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author:("Karim, rosana")
1.  The Association of Self-perception of Body Fat Changes and Quality of Life in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study 
AIDS care  2013;25(12):10.1080/09540121.2013.793265.
Body fat changes are of concern to HIV-seropositive adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Studies examining the association of body fat changes and quality of life (QOL) in the setting of HIV infection have been conducted predominately in men. We examined the relationship of self-perceived body fat change with QOL among 1,671 HAART-using HIV-seropositive women (mean age 40 ± 8 years; 54% African American, 24% reporting ≤ 95% HAART adherence) from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Self-perception of any fat loss was associated with lower overall QOL. Report of any peripheral fat loss was strongly associated with nearly all QOL domains (i.e., physical functioning, role functioning, energy/fatigue, social functioning, pain, emotional well-being, health perception, and perceived health index) except cognitive functioning, whereas report of any central fat loss was significantly associated with lower social and cognitive functioning. Report of any central fat gain was associated with lower overall QOL, but only physical functioning, energy/fatigue, and cognitive functioning were significantly affected. A significant association of report of any peripheral fat gain with overall QOL was not observed, however peripheral fat gain was significantly associated with lower physical functioning and pain. We found that any report of fat loss, especially in peripheral body sites is associated with lower QOL, as was any report of central fat gain. Ultimately health providers and patients need to be informed of these associations so as to better support HIV-seropositive women who live with these effects.
PMCID: PMC3769511  PMID: 23656440
body image perception; lipoatrophy; lipohypertrophy; Quality of life; HIV-seropositive women; HAART
2.  Association of HIV clinical disease progression with profiles of early immune activation: results from a cluster analysis approach 
AIDS (London, England)  2013;27(9):1473-1481.
CD4 and CD8 T-cell activation are independent predictors of AIDS. The complete activation profile of both T-cell subtypes and their predictive value for AIDS risk is largely unknown.
A total of 564 AIDS-free women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study were followed over 6.1 years (median) after T-cell activation assessment. A cluster analysis approach was used to evaluate the concurrent activation patterns of CD4 and CD8 T cells at the beginning of follow-up in relation to AIDS progression.
Percentages of CD4 and CD8 T cells with HLA-DR± and CD38± were assessed by flowcytometry. Eight immunologic variables (four on each CD4+ and CD8+: DR± and CD38±) were assessed to yield a 4-cluster solution on samples obtained before clinical endpoints. Proportional hazards survival regression estimated relative risks for AIDS progression by cluster membership.
Compared with the other three clusters, outstanding activation features of each distinct cluster of women were: Cluster 1: higher CD8+CD38– DR– (average = 41% of total CD8 T-cell pool), CD4+CD38– DR– (average = 53% of total CD4 T-cell pool), and CD8+CD38– DR+ (28%); Cluster 2: higher CD8+CD38+DR– (44%) and CD4+CD38+DR– (58%); Cluster 3: higher CD8+CD38+DR+ (49%) and CD4+ CD38+DR– (48%); Cluster 4: higher CD8+CD38+DR+ (49%), CD4+CD38+DR+ (36%) and CD4+CD38– DR+ (19%). Compared with cluster 1, women in cluster 4 had two-fold increased risk of AIDS progression (Hazard ratio = 2.13; 95% confidence interval = 1.30–3.50) adjusted for CD4 cell count, HIV RNA, and other confounders.
A profile including CD4 and CD8 T-cell activation provided insight into HIV pathogenesis indicating concurrent hyperactivation of CD4 and CD8 T cells is associated with AIDS progression.
PMCID: PMC3949252  PMID: 23945505
AIDS; cluster analysis; immune activation
3.  Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy and its adherence on herpes zoster incidence: a longitudinal cohort study 
Herpes zoster (HZ) is common among HIV-infected individuals, but the impacts of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and HAART adherence on HZ risk have not been well studied.
