PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-17 (17)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Co-infection of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus among injection drug users in Drop in centers 
Background:
Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the three prevalent viral and bloodborne infections worldwide. Considering the similar route of transmission in these infections, their co-infections would be more challenging for health care professionals. Therefore, we investigated the rate of HIV/HBV/HCV co-infection among injection drug users (IDUs) referred to Drop in centers (DICs).
Materials and Methods:
In this cross-sectional study (2008-2009), IDUs referred to DICs in Isfahan province were evaluated. Venous blood samples were obtained and HBsAg, HBcAb, HCVAb, and HIVAb measured by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Demographic data and risk factors in patients with HBV/HCV, HIV/HCV, and HIV/HBV co-infections were obtained by a trained social worker using a structured checklist. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, t-test, and multiple logistic regressions.
Results:
Totally, 539 IDUs with mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 35.3 (7.9) were studied. HBV/HCV, HCV/HIV, and HBV/HIV co-infections were presented in 65 (12.1%), 6 (1.1%), and 0 (0%) of IDUs, respectively. All HIV infected IDUs were infected with HCV as well. There was a significant association between HBV/HCV co-infection and behaviors related to sharing needle (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.23-3.45) and imprisonment (OR = 1.01, 95% CI; 1.04-1.06).
Conclusion:
According to the results of this study, history of imprisonment and needle sharing were the only adjusted risk factors for HCV/HBV co-infection in IDUs. This might be a warning for national health system and needs to urgent paying attention. It seems that expanded harm reduction strategies can be useful to reduce this co-infection and its mortality and morbidity rate among IDUs.
PMCID: PMC4078381  PMID: 25002888
Co-infection; Drop in center; hepatitis B virus; hepatitis C virus; human immunodeficiency virus
2.  Seroprevalence of hepatitis B markers among incarcerated intravenous drug users 
Background:
Drug injection is one of the most prominent risk factors for transmission of viral hepatitis. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is generally higher in prisoners compared with the general population. The object of this study was to assess the markers of HBV and related risk factors among intravenous drug users (IVDU) in prisoners.
Materials and Methods:
Through a cross-sectional study in 2012 HBV infection and its risk factors were assessed in prisoners with a history of intravenous drug use in Isfahan, Iran. A checklist was fulfilled for each participant and 5 ml blood was taken from each subject. Sera were analyzed for markers of the hepatitis B: Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAb) and hepatitis B virus core antibody (HBcAb) by ELISA. We used Chi-square test and logistic regression model to analyze data and P < 0.05 was considered to be significant.
Results:
All of the studied participants (n = 970) were men. The mean ± standard deviation of the age of the subjects was 32.61 ± 8.1 years and the majority of them had less than high school education. More than 40% of these men had a history of injection drug inside prison and 2.27% of them self-reported history of HBV infection. Of the 970 IVDU, 32 (3.3%) were positive for HBsAg. Among HBsAg + subjects, 23 (71.88%) were HBcAb+. 120 (12.37%) were found positive for isolated HBsAb, 45 (4.64%) for isolated HBcAb and 67 (6.9%) for both HBsAb and HBcAb. History of sharing needle (odds ratio: 2.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.09-4.65) had a significant association with HBsAg positivity.
Conclusion:
The results suggest that history of sharing needle had a significant association with HBsAg positivity. It seems that educational programs for injecting drug related behaviors, especially syringe sharing, are needed for IVDU.
PMCID: PMC4078382  PMID: 25002887
Hepatitis B virus; intravenous drug users; Isfahan; Prison
3.  Training and validation of standardized patients for evaluation of general practitioners’ performance in management of obesity and overweight 
Background:
Standardized patient (SP) can serve as a valuable tool to measure the physician performance in actual clinical settings, but it has not been validated for obesity/overweight disorders. This study has been conducted to describe the process of creating reliable and valid SPs for evaluation of general-practitioners’ management of obesity/overweight in Iran.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 6 obese/overweight volunteers (potential SPs) took part in training. Three scenarios, along with corresponding checklists including 102 items representing different aspects of diagnosis and treatment of obesity/overweight, were developed by an expert group. The SPs were trained using role playing method. During this part, one of the SPs failed. The SPs’ portrayal of their respective scenario was online watched in another room and the checklist filled independently by the physician, research assistant and other SPs. The reliability of the checklist to be used by the SPs was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. The overall inter-rater agreement was calculated by the intraclass correlation coefficient statistic for total scores.
