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1.  An Assessment of Urea-Formaldehyde Fertilizer on the Diversity of Bacterial Communities in Onion and Sugar Beet 
Microbes and Environments  2014;29(2):231-234.
The impact of a urea-formaldehyde (UF) fertilizer on bacterial diversity in onion bulbs and main roots of sugar beet were examined using a 16S rRNA gene clone library. The UF fertilizer markedly increased bacterial diversity in both plants. The results of principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed that nearly 30% of the variance observed in bacterial diversity in both the onion and sugar beet was attributed to the fertilization conditions and also that the community structures in both plants shifted unidirectionally in response to the UF fertilizer.
doi:10.1264/jsme2.ME13157
PMCID: PMC4103532  PMID: 24882062
bacterial community; nitrogen fertilizer; onion; sugar beet; urea-formaldehyde
2.  Subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson’s disease is associated with a risk of fixed epiglottis 
BMJ Case Reports  2009;2009:bcr08.2008.0706.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) alleviates motor disability of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Mental changes and other adverse events are common, but typically transient. Severe complications such as intracerebral haemorrhage or infection are rare, but 6 of 73 patients who underwent STN-DBS died of pneumonia, cardiac failure or pulmonary embolism. We describe a patient with PD who had sudden respiratory difficulty due to a fixed epiglottis after STN-DBS. This symptom was confirmed to be related to STN stimulation on fibre-optic examination of the larynx.
doi:10.1136/bcr.08.2008.0706
PMCID: PMC3030228  PMID: 21686673
3.  A successfully treated case of herpes simplex encephalitis complicated by subarachnoid bleeding: a case report 
Introduction
Histopathologically, herpes simplex virus type 1 causes hemorrhagic necrosis. Overt hemorrhage is infrequent in herpes simplex virus encephalitis but can lead to poor outcomes. This report describes a successfully treated case of herpes simplex virus encephalitis associated with subarachnoid bleeding in which real-time polymerase chain reaction was useful for diagnosis.
Case presentation
A 30-year-old previously healthy Japanese woman who had fever and headache for five days presented with disorganised speech, unusual behavior and delusional thinking. Real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification of herpes simplex virus type 1 in cerebrospinal fluid was positive (38,000 copies/mL) and antivirus treatment was started. During the course of her illness, the level of her consciousness decreased in association with desaturation and tachycardia. Thrombosis of the right pulmonary artery trunk with pulmonary embolism was evident on enhanced chest computed tomography. In addition, cranial computed tomography revealed subarachnoid and intraventricular bleeding. Intravenous heparin (12,000 U/day) was started and the dose was adjusted according to the activated partial thromboplastin time for about a month (maximum dose of heparin, 20,400 U/day). After the treatments, her Glasgow coma score increased and the thrombosis of the pulmonary artery trunk had disappeared.
Conclusions
The present case raises the question of whether anticoagulant treatment is safe in patients with herpes simplex virus encephalitis complicated by subarachnoid bleeding.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-4-310
PMCID: PMC2955055  PMID: 20860812
4.  Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection of Sika Deer, Japan 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2009;15(12):1991-1993.
To determine whether Ehrlichia chaffeensis exists in Japan, we used PCR to examine blood from sika deer in Nara, Japan. Of 117 deer, 36 (31%) were infected with E. chaffeensis. The E. chaffeensis 16S rRNA base and GroEL amino acid sequences from Japan were most closely related to those of E. chaffeensis Arkansas.
doi:10.3201/eid1512.081667
PMCID: PMC3044512  PMID: 19961683
Ehrlichia chaffeensis; sika deer; GroEL; 16S rRNA; bacteria; Japan; dispatch
5.  Novel Genetic Variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, and a Novel Ehrlichia sp. in Wild Deer and Ticks on Two Major Islands in Japan 
Wild deer are one of the important natural reservoir hosts of several species of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma that cause human ehrlichiosis or anaplasmosis in the United States and Europe. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether and what species of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma naturally infect deer in Japan. Blood samples obtained from wild deer on two major Japanese islands, Hokkaido and Honshu, were tested for the presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma by PCR assays and sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, major outer membrane protein p44 genes, and groESL. DNA representing four species and two genera of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma was identified in 33 of 126 wild deer (26%). DNA sequence analysis revealed novel strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a novel Ehrlichia sp., Anaplasma centrale, and Anaplasma bovis in the blood samples from deer. None of these have been found previously in deer. The new Ehrlichia sp., A. bovis, and A. centrale were also detected in Hemaphysalis longicornis ticks from Honshu Island. These results suggest that enzootic cycles of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species distinct from those found in the United States or Europe have been established in wild deer and ticks in Japan.
doi:10.1128/AEM.72.2.1102-1109.2006
PMCID: PMC1392898  PMID: 16461655
6.  Novel Endophytic Nitrogen-Fixing Clostridia from the Grass Miscanthus sinensis as Revealed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2004;70(11):6580-6586.