The effects of HAART and HAART adherence on HZ incidence were evaluated by comparing HIV-infected women on HAART (HAART use group) with the HIV-infected women remaining HAART naïve (HAART naïve group) in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). A 1:1 matching with propensity score for predicting HAART initiation was conducted to balance background covariates at index visit, including HIV disease stage. Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare the risk of HZ development between the matched pairs. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the effects of HAART and HAART adherence on HZ incidence.
Through propensity score matching, 389 pairs of participants were identified and they contributed 3,909 person years after matching. The background covariates were similar between the matched pairs at the index visit. The participants had a mean age around 39 years old, and about 61% of them were Black and 22% were Latina. No significant difference in HZ risk was observed between the HAART use group and the HAART naïve group during the first year of follow-up in any analyses. In the univariate analysis, the HAART use group had marginally lower HZ risk (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.72; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.48-1.1) over the entire follow-up period. However, women with a HAART adherence level of ≥95% had significantly lower HZ risk (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.94) compared to the HAART naïve women. The association remained significant after adjusting for quality of life score and acyclovir use, but it attenuated and was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for an intermediate variable, either CD4+ T cell counts or HIV viral load.
Among adult women, we observed a significant preventive effect of long-term HAART use on HZ incidence when a HAART adherence level of ≥95% was attained, and this effect was mediated through reduction of HIV viral load and improvement of CD4+ T cell counts.
PMCID: PMC3904465  PMID: 24373482
HAART; Adherence; Herpes zoster; Incidence; Propensity score
4.  Association of HIV infection with Incident Diabetes Mellitus: Impact of using Hemoglobin A1C as a Criterion for Diabetes 
Data regarding the association between HIV and DM are conflicting, with little known regarding the impact of including hemoglobin A1C (A1C) as a criterion for DM.
Pooled logistic regression was used to quantify the association between HIV and DM in 1501 HIV-infected and 550 HIV-uninfected participants from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Incident DM was defined using three DM definitions: (I) fasting glucose (FG) ≥126mg/dl, anti-DM medication, or reporting DM diagnosis (with confirmation by FG≥126mg/dl or anti-DM medication); (II) confirmation with a second FG≥126mg/dl; and (III) addition of A1C≥6.5% confirmed by FG≥126mg/dl or anti-DM medication.
DM incidence per 100 person-years was 2.44, 1.55, and 1.70 for HIV-infected women; 1.89, 0.85, and 1.13 for HIV-uninfected women, using definition I, II, and III, respectively. After adjustment for traditional DM risk factors, HIV infection was associated with 1.23, 1.90, and 1.38-fold higher risk of incident DM, respectively; the association reached statistical significance only when confirmation with a second FG≥126mg/dl was required. Older age, obesity, and a family history of DM were each consistently and strongly associated with increased DM risk.
HIV infection is consistently associated with greater risk of DM. Inclusion of an elevated A1C to define DM increases the accuracy of the diagnosis and only slightly attenuates the magnitude of the association otherwise observed between HIV and DM. By contrast, a DM diagnosis made without any confirmatory criteria for FG ≥126mg/dl overestimates the incidence, while also underestimating the effects of HIV on DM risk, and should be avoided.
PMCID: PMC3480977  PMID: 22878421
Diabetes mellitus; HIV; Women; Hemoglobin A1C
5.  Circulating Vitamin D Correlates with Serum Anti-Mullerian Hormone Levels in Late Reproductive-Aged Women: Women’s Interagency HIV Study 
Fertility and Sterility  2012;98(1):228-234.
To study the correlation between circulating 25 hydroxy-vitamin D (25OH-D) levels and serum AMH in women enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS).
A cross-sectional study.
WIHS, a multicenter prospective study.
All premenopausal women (n=388) with regular menstrual cycles were included and subdivided into three groups: group 1 with age <35 (N=128), group 2 with age 35 to 39 (N=119), and group 3 with age ≥ 40 (N=141).
Serum for 25OH-D, AMH, fasting glucose and insulin, and creatinine levels.
