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1.  Confirmation of Putative HIV-1 Group P in Cameroon▿  
Journal of Virology  2010;85(3):1403-1407.
We report the second human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) belonging to the new HIV type 1 (HIV-1) group P lineage that is closely related to the simian immunodeficiency virus found in gorillas. This virus was identified in an HIV-seropositive male hospital patient in Cameroon, confirming that the group P virus is circulating in humans. Results from screening 1,736 HIV-seropositive specimens collected in Cameroon indicate that HIV-1 group P infections are rare, accounting for only 0.06% of HIV infections. Despite its rarity, group P shows evidence of adaptation to humans.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02005-10
PMCID: PMC3020498  PMID: 21084486
2.  Performance of the Celera Diagnostics ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System for Sequence-Based Analysis of Diverse Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Strains 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(6):2711-2717.
The Celera Diagnostics ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System is a Food and Drug Administration-cleared, integrated system for sequence-based analysis of drug resistance mutations in subtype B human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease and reverse transcriptase (RT). We evaluated the performance of this system for the analysis of diverse HIV-1 strains. Plasma samples were obtained from 126 individuals from Uganda, Cameroon, South Africa, Argentina, Brazil, and Thailand with viral loads ranging from 2.92 to >6.0 log10 copies/ml. HIV-1 genotyping was performed with the ViroSeq system. HIV-1 subtyping was performed by using phylogenetic methods. PCR products suitable for sequencing were obtained for 125 (99%) of the 126 samples. Genotypes including protease (amino acids 1 to 99) and RT (amino acids 1 to 321) were obtained for 124 (98%) of the samples. Full bidirectional sequence data were obtained for 95 of those samples. The sequences were categorized into the following subtypes: A1/A2 (16 samples), B (12 samples), C (13 samples), D (11 samples), CRF01_AE (9 samples), F/F2 (9 samples), G (7 samples), CRF02_AG (32 samples), H (1 sample), and intersubtype recombinant (14 samples). The performances of the individual sequencing primers were examined. Genotyping of duplicate samples in a second laboratory was successful for 124 of the 126 samples. The identity level for the sequence data from two laboratories ranged from 98 to 100% (median, 99.8%). The ViroSeq system performs well for the analysis of plasma samples with diverse non-B subtypes. The availability of this genotyping system should facilitate studies of HIV-1 drug resistance in non-subtype B strains of HIV-1.
doi:10.1128/JCM.42.6.2711-2717.2004
PMCID: PMC427844  PMID: 15184457
3.  Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Intergroup (M/O) Recombination in Cameroon 
Journal of Virology  1999;73(8):6810-6820.
Here we describe, for the first time, recombinants between two highly divergent major groups of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), M and O, within a Cameroonian woman infected with three different HIV-1 strains, a group O virus, a subtype D virus, and a recently reported IBNG (A/G)-like recombinant virus. Using nested extra-long PCR amplification, we sequenced from the pol region to the env region including accessory genes of the viral genome obtained from the patient’s uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells and examined the phylogenetic position of each gene. Compared with sequential blood samples obtained in 1995 and 1996, there were multiple segmental exchanges between three HIV-1 strains (O, D, and IBNG) and all the recombinants appeared to be derived from a common M/O ancestor. Importantly, recombination between groups M and O occurred, even though the homology between these two groups is 69, 76, 68, and 55% in the gag, pol, vif-vpr, and env regions, respectively. Recombination between strains with such distant lineages may contribute substantially to generating new HIV-1 variants.
PMCID: PMC112766  PMID: 10400779

Results 1-3 (3)