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1.  Extradural Dermoid Cyst Located in the Lateral Sphenoid Ridge 
Dermoid cysts are rare congenital tumors that occur primarily at the midline at a characteristic intradural location. However, dermoid cysts located at extradural and lateral regions have been rarely reported until now. In the present study, the authors demonstrate the unusual instance of an intracranial extradural dermoid cyst at the lateral sphenoid ridge. A 53-year-old woman admitted because of progressive headache and dizziness. The patient had no neurologic deficits, and magnetic resonance imaging with no contrast enhancement revealed a mass at the right sphenoid ridge. The mass was accompanied with sphenoid bone erosion visible on computed tomography. The patient underwent right pterional craniotomy, and the tumor including the capsule was totally resected. Presence of a dermoid cyst was confirmed with histopathological examination. The patient had no complications during the postoperative period. This study suggests that dermoid cyst should be considered for differential diagnosis of extradural and lateral intracranial masses.
PMCID: PMC4049558  PMID: 24926471
Dermoid cyst; Extradura; Bone erosion; Brain mass
2.  Isolated Lateral Sinus Thrombosis Presenting as Cerebellar Infarction in a Patient with Iron Deficiency Anemia 
As a rare cerebrovascular disease, cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is caused by various conditions including trauma, infection, oral contraceptive, cancer and hematologic disorders. However, iron deficiency anemia is not a common cause for CVT in adult. Posterior fossa infarction following CVT is not well demonstrated because posterior fossa has abundant collateral vessels. Here, we report a case of a 55-year-old man who was admitted with complaints of headache, nausea, and mild dizziness. The patient was diagnosed with isolated lateral sinus thrombosis presenting as cerebellar infarction. Laboratory findings revealed normocytic normochromic anemia due to iron deficiency, and the patient's symptoms were improved after iron supplementation.
PMCID: PMC3772287  PMID: 24044081
Cerebellar infarction; Lateral sinus; Thrombosis; Iron deficiency anemia
3.  Ruptured Saccular Aneurysm Arising from Fenestrated Proximal Anterior Cerebral Artery : Case Report and Literature Review 
The aneurysm arising from fenestrated proximal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is considered to be unique. The authors report a case of a 59-year-old woman who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) secondary to a ruptured aneurysm originating from the fenestrated A1 segment of right ACA. The patient had another unruptured aneurysm which was located at the right middle cerebral artery bifurcation. She was successfully treated with surgical clipping for both aneurysms. From the previously existing literatures, we found 18 more cases (1983-2011) of aneurysms associated with fenestrated A1 segment. All cases represented saccular type of aneurysms, and 79% of the patients had SAH. There were three subtypes of the fenestrated A1 aneurysms depending on the anatomical location, relative to the fenestrated segment. The most common type was the aneurysms located on the proximal end of fenestrated artery (82%). Azygos ACA and hypoplastic A1 were frequently accompanied by the aneurysm (33% and 31%, respectively), and multiple aneurysms were shown in three cases (16%). Considering that fenestrated A1 segment is likely to develop an aneurysm, which has high risk of rupture, early management may benefit patients with aneurysms accompanied by fenestrated proximal ACA.
PMCID: PMC3730031  PMID: 23908703
Anterior cerebral artery; Cerebral aneurysm; Fenestration
4.  Customized Cranioplasty Implants Using Three-Dimensional Printers and Polymethyl-Methacrylate Casting 
The prefabrication of customized cranioplastic implants has been introduced to overcome the difficulties of intra-operative implant molding. The authors present a new technique, which consists of the prefabrication of implant molds using three-dimensional (3D) printers and polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) casting.
A total of 16 patients with large skull defects (>100 cm2) underwent cranioplasty between November 2009 and April 2011. For unilateral cranial defects, 3D images of the skull were obtained from preoperative axial 1-mm spiral computed tomography (CT) scans. The image of the implant was generated by a digital subtraction mirror-imaging process using the normal side of the cranium as a model. For bilateral cranial defects, precraniectomy routine spiral CT scan data were merged with postcraniectomy 3D CT images following a smoothing process. Prefabrication of the mold was performed by the 3D printer. Intraoperatively, the PMMA implant was created with the prefabricated mold, and fit into the cranial defect.