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Correlation between 25OH-D and AMH before and after adjusting for HIV status, BMI, race, smoking, illicit drug use, glucose and insulin levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate and geographic site of participation.
After adjusting for all covariates, the regression slope in all participants for total 25OH-D predicting log10AMH for 25-year-olds (youngest participant) was −0.001 (SE=0.008, p=0.847); and for 45-year-olds (oldest participant), the corresponding slope was +0.011 (SE=0.005, p=0.021). Fasting insulin level was negatively correlated with serum AMH (p=0.016). The regression slope for the correlation between 25OH-D and AMH in group 1 was +0.002 (SE=0.006, p=0.764); in group 2 was +0.006 (SE=0.005, p=0.269); and in group 3 was +0.011 (SE=0.005, p=0.022). There was no association between HIV and AMH.
A novel relationship is reported between circulating 25OH-D and AMH in women aged = 40 suggesting that 25OH-D deficiency might be associated with lower ovarian reserve in late reproductive-aged women.
PMCID: PMC3389125  PMID: 22494925
Vitamin D; anti-mullerian hormonem mullerian inhibiting substance; HIV; ovarian reserve; insulin resistance; obesity
6.  Hip fracture in postmenopausal women after cessation of hormone therapy: results from a prospective study in a large health management organization 
Menopause (New York, N.Y.)  2011;18(11):1172-1177.
Millions of women in the United States and across the globe abruptly discontinued postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) after the initial Women’s Health Initiative trial publication. Few data describing the effects of HT cessation on hip fracture incidence in the general population are available. We evaluated the impact of HT cessation on hip fracture incidence in a large cohort from the Southern California Kaiser Permanente health management organization.
In this longitudinal observational study, 80,955 postmenopausal women using HT as of July 2002 were followed up through December 2008. Data on HT use after July 2002, antiosteoporotic medication use, and occurrence of hip fracture were collected from the electronic medical record system. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed in 54,209 women once during the study period using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan.
After 6.5 years of follow-up, age- and race-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models showed that women who discontinued HT were at 55% greater risk of hip fracture compared with those who continued using HT (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.36–1.77). Hip fracture risk increased as early as 2 years after cessation of HT (hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.26–1.84), and the risk incrementally increased with longer duration of cessation (P for trend < 0.0001). Longer duration of HT cessation was linearly correlated with lower BMD (β estimate [SE]) = −0.13 [0.003] T-score SD unit per year of HT cessation; P < 0.0001).
Women who discontinued postmenopausal HT had significantly increased risk of hip fracture and lower BMD compared with women who continued taking HT. The protective association of HT with hip fracture disappeared within 2 years of cessation of HT. These results have public health implications with regard to morbidity and mortality from hip fracture.
PMCID: PMC3511047  PMID: 21775911
Hormone therapy; Hip fracture; Bone mineral density; Women’s Health Initiative
7.  Hepatitis C Virus Quasispecies in HIV-Infected Women: Role of Injecting Drug Use and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) 
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)  2007;46(2):359-370.
Despite the high frequency of HCV and HIV coinfection, little is known about HCV quasispecies in HIV-positive patients. The current analysis included 236 HIV+/anti-HCV+ women enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Hypervariable region 1 of the second envelope gene was analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). The relationship between the HCV quasispecies and clinical and demographic features were analyzed in multivariate models. Age over 40 years and high HCV RNA load were the only factors significantly associated with quasispecies complexity, assessed as the number of SSCP bands. High HIV and HCV plasma loads were associated with quasispecies stability over time, as reflected by stable SSCP band patterns. However, women who were actively injecting drugs were 3 times more likely to experience quasispecies changes than their noninjecting counterparts. No affect on HCV quasi-species dynamics was noted in relation to CD4 count or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Conclusion: among HIV/HCV coinfected patients, HCV quasispecies complexity and dynamics correlate more closely with HIV and HCV plasma loads than with CD4+ cell counts. Active drug use is associated with quasispecies changes probably due to repeated superinfections with new HCV strains. This needs to be considered when planning treatment and prevention strategies for HCV in coinfected individuals.
