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author:("katka, R. V.")
1.  Lipid Peroxidation and the Total Antioxidant Status in the Pathogenesis of Age Related and Diabetic Cataracts: A Study on the Lens and Blood 
Background: Cataract is one of the major causes of a visual impairment, which eventually leads to blindness. An oxidative damage to the lens proteins is a major factor which leads to cataract formation. Therefore, we intended to study the relationship between the biochemical markers of oxidative stress and various forms of cataracts.
Methods: We examined the lenses and the sera of 120 subjects who were aged 50 to 80 years, who were distributed in two groups, viz. the study group (90 patients) and the control group (30 subjects). The oxidative stress was assessed by estimating the lipid peroxidation product in the form of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the antioxidant status by measuring the levels of vitamin E and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The study group patients were further divided into those with nuclear cataracts (30 patients), cortical cataracts (30 patients), and diabetic cataracts (30 patients).
Results: In this study, it was found that the levels of TBARS in the study group were significantly high (p<0.001), whereas the TAC (p<0.001) and the vitamin E (p<0.001) levels were significantly low, both in the lenses and the blood of the study group as compared to those of the control group.
Conclusion: Thus, the present study suggests that an imbalance between the oxygen free radicals and the antioxidants may lead to lipid peroxidation in the lens. Also, the elevated levels of glucose in the diabetic cataracts lead to the auto-oxidation of glucose and a non-enzymatic glycation of the lens protein. Thereby, the high molecular weight proteins aggregate in the cataract.
PMCID: PMC3708254  PMID: 23905084
Cataract; Lens; Lipid peroxidation; Vitamin E; Protein glycation; Total antioxidant status
2.  Oxidative stress and calcium-phosphorus levels in Rheumatoid arthritis 
Generation of reactive oxygen species is an important factor in the development and maintenance of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in humans. This study was undertaken to investigate interplay among oxidants, antioxidants and pathogenesis of Rheumatoid arthritis. Serum levels of lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, vitamin E and ratio of calcium/phosphorus in RA patients were determined and compared with normal healthy controls. Significant increases in lipid peroxides (p<0.001) and nitric oxide (p<0.001) levels were found in patients presenting with RA as compared to controls. Whereas significant decrease in vitamin E (P<0.001) and calcium/phosphorus ratio (p<0.001) were found in Rheumatoid arthritis patients as compared to controls. Positive correlation was found between lipid peroxides and nitric oxide as well as between vitamin E and calcium. While lipid peroxides and nitric oxide were correlated negatively with vitamin E. whereas negative correlation was observed between MDA and Calcium/Phosphorus ratio in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Our findings suggest that there is a close association between bone loss and oxidative threat in patients presenting with Rheumatoid arthritis.
PMCID: PMC3453991  PMID: 23105630
Rheumatoid arthritis; oxidative stress; lipid peroxidation; vitamin E; Calcium/Phosphorus
3.  Role of free radicals and antioxidant status in childhood nephrotic syndrome 
Indian Journal of Nephrology  2011;21(1):37-40.
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is characterized by heavy proteinuria and hypoalbuminuria. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) seem to play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of proteinuria in NS. This study aims to evaluate the potential role of reactive oxygen species in pathogenesis of NS by estimating the levels of oxidants and antioxidants in children with NS. Thirty patients of NS and thirty age, sex-matched healthy subjects, were selected for the study. As compared to healthy controls, the levels of serum lipid peroxide were significantly elevated while levels of nitric oxide, erythrocyte-superoxide dismutase activity, levels of vitamin C, albumin and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced in nephrotic patients. The levels of uric acid and bilirubin were significantly increased in children with NS as compared to controls. There was no significant difference in vitamin E level between patients and controls. It can be concluded that increased ROS generation and decreased antioxidant defense may be related to the pathogenesis of proteinuria in NS.
PMCID: PMC3109781  PMID: 21655168
Nephrotic syndrome; reactive oxygen species; lipid peroxide; total antioxidant capacity
4.  Oxidative stress and disturbance in antioxidant balance in beta thalassemia major 
Repeated blood transfusion in beta thalassemia major patients may lead to peroxidative tissue injury by secondary iron overload. In the present study, 72 children with beta thalassemia major were included. Serum levels of total lipid peroxides, Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity, Copper, Zinc, Vitamin E, plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity, activity of Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase, were measured. The findings were compared with 72 age matched healthy controls irrespective of sex. A significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxide and Iron (p<0.001), whereas, significant decrease in the levels of vitamin-E, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Iron Binding Capacity (p<0.001) was observed. Serum Zinc was significantly increased (p<0.001) with significant decrease in the levels of copper (p<0.001). Non Significant increase in the activity of Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase (p>0.05) was found in the patients when compared with controls. This suggest that oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant defense mechanism play an important role in pathogenesis of beta thalassemia major.
