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1.  Economic evaluation of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C in Thailand: genotype 1 and 6 
BMC Gastroenterology  2016;16:91.
Background
Pegylated interferon alpha 2a, alpha 2b and ribavirin have been included to the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM) for treatment of only chronic hepatitis C genotypes 2 and 3 in Thailand. This reimbursement policy has not covered for other genotypes of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) especially for genotypes 1 and 6 that account for 30-50 % of all HCV infection in Thailand. Therefore, this research determined whether pegylated interferon alpha 2a or alpha 2b plus ribavirin is more cost-effective than a palliative care for treatment of HCV genotype 1 and 6 in Thailand.
Methods
A cost-utility analysis using a model-based economic evaluation was conducted based on a societal perspective. A Markov model was developed to estimate costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) comparing between the combination of pegylated interferon alpha 2a or alpha 2b and ribavirin with a usual palliative care for genotype 1 and 6 HCV patients. Health-state transition probabilities, virological responses, and utility values were obtained from published literatures. Direct medical and direct non-medical costs were included and retrieved from published articles and Thai Standard Cost List for Health Technology Assessment. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was presented as costs in Thai baht per QALY gained.
Results
HCV treatment with pegylated interferon alpha 2a or alpha 2b plus ribavirin was dominant or cost-saving in Thailand compared to a palliative care. The ICER value was negative with lower in total costs (peg 2a- 747,718vs. peg 2b- 819,921 vs. palliative care- 1,169,121 Thai baht) and more in QALYs (peg 2a- 13.44 vs. peg 2b- 13.14 vs. palliative care- 11.63 years) both in HCV genotypes 1 and 6.
Conclusion
As cost-saving results, the Subcommittee for Development of the NLEM decided to include both pegylated interferon alpha 2a and alpha 2b into the NLEM for treatment of HCV genotype 1 and 6 recently. Economic evaluation for these current drugs can be further applied to other novel medications for HCV treatment.
doi:10.1186/s12876-016-0506-4
PMCID: PMC4974770  PMID: 27492396
Chronic hepatitis C; Economic evaluation; Pegylated interferon; Ribavirin
2.  Pharmacist perceptions of new competency standards 
Pharmacy Practice  2008;6(3):113-120.
Objective
To suggest revisions to the Thai pharmacy competency standards and determine the perceptions of Thai pharmacy practitioners and faculty about the proposed pharmacy competency standards.
Methods
The current competency standards were revised by brainstorming session with nine Thai pharmacy experts according to their perceptions of society’s pharmacy needs. The revised standards were proposed and validated by 574 pharmacy practitioners and faculty members by using a written questionnaire. The respondents were classified based on their practice setting.
Results
The revision of pharmacy competency standard proposed the integration and addition to current competencies. Of 830 distributed questionnaires, 574 completed questionnaires were received (69.2% response rate). The proposed new competency standards contained 7 domains and 46 competencies. The majority of the respondents were supportive of all 46 proposed competencies. The highest ranked domain was Domain 1 (Practice Pharmacy within Laws, Professional Standards, and Ethics). The second and third highest expectations of pharmacy graduates were Domain 4 (Provide pharmaceutical care) and Domain 3 (Communicate and disseminate knowledge effectively).
Conclusion
The expectation for pharmacy graduates’ competencies were high and respondents encouraged additional growth in multidisciplinary efforts to improve patient care.
PMCID: PMC4148409  PMID: 25177401
Professional Competence; Pharmacists; Education; Pharmacy; Thailand
3.  Evaluation of Curricula Content Based on Thai Pharmacy Competency Standards 
Objective
To evaluate the curricula content of Thai pharmacy schools based on the Thai pharmacy competency standards.
Methods
Course syllabi were collected from 11 pharmacy schools. A questionnaire was developed based on the Thai pharmacy competency standards. Course coordinators completed the questionnaire assessing the curricula content.
Results
The curricula for both the bachelor of science in pharmacy degree (BS Pharm) and doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree programs included the minimum content required by the 8 competency domains. The dominant content area in BS Pharm degree programs was product-oriented material. The content ratio of patient to product to social and administrative pharmacy in the BS Pharm degree programs was 2:3:1, respectively. However, the content ratio suggested by the Thai Pharmacy Council was 3:2:1, respectively. For the PharmD programs, the largest content area was patient-oriented material, which was in agreement with the framework suggested by the Thai Pharmacy Council.
Conclusions
The curricula of all Thai pharmacy schools met the competency standards; however, some patient-oriented material should be expanded and some product-oriented content deleted in order to meet the recommended content ratio.
PMCID: PMC2254234  PMID: 18322571
pharmacy education; curriculum; competency; evaluation; Thailand

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