The median operation time was 184.36±26.07 minutes. Postoperative CT scans showed excellent restoration of the symmetrical contours and curvature of the cranium in all cases. The median follow-up period was 23 months (range, 14-28 months). Postoperative infection was developed in one case (6.2%) who had an open wound defect previously.
Customized cranioplasty PMMA implants using 3D printer may be a useful technique for the reconstruction of various cranial defects.
PMCID: PMC3550422  PMID: 23346326
Decompressive craniectomy; Reconstructive surgical procedure; Computer-aided design; Polymethyl-methacrylate
5.  Undetermined Fibrous Tumor with Calcification in the Cerebellopontine Angle 
In this report, we introduce an undetermined fibrous tumor with calcification occurring in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). A 51-year-old woman was admitted with a short history of dizziness. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images revealed a 2×2×2 cm sized mass at the left CPA which was round and calcified. There was no dura or internal auditory canal involvement. At surgery, the tumor was located at the exit of 7th and 8th cranial nerve complex. It was very firm, bright yellow and well encapsulated. Histologic findings revealed that the tumor was predominantly composed of fibrous component, scant spindle cells and dystrophic calcification. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated positive for vimentin and negative for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), S-100 protein, CD34, factor XIIIa and smooth muscle actin. The diagnosis was not compatible with meningioma, schwannoma, metastatic brain tumors, and other fibrous tumors. Although the tumor was resected in total, long term follow-up monitoring is necessary due to the possibility of recurrence.
PMCID: PMC2941864  PMID: 20856670
Calcification; Cerebellopontine angle; Immunohistochemistry; Tumor
6.  Anatomical Consideration of the Anterior and Lateral Cutaneous Nerves in the Scalp 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(4):517-522.
To better understand the anatomic location of scalp nerves involved in various neurosurgical procedures, including awake surgery and neuropathic pain control, a total of 30 anterolateral scalp cutaneous nerves were examined in Korean adult cadavers. The dissection was performed from the distal to the proximal aspects of the nerve. Considering the external bony landmarks, each reference point was defined for all measurements. The supraorbital nerve arose from the supraorbital notch or supraorbital foramen 29 mm lateral to the midline (range, 25-33 mm) and 5 mm below the supraorbital upper margin (range, 4-6 mm). The supratrochlear nerve exited from the orbital rim 16 mm lateral to the midline (range, 12-21 mm) and 7 mm below the supraorbital upper margin (range, 6-9 mm). The zygomaticotemporal nerve pierced the deep temporalis fascia 10 mm posterior to the frontozygomatic suture (range, 7-13 mm) and 22 mm above the upper margin of the zygomatic arch (range, 15-27 mm). In addition, three types of zygomaticotemporal nerve branches were found. Considering the superficial temporal artery, the auriculotemporal nerve was mostly located superficial or posterior to the artery (80%). There were no significant differences between the right and left sides or based on gender (P>0.05). These data can be applied to many neurosurgical diagnostic or therapeutic procedures related to anterolateral scalp cutaneous nerve.
PMCID: PMC2844612  PMID: 20357990
Anatomy; Auriculotemporal Nerve; Supraorbital Nerve; Supratrochlear Nerve; Zygomaticotemporal Nerve
7.  Rapid Progression of Early Delayed Radiation Effect in Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma 
Early delayed radiation effects are known to occur within several months after completing radiotherapy for brain tumors. We present marked changes of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan that occurred one month after radiotherapy in a patient with a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, which was eventually diagnosed as an early delayed radiation effect. Such an early development of dramatic MRI change has not been reported in patients treated with radiotherapy for pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas.
