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1.  Oral and Maxillofacial Considerations in Gardner's Syndrome 
Gardner's Syndrome is a variant of familial adenomatosis polyposis (FAP) with a triad consisting of polyps of the colon, multiple osteomas and surface tumors of soft and hard tissue. The intestinal polyps have a %100 risk of undergoing malignant transformation, therefore early identification of this disease is very important. There are several symptoms of Gardner's syndrome in the oral and maxillofacial surgery, which can be discovered during routine dental examination. We report a case of a 25-year old male patient with Gardner's syndrome who has not any intestinal polyps but osteomas in the mandible and jaw deformalities.
PMCID: PMC3258555  PMID: 22253560
Gardner's syndrome; jaw; dental deformalities
2.  In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Ankaferd Blood Stopper Against Candida albicans 
Candida albicans is a memeber of the oral flora that can lead to various complications in immunosupresive patients after oral surgery processes. Ankaferd Blood Stopper® (ABS) is a medical plant extract that is safe to use in patients with dental surgery bleedings in Turkey.
The study evaluated the antifungal activity of ABS medicinal plant extract against C albicans using the agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods.
The plant extract antifungal activity was assessed in vitro either by applying the ABS extract directly and by applying different concentrations of ABS onto Candida culture. For these experiments, an agar diffusion method was used. To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), a broth microdilution method was used.
Different volumes of the active substance (10, 20, 30, and 40 μL) were applied onto Candida (0.5 McFarland solution) cultivated plate; Candida growth was inhibited in accordance with the volumes of ABS. However, when various dilutions of ABS (1:2, 1:20, 1:40, and 1:80) were added as drops containing 20 μL, no antifungal effects were found. No MIC values were identified using broth microdilution. When different dilutions of ABS containing 100 μL of 0.5 McFarland solution of C albicans were cultured depending on the time (10, 20, 30, and 40 minutes), the effect of the duration was not significant.
The various tests were carried out to investigate antifungal effects of ABS on Candida, but none were found.
PMCID: PMC3957156  PMID: 24648581
Ankaferd Blood Stopper; antifungal activity; Candida; in vitro
3.  Evaluation of Light-Emitting Diode (LED-660 Nm) Application over Primary Osteoblast-Like Cells on Titanium Surfaces: An In Vitro Study 
Background: The goal of this study was to evaluate the behavior of neonatal rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells cultured on different implant surfaces and exposed once or three times to a 660-nm light-emitting diode (LED).
Methods: An LED with a 660-nm wavelength was applied once or three times to cultured cells on standard and modified sandblasted acid-etched surfaces (SLA and SLActive; Straumann, Basel, Switzerland). To analyze the effect of the LED on cell proliferation, numbers, and viability, cells were cultured on titanium discs, and measurements were taken after 72 h. Cell proliferation rates were assessed using a bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemical technique. Cell morphologies were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Results: Osteoblast-like cells proliferated on all tested surfaces, with differences among groups in cell counts and DNA synthesis values. The application of one LED treatment caused a significant increase in cell count in the SLActive group in comparison with the SLA group (p = 0.001), whereas the application of three LED treatments caused a significant decrease in cell count in the SLA group compared with the SLActive group (p < 0.001). After 72 h, the number of cells was highest in the SLActive group exposed once to the LED.
Conclusions: One LED application in the SLActive group resulted in significantly increased cell numbers. However, these findings were not exactly compatible with the SEM findings, which demonstrated fewer cells and weak attachments between cells and to the surface. Thus, further studies using different LED application times are needed to clarify the reason for the increased number of cells that are apparently incapable of attaching to the titanium surfaces after 72 h.
PMCID: PMC3198254  PMID: 22022211
Light-emitting diode; SLA and SLActive surface; primary osteoblast cell culture
4.  Use of Cone-Beam Computerized Tomography for Evaluation of Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaws in an Experimental Rat Model 
Background: Bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (BONJ) is a frequently reported complication. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and histopathological presentation of BONJ with the Hounsfield score and to evaluate the reliability of the score for determining necrosis in an animal model.
Material/Methods: Eighty rats were prospectively and randomly divided into two groups of 40 each: a control group and an experimental group. Half of the animals from each group underwent extraction of the left mandibular molars, and the other half underwent extraction of the left maxillary molars under pentobarbital-induced general anesthesia. All animals were euthanized 28 days after tooth extraction. Maxillae and mandibles were extracted, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed, and Hounsfield scores were evaluated.
Results: The Hounsfield scores of the experimental group were found to be compatible with chronic osteomyelitis and periosteal reactions. The Hounsfield scores of the control group were compatible with a healthy healing period.
Conclusion: In light of these results, both cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and the Hounsfield Units (HU) evaluations together are thought to be efficient in the diagnosis of BONJ.
PMCID: PMC3204436  PMID: 22135613
Bisphosphonate; Osteonecrosis; Jaws; Hounsfield unit

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