PMCID: PMC3508063  PMID: 17659581
8.  Relative time to pregnancy among HIV-infected and uninfected women in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study, 2002–2009 
AIDS (London, England)  2011;25(5):707-711.
To determine the incidence rate of, and the relative time to pregnancy by HIV status in US women between 2002 and 2009.
The Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) is an ongoing, multicenter prospective cohort study of the natural and treated history of HIV infection and related outcomes among women with and without HIV.
Eligible participants were ≤45 years of age; sexually active with male partner(s) or reported a pregnancy outcome within the past year; and never reported hysterectomy, tubal ligation, or oopherectomy. Poisson regression was conducted to compare pregnancy incidence rates over time by HIV status. Relative time to pregnancy was ascertained via Kaplan-Meier plots and generalized gamma survival analysis.
Adjusting for age, number of male sex partners, contraception, parity, exchanging sex, and alcohol use, HIV infection was associated with a 40% reduction in the incidence rate of pregnancy (incidence rate ratio=0.60, 95% confidence interval: [C.I.] 0.46–0.78). The time for HIV-infected women to become pregnant was 73% longer relative to HIV-uninfected women (relative time=1.73, 95% C.I.: 1.35–2.36). In addition to HIV infection, decreased parity and older age were independent predictors of lower pregnancy incidence.
Despite the beneficial effects of modern antiretroviral therapy on survival and prevention of maternal-to-child transmission, our findings suggest that pregnancy incidence remains lower among HIV-infected women. Whether this lower incidence is due to behavioral differences or reduced biologic fertility remains an area worthy of further study.
PMCID: PMC3496791  PMID: 21297418
women; HIV; pregnancy; time to pregnancy; parity
Antiviral therapy  2011;16(4):591-596.
We previously reported an increased risk of all-cause and AIDS mortality among HIV-infected women with albuminuria (proteinuria or microalbuminuria) enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) prior to the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
The current analysis includes 1,073 WIHS participants who subsequently initiated HAART. Urinalysis for proteinuria and semi-quantitative testing for microalbuminuria from two consecutive study visits prior to HAART initiation were categorized as follows: confirmed proteinuria (both specimens positive for protein), confirmed microalbuminuria (both specimens positive with at least one microalbuminuria), unconfirmed albuminuria (one specimen positive for proteinuria or microalbuminuria), or negative (both specimens negative). Time from HAART initiation to death was modeled using proportional hazards analysis.
Compared to the reference group of women with two negative specimens, the hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality was significantly elevated for women with confirmed microalbuminuria (HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.2–2.9). Confirmed microalbuminuria was also independently associated with AIDS death (HR 2.3; 95% CI 1.3–4.3), while women with confirmed proteinuria were at increased risk for non-AIDS death (HR 2.4; 95% CI 1.2–4.6).
In women initiating HAART, pre-existing microalbuminuria independently predicted increased AIDS mortality, while pre-existing proteinuria predicted increased risk of non-AIDS death. Urine testing may identify HIV-infected individuals at increased risk for mortality even after the initiation of HAART. Future studies should consider whether these widely available tests can identify individuals who would benefit from more aggressive management of HIV infection and comorbid conditions associated with mortality in this population.
PMCID: PMC3119869  PMID: 21685547
HIV; microalbuminuria; proteinuria; mortality; non-AIDS death
Prevalence of microalbuminuria is increased in patients with HIV. Microalbuminuria is associated with increased mortality in other populations, including diabetics, for whom microalbuminuria testing is standard of care. We investigated whether microalbuminuria is associated with mortality in HIV-infected women not receiving antiretroviral therapy.
Urinalysis for proteinuria and semi-quantitative testing for microalbuminuria were performed in specimens from two consecutive visits in 1,547 HIV-infected women enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study in 1994–1995. Time to death was modeled using proportional hazards analysis.
