an adolescent condition, acne among adult females is also prevalent. Limited data are available on the clinical characteristics and burden of adult female acne. The study objective was to describe clinical characteristics and psychosocial impact of acne in adult women. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Data were collected from a diverse sample of United States females. Participants: Women ages 25 to 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions, coping behaviors, psychosocial impact of acne (health-related quality of life using acne-specific Quality of Life questionnaire and psychological status using Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/productivity. Results: A total of 208 women completed the survey (mean age 35±6 years), comprising White/Caucasian (51.4%), Black/African American (24.5%), Hispanic/Latino (11.1%), Asian (7.7%), and Other (5.3%). Facial acne presented most prominently on cheeks, chin, and forehead and was characterized by erythema, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and scarring. Average age of adult onset was 25±6 years, and one-third (33.7%) were diagnosed with acne as an adult. The majority (80.3%) had 25 to 49 visible facial lesions. Acne was perceived as troublesome and impacted self-confidence. Makeup was frequently used to conceal acne. Facial acne negatively affected health-related quality of life, was associated with mild/moderate symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, and impacted ability to concentrate on work or school. Conclusion: Results highlight the multifaceted impact of acne and provide evidence that adult female acne is under-recognized and burdensome.
PMCID: PMC3935648  PMID: 24578779
2.  Validation of the Self-Assessment of Treatment Questionnaire among Patients with Postherpetic Neuralgia 
Pain Research and Treatment  2012;2012:621619.
Introduction. A five-item Self-Assessment of Treatment (SAT) was developed to assess improvement and satisfaction with treatment associated with the application of a novel high concentration 8% capsaicin topical patch in clinical trials in patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). This study evaluated the item performance and psychometric properties of the SAT. Methods. The SAT, Brief Pain Inventory, SF-36v2, Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, and Patient and Clinician Global Impression of Change (PGIC; CGIC) scores were measured in two 12-week Phase 3 clinical trials. Factor analysis assessed the underlying factor structure, followed by examination of the reliability and validity of the multi-item domain. Results. Pooled data from 698 patients completing SAT after 12 weeks of treatment were analyzed. A one-factor model combining three of the five items emerged as the optimal solution. Internal consistency reliability of this treatment efficacy factor was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.89). Construct validity was demonstrated by moderate to high correlations with change in other study endpoints. SAT mean scores consistently discriminated between patient change groups defined by PGIC and CGIC. Conclusions. The measurement properties of the three-item version of SAT are valid and reliable for assessment of treatment with a high concentration capsaicin patch among patients with PHN.
PMCID: PMC3425853  PMID: 22937238
3.  Predicting EuroQol (EQ-5D) scores from the patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) global items and domain item banks in a United States sample 
Quality of Life Research  2009;18(6):783-791.
Preference-based health index scores provide a single summary score assessing overall health-related quality of life and are useful as an outcome measure in clinical studies, for estimating quality-adjusted life years for economic evaluations, and for monitoring the health of populations. We predicted EuroQoL (EQ-5D) index scores from patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) global items and domain item banks.
This was a secondary analysis of health outcome data collected in an internet survey as part of the PROMIS Wave 1 field testing. For this study, we included the 10 global items and the physical function, fatigue, pain impact, anxiety, and depression item banks. Linear regression analyses were used to predict EQ-5D index scores based on the global items and selected domain banks.
The regression models using eight of the PROMIS global items (quality of life, physical activities, mental health, emotional problems, social activities, pain, and fatigue and either general health or physical health items) explained 65% of the variance in the EQ-5D. When the PROMIS domain scores were included in a regression model, 57% of the variance was explained in EQ-5D scores. Comparisons of predicted to actual EQ-5D scores by age and gender groups showed that they were similar.
EQ-5D preference scores can be predicted accurately from either the PROMIS global items or selected domain banks. Application of the derived regression model allows the estimation of health preference scores from the PROMIS health measures for use in economic evaluations.
PMCID: PMC2704290  PMID: 19472072
Health preference scores; EQ-5D; PROMIS; Global health status; Health-related quality of life

Results 1-3 (3)