Anaerobic nitrogen-fixing consortia consisting of N2-fixing clostridia and diverse nondiazotrophic bacteria were previously isolated from various gramineous plants (K. Minamisawa, K. Nishioka, T. Miyaki, B. Ye, T. Miyamoto, M. You, A. Saito, M. Saito, W. Barraquio, N. Teaumroong, T. Sein, and T. Tadashi, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:3096-3102, 2004). For this work, clostridial populations and their phylogenetic structures in a stand of the grass Miscanthus sinensis in Japan were assessed by a 16S rRNA gene-targeted terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis combined with most-probable-number (MPN) counts. PCR primers and restriction enzymes were optimized for analyses of the plant clostridia. Clostridia were detected in strongly surface-sterilized leaves, stems, and roots of the plants at approximately 104 to 105 cells/g of fresh weight; they made up a large proportion of N2-fixing bacterial populations, as determined by MPN counts associated with an acetylene reduction assay. Phylogenetic grouping by MPN-TRFLP analysis revealed that the clostridial populations belonged to group II of cluster XIVa and groups IV and V of cluster I; this result was supported by a culture-independent TRFLP analysis using direct DNA extraction from plants. When phylogenetic populations from M. sinensis and the soil around the plants were compared, group II clostridia were found to exist exclusively in M. sinensis.
doi:10.1128/AEM.70.11.6580-6586.2004
PMCID: PMC525129  PMID: 15528521
7.  New Ehrlichia Species Closely Related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis Isolated from Ixodes ovatus Ticks in Japan 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2000;38(4):1331-1338.
Seven Ehrlichia strains (six HF strains and one Anan strain) that were obtained from laboratory mice by intraperitoneally inoculating homogenates of adult Ixodes ovatus collected in Japan were characterized. 16S rRNA sequences of all six HF strains were identical, and the sequences were 99.7, 98.2, and 97.7% identical to those of Anan strain, Ehrlichia chaffeensis (human monocytic ehrlichiosis agent), and E. muris, respectively. Partial GroEL amino acid sequencing also revealed that the six HF strains had identical sequences, which were 99.0, 98.5, and 97.3% identical to those of E. chaffeensis, the Anan strain, and E. canis, respectively. All HF strains were lethal to mice at higher dosages and intraperitoneal inoculation, whereas the Anan or E. muris strain induced only mild clinical signs. Light and electron microscopy of moribund mice inoculated with one of the HF strains revealed severe liver necrosis and the presence of numerous ehrlichial inclusions (morulae) in various organs. The study revealed that members of E. canis genogroup are naturally present in Ixodes ticks. HF strains that can cause severe illness in immunocompetent laboratory mice would be valuable in studying the pathogenesis and the roles of both cellular and humoral immune responses in ehrlichiosis caused by E. canis genogroup.
PMCID: PMC86441  PMID: 10747103
8.  Comparison of Ehrlichia muris Strains Isolated from Wild Mice and Ticks and Serologic Survey of Humans and Animals with E. muris as Antigen 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1999;37(4):1123-1129.
In metropolitan Tokyo, the Ehrlichia muris seropositivity rate of 24 wild mice was 63% in Hinohara Village, but in the surrounding areas, it was 0 to 5%. This finding suggests that the reservoir of E. muris is focal. Among the 15 seropositive mice, ehrlichiae were isolated from 9 Apodemus speciosus mice and 1 A. argenteus mouse, respectively. Five ehrlichial isolates were obtained from 10 ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) collected in Asuke Town, Aichi Prefecture, where the E. muris type strain had been isolated. These new isolates were compared with the E. muris type strain. The mouse virulence and ultrastructure of the new isolates were similar to those of the type strain, and all of them were cross-reactive with each other, as well as with the type strain, by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test. The levels of similarity of the base sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of one of the A. speciosus isolates and one of the tick isolates to that of the E. muris type strain were 99.79 and 99.93%, respectively. We suggest that all of these isolates are E. muris; that E. muris is not limited to Eothenomys kageus but infects other species of mice; and that E. muris is present at locations other than Aichi Prefecture. It appears that H. flava is a potential vector of E. muris. Twenty (1%) of 1803 humans from metropolitan Tokyo were found to be seropositive for E. muris antibodies. A serological survey revealed that exposure to E. muris or organisms antigenically cross-reactive to E. muris occurred among dogs, wild mice, monkeys, bears, deer, and wild boars in Gifu Prefecture, nearby prefectures, and Nagoya City, central Japan. However, human beings and Rattus norvegicus rats in this area were seronegative. These results indicate broader geographic distribution of and human and animal species exposure to E. muris or related Ehrlichia spp. in Japan.
PMCID: PMC88659  PMID: 10074536

Results 1-8 (8)