PMCID: PMC2803273  PMID: 20062573
Blood brain barrier; Delayed radiation effect; Low grade glioma; Magnetic resonance imaging; Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma; Radiation therapy
8.  Glioma Mimicking a Hypertensive Intracerebral Hemorrhage 
Here, we report a rare case of an anaplastic astrocytoma masquerading as a hypertensive basal ganglia hemorrhage. A 69-year-old woman who had been under medical management for hypertension during the past 3 years suddenly developed right hemiparesis with dysarthria. Brain computed tomography (CT) scans with contrast and CT angiograms revealed an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the left basal ganglia, without an underlying lesion. She was treated conservatively, but underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation 3 months after the initial attack due to deteriorated mental status and chronic hydrocephalus. Three months later, her mental status deteriorated further. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium demonstrated an irregular enhanced mass in which the previous hemorrhage occurred. The final histological diagnosis which made by stereotactic biopsy was an anaplastic astrocytoma. In the present case, the diagnosis of a high grade glioma was delayed due to tumor bleeding mimicking hypertensive ICH. Thus, a careful review of neuroradiological images including MRI with a suspicion of tumor bleeding is needed even in the patients with past medical history of hypertension.
PMCID: PMC3809438  PMID: 24175027
Basal ganglia; Intracerebral hemorrhage; Tumor bleeding; Brain tumor; Hypertension; Anaplastic astrocytoma
9.  Comparison of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers between idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced chronic hydrocephalus: A pilot study 
We examined the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) to investigate the pathophysiology and mechanism of communicating hydrocephalus compared to obstructive hydrocephalus.
We obtained CSF samples from 8 INPH, 10 SAH-induced hydrocephalus, and 6 unmatched patients with non-hemorrhagic obstructive hydrocephalus during their ventriculoperitoneal shunt operations. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and total tau in the CSF were analyzed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The mean VEGF levels in the CSF of patients with SAH-induced hydrocephalus, INPH, and obstructive hydrocephalus were 239±131, 239±75, and 163±122 pg/mL, respectively. The total tau concentrations in the CSF of the groups were 1139±1900, 325±325, and 1550±2886 pg/mL, respectively. TNF-α values were 114±34, 134±38, and 55±16 pg/mL, respectively. TGF-β1 values were 953±430, 869±447, and 136±63 pg/mL, respectively. A significant difference in TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels was observed only between SAH-induced and chronic obstructive hydrocephalus, and between INPH and chronic obstructive hydrocephalus (p<0.01).
No significant differences in the 4 CSF biomarker levels were observed between INPH and SAH-induced hydrocephalus, whereas CSF TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels were increased compared to those in patients with chronic obstructive hydrocephalus. Post-SAH hydrocephalus and INPH are probably more destructive to neural tissues, and then stimulate the inflammatory reaction and healing process, compared with obstructive hydrocephalus.
PMCID: PMC3560808  PMID: 23197244
cerebrospinal fluid; subarachnoid hemorrhage; normal pressure hydrocephalus; transforming growth factor-β1; tumor necrosis factor-α; vascular endothelial growth factor; total tau
10.  Angiographic Features and Clinical Outcomes of Intra-Arterial Nimodipine Injection in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Vasospasm 
The aim of this study was to determine the role of intra-arterial (IA) nimodipine injections for cerebral vasospasm secondary to ruptured subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to investigate the factors that influence vasodilation and clinical outcomes.
We enrolled 29 patients who underwent aneurysm clipping for ruptured cerebral aneurysms between 2009 and 2011, and who received IA nimodipine after subsequently presenting with symptomatic vasospasm. The degree of vasodilation shown in angiography was measured, and the correlation between the degree of vasodilation and both the interval from SAH to cerebral vasospasm and the interval from clipping to cerebral vasospasm was determined. The change in blood flow rate after IA injection was assessed by transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Multiple clinical parameters were completed before and after IA nimodipine injection to evaluate any improvements in clinical symptoms.
For eight patients, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores increased by two or more points. The regression analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between the change in GCS scores after IA nimodipine injection and the change in blood vessel diameter (p=0.025). A positive correlation was also observed between the interval from SAH to vasospasm and the change in diameter (p=0.040); and the interval from clipping to vasospasm and the change in diameter (p=0.022).
IA nimodipine injection for SAH-induced vasospasm led to significant vasodilation in angiography and improvement in clinical symptoms without significant complications. Our findings suggest that IA nimodipine injection should be utilized when intractable vasospasm develops despite rigorous conservative management.