PMCID: PMC3453139  PMID: 23105782
Beta thalassemia major; Oxidative stress; Antioxidants
5.  Oxidative stress and serum α1 — Antitrypsin in smokers 
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the levels of serum lipid peroxide, nitric oxide end poducts, erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity and serum α1-antitrypsin in smokers. Total 90 active cigarette smokers were subdivided into Group I (subjects with smoking habit of less than 10 cigarettes per day) and Group II (with smoking habit of more than 10 cigarettes per day). In both groups lipid peroxide and nitric oxide end products were significantly increased with significantly decrease in erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity and serum α1-antitrypsin as compared to controls. Our findings show enhanced oxidative stress and reduced α1-antitrypsin in cigarette smokers. Further increase in number of cigarettes per day exacerbates the oxidative stress with decrease in α1-antitrypsin.
PMCID: PMC3453143  PMID: 23105790
Lipid peroxide; Nitric oxide; Superoxide dismutase; α1-antitrypsin; Smokers
6.  Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in cervical cancer patients 
Cervical cancer (CaCx) is a global public health problem as it is the second most common cancer leading to the death of women worldwide. Many references revealed that the low levels of antioxidants induce the generation of free radicals leading to DNA damage and further mutations. In the present study attempt have been made to evaluate the levels of serum Lipid peroxide, Nitric Oxide (NO.) Erythrocytic—Superoxide Dismutase (RBC-SOD), Vitamin-C, serum Copper (Cu) and serum Zinc (Zn). 120 patients were divided in 4 groups according to the increasing CaCx stages i.e. stage I, II, III & IV respectively. All the patients were around the age group of 25–65 years. 30 healthy women between the same age group were treated as controls. Highly significant increased values of MDA, NO. and Cu were observed (p<0.001) whereas the activity of RBC-SOD, levels of Vitamin-C and Zn were significantly decreased in CaCx patients as compared with healthy controls (p<0.001). Cu/Zn ratio was found to be altered in CaCx patients. From our findings it can be concluded that the oxidative stress is induced among CaCx patients, which inturn increases the risk of CaCx.
PMCID: PMC3453822  PMID: 23105702
Lipid peroxide; Cervical cancer; RBC-SOD; Nitric Oxide; Vitamin-C; Copper; Zinc
7.  Comparison between erythrocyte hemoglobin and spectrin glycosylation and role of oxidative stress in type-2 diabetes mellitus 
New findings on organization of blood cell cytoskeleton represent an exciting aspect of modem cell biology and hematology, which is an interesting investigation to study diabetes. The present study was undertaken in 150 subjects. Out of these, 30 subjects were controls (Group I) and 30 were type-2 diabetics without any complication (Group II), while remaining 90 subjects were type-2 diabetics with complication (Group III). We determined erythrocyte spectrin and hemoglobin glycosylation and also estimated plasma lipid peroxide, nitric oxide and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity to assess the status of oxidative stress. There was a significant increase in spectrin (P<0.001) and hemoglobin (P<0.001) glycosylation in Group II and III as compared to Group I and spectrin glycosylation was nearly three times more as compared to hemoglobin, whereas plasma levels of lipid peroxide (P<0.001) as well as nitric oxide (P<0.001) were found to be significantly increased and GPx activity (P<0.001) was significantly decreased in Group II and III as compared to Group I. However, it was also observed that spectrin (P>0.05) and hemoglobin (P>0.05) glycosylation was not significantly different in Group II and III. In contrast, there was significant rise in lipid peroxide (P<0.001), nitric oxide (P<0.001) and fall in GPx activity (P<0.001) in Group III when compared to Group II. Increased erythrocyte protein glycosylation and oxidative stress is clearly evident from our study. However, to understand the exact interplay between these two mechanisms, further studies are required.
PMCID: PMC3454247  PMID: 23105659
Type-2 diabetes; Spectrin; Glycosylation; Oxidative stress

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