Compared to women without albuminuria, the hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality was increased in women with one (HR 3.4; 95% CI 2.2–5.2) or two specimens positive for either proteinuria or microalbuminuria (HR 3.9; 95% CI 2.1–7.0). The highest risk was observed in women with both specimens positive for proteinuria (HR 5.8; 95% CI 3.4–9.8). The association between albuminuria and all-cause mortality risk remained significant after adjustment for demographics, HIV disease severity, and related comorbidities. Similar results were obtained for AIDS death.
We identified a graded relationship between albuminuria and the risk of all-cause and AIDS mortality.
PMCID: PMC2888617  PMID: 20098331
HIV; microalbuminuria; proteinuria; mortality
12.  Associations between Markers of Inflammation and Physiological and Pharmacological Levels of Circulating Sex Hormones in Postmenopausal Women 
Menopause (New York, N.Y.)  2010;17(4):785-790.
Hormone therapy has been shown to reduce markers of vascular inflammation in postmenopausal women. C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of generalized inflammation, is raised by oral estradiol therapy. It is not known how sex hormone concentrations relate to the markers of inflammation in postmenopausal women taking or not taking hormone therapy.
This observational study includes postmenopausal women participating in the Estrogen in the Prevention of Atherosclerosis Trial (EPAT). Multiple measures of serum sex hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels from 107 postmenopausal women taking oral estradiol therapy (ET) and 109 taking placebo over 2 years were correlated with markers of inflammation over the same time period using generalized estimating equations.
Levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) were significantly inversely associated with estrone (p = 0.05), total and free estradiol (p = 0.008 and 0.02, respectively), and SHBG (p = 0.03) only among oral ET users. Serum homocysteine levels were also inversely associated with estrone (p = 0.0001), total and free estradiol (p = 0.0006 and 0.0009, respectively) in ET-treated women only. No such associations were observed among women taking placebo. C-reactive protein (CRP) was positively associated with estrogens and SHBG among women taking oral ET but inversely associated with SHBG among the placebo group.
The inverse associations of estrogens with sICAM-1, and homocysteine support an anti-inflammatory property of estrogen, which was only observed at pharmacologic levels in postmenopausal women. The positive associations between estrogens and CRP in the ET-treated women can be explained by the first-pass hepatic effect rather than a pro-inflammatory response.
PMCID: PMC2907167  PMID: 20632462
estrogen; androgen; CRP; sICAM; homocysteine
13.  Activation of CD8 T Cells Predicts Progression of HIV Infection in Women Coinfected with Hepatitis C Virus 
The Journal of infectious diseases  2010;201(6):823-834.
Because activation of T cells is associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis, CD4 and CD8 activation levels in patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) may explain conflicting reports regarding effects of HCV on HIV disease progression.
Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression models were used to study the risk of incident clinical AIDS and AIDS-related deaths among 813 HCV-negative women with HIV infection, 87 HCV-positive nonviremic women with HIV coinfection, and 407 HCV-positive viremic women with HIV coinfection (median follow-up time, 5.2 years). For 592 women, the percentages of activated CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing HLA-DR (DR) and/or CD38 were evaluated.
HCV-positive viremic women had a statistically significantly higher percentage of activated CD8 T cells (P < .001) and a statistically significantly higher incidence of AIDS compared with HCV-negative women (P < .001 [log-rank test]). The AIDS risk was greater among HCV-positive viremic women in the highest tertile compared with the lowest tertile (>43% vs <26%) of CD8+CD38+DR+ T cells (hazard ratio, 2.94 [95% confidence interval, 1.50–5.77]; P =.001). This difference was not observed in the HCV-negative women (hazard ratio, 1.87 [95% confidence interval, 0.80–4.35]; P =.16). In contrast, CD4 activation predicted AIDS in both groups similarly. Increased percentages of CD8+CD38−DR+, CD4+CD38−DR−, and CD8+CD38−DR− T cells were associated with a >60% decreased risk of AIDS for HCV-positive viremic women and HCV-negative women.