Results:
The 5 eligible SPs were all women between 20 years and 39 years of age. Inter-rater agreement between the SPs’ total scores was 0.899, value (95% confidence intervals) were 11.8 (0.68-0.98) and P value was <0.001. The Cronbach's alpha for reliability of completed checklists was 0.91.
Conclusion:
SP could be a powerful instrument for evaluating medical performance of general practitioners in the field of obesity/overweight management. Further research is needed to find the more aspects of training and validation of unannounced SPs in this field.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.125931
PMCID: PMC3950795  PMID: 24627885
Obesity; performance; standardized patient
4.  Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus among young prisoners 
Background:
Juveniles in custody are affected by sexually transmitted infections due to risky behaviors. Therefore, they have a disproportionate burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this study, the prevalence and associated characteristics of hepatitis B and HIV infections were assessed in young prisoners.
Materials and Methods:
In this cross-sectional study, prevalence of HBV and HIV infections was assessed among young prisoners during 2008-2009. A checklist consisting of demographic, social, and risk factors was filled out and blood was drawn for their tests. Sera were analyzed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag), hepatitis B surface antibody (HBs Ab), hepatitis B core antibody (HBc Ab) and HIV Ab, and Western blot test was performed on antibody-positive HIV.
Results:
A total number of 160 young prisoners (147 boys and 13 girls) were evaluated. The mean age of the subjects was 16.59 ± 1.24 year. HBs Ag, HBc Ab, HBs Ab, and HIV Ab were detected in 1 (0.63%), 1 (0.63%), 52 (32.5%), and 1 (0.63%), respectively.
Conclusion:
With respect to national vaccination program against HBV infection, the juvenile prisoners had low prevalence of HBs Ab.
PMCID: PMC3719232  PMID: 23900503
Hepatitis B virus; human immunodeficiency virus; young prisoners
5.  HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in women with illegal social behavior in Isfahan, Iran 
Background:
Little is known about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among females who engage in illegal sexual behavior in Iran .So, this study was conducted to obtain knowledge about the prevalence and associated risk factors in this population.
Materials and Methods:
In a cross-sectional study, a total of 100 women who had exchange of sex for money in previous 3 months according to self report were recruited during 2009–2010 by simple non probable sampling method in Isfahan, Iran. HIV-Ab, Chlamydia trachomatis-IgG and syphilis infection were measured. A questionnaire on demographics and prostitution-associated risk data was collected as well. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression models were used for data analysis.
Results:
Of 100 participants, the samples of 91 ones could be tested for STI markers (nine samples were hemolysis or insufficient). The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis was 19.8%. There was no case with syphilis or HIV infection. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that participants who reported temporarily marriage were less likely to be infected with C. trachomatis (AOR=0.003, 95%CI=0.001–0.58). The other risk factors for the tested STIs were not statistically significant in multiple logistic regressions.
Conclusion:
The results of our study indicated that seroprevalence and associated risk factors of HIV and other STIs among female with illegal social behaviors is not considerable in Isfahan, Iran.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.94427
PMCID: PMC3507035  PMID: 23210064
Chlamydia; HIV; illegal social behaviors; syphilis; women
6.  Identification of Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Persons with Background of Intravenous Drug Use: The First Community Announcement-based Study From Iran 
Objectives:
Injection drug use plays the most important role in transmission of hepatitis C. In Iran, surveys have been conducted on various high risk groups but this is the first announcement based study for hepatitis C virus HCV prevalence among cases with history of intravenous drug using (IVDU) in the country.