PMCID: PMC3483315  PMID: 23115657
Cerebral angiograms; Intra-arterial injection; Nimodipine; Ruptured aneurysm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Vasospasm
11.  Increased Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Ventricular Cerebrospinal Fluid as a Predictive Marker for Subsequent Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Infection : A Comparison Study among Hydrocephalic Patients 
The aim of this study is to determine the association between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and inflammation, and the predictive value of these CSF biomarkers for subsequent shunt associated infection.
We obtained CSF samples from the patients with hydrocephalus during ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt operations. Twenty-two patients were enrolled for this study and divided into 3 groups: subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced hydrocephalus, idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) and hydrocephalus with a subsequent shunt infection. We analyzed the transforming growth factor-β1, tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and total tau in the CSF by performing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The subsequent development of shunt infection was confirmed by the clinical presentations, the CSF parameters and CSF culture from the shunt devices.
The mean VEGF concentration (±standard deviation) in the CSF of the SAH-induced hydrocephalus, INPH and shunt infection groups was 236±138, 237±80 and 627±391 pg/mL, respectively. There was a significant difference among the three groups (p=0.01). Between the SAH-induced hydrocephalus and infection groups and between the INPH and infection groups, there was a significant difference of the VEGF levels (p<0.01). However, the other marker levels did not differ among them.
The present study showed that only the CSF VEGF levels are associated with the subsequent development of shunt infection. Our results suggest that increased CSF VEGF could provide a good condition for bacteria that are introduced at the time of surgery to grow in the brain, rather than reflecting a sequel of bacterial infection before VP shunt.
PMCID: PMC3424171  PMID: 22949960
Cerebrospinal fluid; Shunt infection; Biomarkers; Vascular endothelial growth factor; Hydrocephalus
12.  Coil Embolization of a Ruptured Basilar Tip Aneurysm Associated with Bilateral Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion: A Case Report and Literature Review 
We report here on a rare case of a ruptured basilar tip aneurysm that was successfully treated with coil embolization in the bilateral cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusions with abnormal vascular networks from the posterior circulation. A 43-year old man with a familial history of moyamoya disease presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated complete occlusion of the bilateral ICAs at the proximal portion and a ruptured aneurysm at the basilar artery bifurcation. Each meningeal artery supplied the anterior cranial base, but most of both hemispheres were supplied with blood from the basilar artery and the posterior cerebral arteries through a large number of collateral vessels to the ICA bifurcation as well as the anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries. The perfusion computed tomography (CT) scans with acetazolamide (ACZ) injection revealed no reduction of cerebral blood flow and normal cerebrovascular reactivity to ACZ. An abdominal CT aortogram showed no other extracranial vessel abnormalities. A ruptured basilar tip aneurysm was successfully treated with coil embolization without complications. Endovascular embolization may be a good treatment option with excellent safety for a ruptured basilar tip aneurysm that accompanies proximal ICA occlusion with vulnerable collateral flow.
PMCID: PMC3471248  PMID: 23210029
Coil embolization; Bilateral proximal internal carotid artery occlusion; Basilar tip aneurysms; Ruptured; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Collateral circulation
13.  Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization for the Proximal Middle Cerebral Artery Fusiform Aneurysm 
Middle cerebral artery (MCA) fusiform aneurysms often have an unfavorable geometry that may limit surgical or endovascular treatment. Herein, we present a case of a fusiform aneurysm of the proximal MCA, which was successfully treated using stent-assisted coil embolization. A 42-year-old man presented with repeated headache and syncope. Five years earlier, a right MCA aneurysm had been treated by aneurismal wrapping. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) revealed a partially-thrombosed proximal MCA aneurysm at the right perisylvian region. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed a multilobulated fusiform-shaped aneurysm. The patient underwent stent-assisted coil embolization under general anesthesia and symptoms resolved postoperatively. A three-month follow-up angiography revealed no recanalization of the aneurysm and indicated tolerable blood flow through the right MCA, as compared to the preoperative angiography. We suggest that in selected patients, stent-assisted coil embolization of proximal MCA fusiform aneurysms can be an effective treatment modality.
PMCID: PMC2883067  PMID: 20539806
Middle cerebral artery; Fusiform aneurysm; Therapeutic embolization; Stent

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