HCV-positive viremic women with HIV coinfection who have high levels of T cell activation may have increased risk of AIDS. Earlier treatment of HIV and HCV infection may be beneficial.
PMCID: PMC3105602  PMID: 20151840
14.  Variations in Serum Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Between White, Black and Hispanic Women 
Fertility and sterility  2008;92(5):1674-1678.
To compare serum mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) levels between white, black and Hispanic women to determine if ovarian aging occurs at a different time course for women of different racial groups.
Longitudinal study of serum MIS levels in women of different race/ethnicity over two different time points.
Women’s Interagency HIV Study, a multicenter prospective cohort study.
Serum samples obtained from 809 participants (122 white, 462 black and 225 Hispanic women).
Comparison of serum MIS between women of different race/ethnicity at two time points (median age 37.5 years and 43.3 years).
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Variation in MIS by race/ethnicity over time, controlling for age, BMI, HIV status and smoking.
Compared to white women, average MIS values were lower among black (25.2% lower, p=0.037) and Hispanic (24.6% lower, p=0.063) women, adjusting for age, BMI, smoking and HIV status.
There is an independent effect of race/ethnicity on the age-related decline in MIS over time.
PMCID: PMC3037722  PMID: 18930217
Mullerian inhibiting substance; antiMullerian hormone; ovarian reserve; race; ethnicity
15.  T Cell Activation and Senescence Predict Subclinical Carotid Artery Disease in HIV-Infected Women 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2011;203(4):452-463.
Background. Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased risk of cardiovascular events. It is unknown whether T cell activation and senescence, 2 immunologic sequelae of HIV infection, are associated with vascular disease among HIV-infected adults.
Methods. T cell phenotyping and carotid ultrasound were assessed among 115 HIV-infected women and 43 age- and race/ethnicity-matched HIV-uninfected controls participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of T cell activation (CD38+HLA-DR+) and senescence (CD28−CD57+) with subclinical carotid artery disease.
Results. Compared with HIV-uninfected women, frequencies of CD4+CD38+HLA-DR+, CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+, and CD8+CD28−CD57+ T cells were higher among HIV-infected women, including those who achieved viral suppression while receiving antiretroviral treatment. Among HIV-infected women, adjusted for age, antiretroviral medications, and viral load, higher frequencies of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and immunosenescent CD8+ T cells were associated with increased prevalence of carotid artery lesions (prevalence ratiolesions associated with activated CD4+ T cells, 1.6 per SD [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.1–2.2]; P = .02; prevalence ratiolesions associated with activated CD8+ T cells, 2.0 per SD [95% CI, 1.2–3.3]; P < .01; prevalence ratiolesions associated with senescent CD8+ T cells, 1.9 per SD [95% CI, 1.1–3.1]; P = .01).
Conclusions. HIV-associated T cell changes are associated with subclinical carotid artery abnormalities, which may be observed even among those patients achieving viral suppression with effective antiretroviral therapy.
PMCID: PMC3071219  PMID: 21220772
16.  Prevalence and Correlates of Elevated Body Mass Index among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study 
AIDS Patient Care and STDs  2009;23(12):1009-1016.
Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and the subsequent increased life expectancy in HIV-infected persons, non-HIV–related diseases have become an important cause of morbidity and mortality. This cross-sectional study reports the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and sociodemographic, psychological, and substance use-related risk factors for elevated body mass index (BMI) among 2157 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) in comparison to 730 HIV-seronegative (HIV−) participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Separate univariable and multivariate linear regression analyses were completed for HIV+ and HIV− women. Our study revealed a similar proportion of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30) among HIV+ (33%) and HIV− women (29%) (p = 0.12), as well as comparable median BMI (HIV+: 26.1 versus HIV−: 26.7, p = 0.16). HIV+ compared to HIV− women, respectively, were significantly (p < 0.01) older (median = 35.6 versus. 32.5), but similar (p = 0.97) by race/ethnicity (57% African American, 28% Hispanic, and 15% white for both). In multivariate models for both HIV+ and HIV− women, African American race/ethnicity was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with higher BMI, while higher quality of life score and illicit hard drug use were associated with lower BMI. Additionally, smoking, alcohol use, markers of advanced HIV infection (AIDS diagnosis, elevated HIV viral load, low CD4 count), and a history of antiretroviral therapy use (ART) were also associated with lower BMI among HIV+ women. In conclusion, risk factors for elevated BMI were similar for HIV+ and HIV− women in the WIHS. For HIV+ women, all markers of advanced HIV infection and ART use were additionally associated with lower BMI.
PMCID: PMC2832643  PMID: 19909168
17.  Correlates of Perinatal Depression in HIV-Infected Women 
AIDS Patient Care and STDs  2009;23(2):101-108.
Maternal perinatal depression (PND) may interfere with effective perinatal HIV care. In order to begin examining the prevalence and characteristics of PND in HIV-infected women, we analyzed data from the medical records of all HIV-infected women who had received perinatal care in the Maternal-Child and Adolescent Center for Infectious Diseases and Virology at LAC/USC Medical Center from 1997 through 2006. Data from 273 individual women (328 live births) were analyzed. Demographic, medical history, psychosocial, pregnancy-related, and HIV-related factors measured during the perinatal period were examined for an association with PND using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for the within-subject correlation due to multiple births per mother. The overall prevalence of PND was 30.8%. Multivariate analysis showed that PND was significantly associated with substance abuse during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] = 2.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35–5.82) and past history of psychiatric illness (OR = 3.72, 95% CI: 2.06–6.71). Compared to mothers with CD4 nadir greater than 500 cells/mm3, mothers with a CD4 nadir during pregnancy ≤200 cells/mm3 were 3.1 times more likely to experience PND (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.32–6.88). Women who had antiretroviral (ARV) medications adherence problems during pregnancy were more likely to experience PND than women who were adherent (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.08–4.23). These preliminary results suggest that rates of PND among HIV-infected women are substantial. We conclude that pregnant HIV-infected women should be routinely screened for PND. Prospective studies examining the bio-psycho-social markers of PND in HIV-infected women are indicated.
PMCID: PMC2856494  PMID: 19196032
18.  Relation of Framingham Risk Score to Subclinical Atherosclerosis Evaluated Across Three Arterial Sites 
The American journal of cardiology  2008;102(7):825-830.
The Framingham risk score (FRS) is widely used in clinical practice to identify subjects at high risk for developing coronary heart disease (CHD). However, FRS may not accurately identify subjects at risk. We measured subclinical atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries and aorta with the presence of calcium (CAC and AC, respectively) and in the common carotid artery by intima-media thickness (CIMT) in 498 healthy subjects. The distribution of these subclinical atherosclerosis measures was evaluated across 3 strata of the FRS. CAC, AC and CIMT were significantly independently associated with FRS. The FRS increased with the number of arterial sites with atherosclerosis. Sixty-nine percent of the subjects categorized in the low risk group (FRS<10%), 95% of the intermediate risk group (FRS 10–20%), and 100% of the high risk group (FRS>20%) had 1 or more vascular imaging studies demonstrating subclinical atherosclerosis. Among the low risk group, subjects with atherosclerosis had a longer history of lifetime smoking compared to those without atherosclerosis. In conclusion, subclinical atherosclerosis is prominent across the spectrum of FRS. Evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis in different arterial sites in addition to FRS may be useful in targeting subjects for lifestyle and other interventions.
PMCID: PMC2648859  PMID: 18805105
Subclinical atherosclerosis; Framingham risk score; Carotid IMT; Coronary artery calcium; Aortic calcium

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