Methods:
The announcement-based detection and follow-up of patients with anti-HCV positive project in volunteers with history of intravenous drug using was conducted in Isfahan province. At the first step, six focus groups were conducted and 2 pilot studies were carried out in two cities to design the main study. Comprehensive community announcement was done in all of public places and for physicians. The volunteers were invited to Isfahan reference laboratories and the serum samples were sent to Infectious Diseases Research Center Laboratory in standard conditions and HCV-Ab was tested by ELISA method.
Results:
In this study, 1,747 individuals that are estimated 50% of all expected intravenous drug users in the community were presented themselves. The most important reasons of success in recruiting volunteers in this study were the perfect propaganda, appropriate cooperation of lab staffs, continuous evaluation and good cooperation in Isfahan province administrations. HCV-Ab was detected in 34% of them and the HCV-Ab positives were sent for further follow-up procedures including confirmatory test, education, and treatment.
Conclusions:
In spite of some limitations to select real cases, this study was considered as a successful experience. Compared to the surveys in Iran on HCV prevalence in intravenous drug users, the results of this study, which was based on volunteers by announcement seems to be noteworthy.
PMCID: PMC3399287  PMID: 22826761
Announcement; Community; Hepatitis C; Intravenous drug using
7.  Hepatitis C among Intravenous Drug Users in Isfahan, Iran: a Study of Seroprevalence and Risk Factors 
Objectives:
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major public health problems worldwide which is transmitted through contact with infected blood or blood products. One of the most prevalent modes of HCV transmission is injecting drug with unclean needles or syringes. Therefore intravenous drug users (IVDUs) are the most important group who should be considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate seroprevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus in IVDUs population.
Methods:
The cross-sectional study was carried out on intravenous drug users who attended health and social care Drop-in centers during November 2008 to February 2009 in Isfahan province, Iran. Data was gathered using interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics and main risk factors for HCV infection. 5ml venous blood sample was obtained from each subject. The HCV-Ab test was performed on all blood samples by ELISA. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistical methods and multiple logistic regressions by SPSS software, version 15.
Results:
The mean age of participants was 31.77 ± 8.51. 503 (94.7%) were men and 28 (5.3%) were women. HCV seroprevalence was 47.1% (95% CI: 42.9, 51.3). The multiple logistic regressions demonstrated that history of tattooing (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.02-2.90), history of imprisonment (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.40-4.42) and sharing needles/syringes (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.54-4.95) are significant predictors of risk of HCV in IVDU population.
Conclusions:
In conclusion, according to the high prevalence of HCV infection among IVDUs and high adds of HCV infection from tattooing, sharing of needles/syringes and imprisonment, effective harm reduction programs should be expanded among IVDUs to prevent new HCV infections.
PMCID: PMC3399288  PMID: 22826755
Hepatitis C virus; High-risky behaviors; Intravenous drug users; Risk factors
8.  Prevalence of Anti HCV Infection in Patients with Beta-Thalassemia in Isfahan-Iran 
Objectives:
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major cause of post-transfusion hepatitis infection (PTH). Patients with thalassemia major are at high risk of hepatitis C due to the blood transfusion from donors infected by HCV. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies and risk factors in multitransfused thalassemic patients in Isfahan-Iran to establish more preventive strategies.
Methods:
This study was conducted to assess the patients with beta-thalassemia in Isfahan hospitals during 1996-2011 for HCV infection. A structured interview questionnaire was developed by the trained researcher to collect the demographic and risk factors. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test, Mann-Withney and multiple logistic regressions using SPSS software, version 15.
Results:
466 patients with major thalassemia participated in this study. The mean age of patients was 17.46 ± 8.3. Two hundred and seventy (58.3%) and 193 (41.7%) of participants were male and female, respectively. The prevalence of HCV was estimated 8% among thalassemia patients. History of surgery, history of dental procedure, number of units transfused per month, number of transfusion per month and duration of transfusion had significant association with HCV seropositivity in univariate analysis. There were no statistical significant risk factors for HCV seropositivity in multiple logistic regression models.
Conclusions:
Our findings revealed that blood transfusion was the main risk factors for HCV infection among beta-thalassemic patients. Therefore, more blood donor screening programs and effective screening techniques are needed to prevent transmission of HCV infection among beta-thalassemic patients.
PMCID: PMC3399295  PMID: 22826753
Beta-thalassemia; HCV infection; Iran
9.  High risky behaviors among intravenous drug users in Isfahan, Iran: A study for hepatitis C harm reduction programs 
Objectives:
Intravenous drug users (IVDUs) who share needles/syringes and practice sexual behaviors, are the most important group in the transmission of blood-borne infection diseases such as hepatitis C virus (HCV). Therefore identification of prevalent high-risky behaviors among IVDUs to detect the most route of transmission among them is essential to develop harm reduction programs among IVDUs and decrease HCV transmission from them to community.
Methods:
The cross-sectional study was carried out on 1510 intravenous drug users from November 2008 to February 2009 in Isfahan province, Iran. After obtaining consent form from participants, information was collected by interviewer-administered validated questionnaire. The data was analyzed with descriptive statistical methods by SPSS software, version 15.
Results:
1510 IVDUs participated in the study with the mean age 32.16 ± 8.26. 66.4% of participants had a history of illegal sexual activity. Among male IVDUs who had illegal sexual contact, 40.6% reported having homosexual contact and 36.2% of them have used condom in their contact. Also 57.7% had sexual contact with female sex workers. 83.5% of IVDUs reported having multiple sexual partners, and 30.9% had IVDUs sexual partners. The mean number of injection and duration of injection among IVDUs were 75.12 ± 95.51 times per month and 12.34 ± 7.53 years respectively. 36.9% of subjects have reported sharing needles/syringes.
Conclusions:
According to the high prevalence of unprotected sexual contacts and unsafe injection among IVDUs, effectiveness interventions and harm reduction programs are necessary to prevent spread of blood-borne infection diseases particularly HCV. With reduction of risky behaviors and consequently decrease of spread of HCV, these programs benefit both drug users and society.
PMCID: PMC3399296  PMID: 22826773
Hepatitis C virus; high-risky behaviors; intravenous drug users
10.  Hepatitis C virus infection in patients with hemophilia in Isfahan, Iran 
Objectives:
Patients with hereditary bleeding disorders are at risk of viral infection such as hepatitis C due to frequent transfusion of blood and blood products. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C and associated risk factors in hemophilic patients in Isfahan, the second big province in Iran.
Methods:
In a descriptive study, patients with hemophilia in Isfahan province were enrolled. A questionnaire, including demographic and risk factors of hepatitis C was completed through a structured interview with closed questions by a trained interviewer for each patient and HCV-Ab test results were extracted from patient records.
Results:
In this study, 232 of 350 patients with hemophilia A and B (66%) were positive for hepatitis C. Based on Multivariate Logistic Regression model, no independent risk factor was found.
Conclusions:
Prevalence of hepatitis C in patients with haemophilia A and B in Isfahan is high. Since no independent risk factor for hepatitis C disease was found in this high risk group, it can be concluded that multitransfusion is the only predictor for hepatitis C.
PMCID: PMC3399298  PMID: 22826775
Hemophilia; Hepatitis C; risk factors
11.  Hepatitis C Virus and Associated Risk Factors among Prison Inmates with History of Drug Injection in Isfahan, Iran 
Objectives:
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem worldwide with serious complications. According to the importance of intravenous drug use (IDU) as the main risk factor for HCV infection and transmission and prison as the main source of risky behaviors, this study conducted to define HCV infection and related risk factors in prison inmates with history of IDU in Isfahan province, Iran.
Methods:
This is a cross –sectional study which the prison inmates with IDU history in voluntary basis were enrolled. A validated questionnaire was asked and blood sample was obtained from each subject for the presence of HCV antibody. Odds ratio and logistic regression were used for data analysis and P-value < 0.05 considered significant.
Results:
I943 inmates with history of IDU participated in the study. The overall prevalence of HCV antibody was 41.6%. The main independent risk factors were number of injection in the month [OR: 1.006 (1.002- 1.011)], Length of drug addiction [OR: 1.05 (1.004-1.098)], multiple incarceration [OR: 1.15 (1.05-1.23)] and use of needle/syringe share inside prison [OR: 4.19 (2.22-7.9)]. In our study, marriage was a protective factor for HCV infection [OR: 0.34 (0.18-0.64)] as well.
Conclusions:
According to relatively high prevalence of HCV infection and associated risk factors which observed in this study it is important to primary prevention in prisons through syringe/needle exchange and counsel with imprisoned IDUs.
PMCID: PMC3399300  PMID: 22826759
HCV; IDU; Prison
12.  Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C in Isfahan Province 
Objectives:
Patients with Hepatitis C Virus infection are at high risk of getting hepatitis A virus. Hepatitis A virus is an important widespread virus that usually causes more severe medical consequences in patients with chronic liver disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prevalence of Hepatitis A Virus antibody in patients with chronic HCV in Isfahan province, Iran.
Methods:
A cross-sectional study was carried out on 117 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus from spring 2010 to spring 2011. Subject's characteristics such as age, gender, education, genotype of HCV infection and history of intravenous drug use were collected by questionnaire and studied. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS software (version 19.0. 2010, SPSS) using Chi-square test, Fisher Exact tests and Cochran-Armitage trend test.
Results:
The mean age of the subjects was 33.18 ± 10.97 years. The seroprevalence of HAV was 94.9% in patients with chronic HCV. The prevalence of anti-HAV increased nearly as age increased. But, there was no statistically significant difference in HAV positive rate according to the age groups (P = 0.242) and other patient's characteristics.
Conclusions:
According to the high HAV immunity in our study and less severe form of HAV infection, vaccination was not required in these patients. However, hepatitis A vaccination program should be performed in HAV seronegative patients with HCV to produce an adequate immune response.
PMCID: PMC3399306  PMID: 22826750
Chronic liver diseases; Hepatitis A virus; Hepatitis C virus
13.  Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Infection among Laboratory Health Care Workers in Isfahan, Iran 
Objectives:
Clinical laboratory health care workers can become infected through their occupation with blood-borne pathogens by percutanous injuries and mucocutaneous blood contacts such as cuts, needle sticks, splashes to mucous membranes or other body injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of, Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and some of the risk factors in medical laboratory health care workers.
Methods:
Through a descriptive cross sectional study, 203 participants employed in the clinical laboratories of the city of Isfahan, composed of medical laboratory technologists, technicians and cleaning staff were studied. Participant data were obtained through a self-reporting questionnaire and the level of anti-HCV antibody was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Chi-square test was used to determine risk factors associated with infection.
Results:
The mean age of the individuals (n = 203) was 35.8 ± 9.54 years. There were 115 women (56.7%) and 88 men (43.3%). All of the subjects were negative for HCV Ab.
Conclusions:
Hepatitis C infection is infrequent in laboratory health care workers in Isfahan province.
PMCID: PMC3399309  PMID: 22826757
Anti HCV antibody; health care workers; occupational exposure
14.  Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis C Virus among Juveniles in Correctional Center in Isfahan, Iran 
Objectives:
Juveniles in custody are affected by blood borne viruses due to high rates of risk behaviors. Therefore, they have a disproportionate burden of infectious diseases, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The purpose of the present study was to determine prevalence and associated characteristics of hepatitis C infection in inmates of a correctional center in Isfahan, Iran.
Methods:
We conducted a cross-sectional study of HCV infection in 160 youths, who were admitted to correctional center in Isfahan during 2008-2009. Subjects were asked questions regarding behaviors that might put them at high risk for acquiring HCV and blood was drawn for this test. Sera were analyzed for HCV Ab and RIBA test was performed on antibody-positive HCV. We used Chi-square test and logistic regression model to analyze data and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results:
A total of 160 young prisoners (147 boys and 13 girls) were studied. The mean age of the inmates was 16.59 ± 1.24 year. A history of intravenous drug addiction was reported in 3.8% of them. HCV infection was detected in 7 (4.4%) subjects. This study revealed that history of IDU was the main risk factor for HCV (OR, 134.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.29-2481.03).
Conclusions:
To prevent HCV transmission, proper drug prevention educations should be performed in young age prisoners.
PMCID: PMC3399313  PMID: 22826752
Correctional center; HCV; Isfahan
15.  Hepatitis B and C among women with illegal social behavior in Isfahan, Iran: Seroprevalence and associated factors 
Hepatitis Monthly  2011;11(5):368-371.
Background
In Iran, there is limited evidence on the prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) among females who engage in illegal sexual behavior.
Objectives
To determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections and their associated factors in this population in Isfahan-Iran.
Patients and Methods
In this cross-sectional study, 100 females who engaged in illegal sexual behavior during 2009-2010 in Isfahan were recruited from welfare to the DIC for women, and referrals were made among those who knew others who engaged in prostitution. Markers for HBV and HCV-Ab were measured by ELISA, and recombinant immunoblot assay was used for confirmation of HCV infection. Also, a questionnaire on demographics and prostitution-associated risk data in a face-to-face interview was completed for each participant. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression models were used for data analysis.
Results
Of the 100 samples collected, 91 were sufficient for testing. The mean age and time spent in sex work were 30.84 ± 9.34 years and 36 ± 28.5 months, respectively. HBsAg was detected in 1 (1.1%), anti-HBc in 4 (4.4%), anti-HBs in 60 (65.9%), and HCV Ab in 9 (9.9%) subjects. The evidence of vaccination was seen in 54 subjects (59.3%). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of HBV or HCV infection by estimated risk factors, and there was no independent risk factor for these infections.
Conclusions
The high prevalence of HCV infection in this study indicates the need to implement preventive interventions for female sex workers and, perhaps more importantly, to involve their male clients.
PMCID: PMC3212782  PMID: 22087163
Women; Social behavior; Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Iran
17.  Hepatitis B and C among Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Isfahan, Iran: Seroprevalence and Associated Factors 
Hepatitis Monthly  2010;10(3):188-192.
Background and Aims
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are also likely to be at risk for other infectious pathogens including hepatitis B(HBV) and C(HCV) viruses, which complicate the clinical course, management, and therapy. The literature on the prevalence of HBV/HCV coinfection with HIV in Iran is sparse. Hence this study was conducted to investigate this coinfection pattern and its risk factors in Isfahan, Iran.
Methods
All of the HIV-infected patients attending clinics for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) research and education in Isfahan province during the period of May 1998 through April 2007 were included in this cross-sectional study. After giving their informed consent, the patients were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), and anti-HCV-positive cases were confirmed with the RIBA test. The demographic data and information about risk behaviors were collected as well. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for HBV and HCV.
Results
The subjects included 130 patients (128 males and 2 females) with a mean age of 50.23 ± 8.81 years. Most of the subjects were unemployed (61.5%) and single (56.2%). A history of imprisonment, ,intravenous drug abuse, and high-risk sexual activity were reported by 83.7%, 83.5%, and 48% of the subjects, respectively. Coinfection with hepatitis viruses was observed in 78.5% of the subjects. Low levels of education, a history of imprisonment, and youth were the main risk factors for HCV/HIV coinfection (OR = 196, 114, and 0.9 respectively).
Conclusions
Our study showed that there is a high prevalence rate of HCV/HIV coinfection in Isfahan, Iran, with the major risk factor being a history of imprisonment.
PMCID: PMC3269083  PMID: 22308138
HBV; HCV; HIV; Coinfection; Iran

Results 1-17 (17)