Steroid-induced osteoporosis is the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis and accounts for one-fifth of all osteoporosis cases. The fracture incidence under steroid may be as high as 50%. However, many patients do not undergo appropriate risk assessment and treatment before and after steroid exposure. We described a 56-year-old male patient with multiple punched-out lesions in skull unusually as well as vertebral, fibular, rib and humeral fractures during steroid use without proper management.
Fracture; Punched-out lesions; Steroid-induced osteoporosis
The natural course of cytologically benign thyroid nodules remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ultrasonographic (US) changes are associated with changes in nodule volume during follow-up.
We retrospectively reviewed over 4 years of clinical records of patients with benign thyroid nodules as confirmed by fine needle aspiration (FNA). In total, 186 patients with 202 benign thyroid nodules were included for study. We assessed for changes in nodule volume and examined the cystic portion of the nodule as well as four US features (echogenicity, margin, calcification pattern, and shape).
During follow-up (mean, 21.7±10.7 months) and using 50% as a cutoff value, nodule volumes increased in 11.8%, exhibited no change in 79.9%, and decreased in 8.3% of patients. Proportion of nodules demonstrating at least one US change was 20.8% (42/202). The most common US changes (in descending order of frequency) were cystic change, margin change, and calcification pattern change. Nodule shape and echogenicity rarely changed. Increased nodule volume was not significantly associated with any US features or with the number of FNAs but was associated with younger age at time of diagnosis.
Although a portion of thyroid nodules confirmed as benign showed US changes or volume changes during the follow-up period, these findings may only represent the natural course of benign nodules. Frequent follow-up with US might be needed for only a small number of cases with suspicious US findings.
Thyroid nodule; Neoplasms; Ultrasonography; Growth; Tumor burden
This study investigated the efficacy and safety of monthly risedronate, with and without cholecalciferol, on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and bone markers in Korean patients with osteoporosis.
A randomized, double-blinded, prospective, 16-week clinical trial was conducted in ten hospitals. A total of 150 subjects with osteoporosis were randomized to one of the two treatment groups: RSDM+ (monthly risedronate 150 mg and cholecalciferol 30,000 IU combined in a single pill, n = 74) or RSDM (monthly risedronate 150 mg alone, n = 76). We measured serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and bone markers, as well as performing muscle-function tests at baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment.
After 16 weeks, serum 25(OH)D levels significantly increased from 17.8 to 26.8 ng/mL in the RSDM+ group, but did not change in the RSDM group. The RSDM+ group exhibited significantly decreased serum PTH from 46 to 36.7 pg/mL, while the RSDM group showed a tendency for PTH to increase from 38 to 40.6 pg/mL. In both groups, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and C-terminal telopeptide rapidly declined, with significance at 16 weeks; there were no significant differences between the groups.
A once-monthly pill of risedronate and cholecalciferol provided equivalent antiresorptive efficacy to risedronate alone in terms of bone turnover and improved 25(OH)D levels over the 16-week treatment period without significant adverse events in Korean patients with osteoporosis.
bisphosphonate; cholecalciferol; bone markers; 25(OH)D
This study was conducted to investigate the association of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) with both arterial stiffness and intima–media thickness (IMT).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 731 subjects with type 2 diabetes. DPN was diagnosed on the basis of neuropathic symptoms, insensitivity to a 10-g monofilament, abnormal pin-prick sensation, and abnormal current perception threshold. Arterial stiffness was assessed by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), and IMT was assessed by B-mode ultrasonography.
Patients with DPN had higher CAVI than those without DPN in multivariate-adjusted models, whereas no differences in IMT were observed between patients with and without DPN after adjustment for age and sex. In the multivariate analysis, CAVI was a significant determinant of DPN (odds ratio 1.36 [95% CI 1.13–1.65], P = 0.001).
DPN is significantly associated with arterial stiffness without carotid intimal changes in patients with type 2 diabetes.
There is controversy regarding definition of vitamin D inadequacy. We analyzed threshold 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) below which intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) increases, and examined age- and sex-specific changes of 25(OH)D and iPTH, and association of 25(OH)D and iPTH with bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly Koreans. Anthropometric parameters, serum 25(OH)D and iPTH, lumbar spine and femur BMD by dual-energy radiography absorptiometry (DXA) were measured in 441 men and 598 postmenopausal women. iPTH increased below serum 25(OH) of 36.7 ng/mL in men, but failed to reach plateau in women. Femur neck BMD above and below threshold differed when threshold 25(OH)D concentrations were set at 15-27.5 ng/mL in men, and 12.5-20 ng/mL in postmenopausal women. Vitamin D-inadequate individuals older than 75 yr had higher iPTH than those aged ≤ 65 yr. In winter, age-associated iPTH increase in women was steeper than in summer. In conclusion, vitamin D inadequacy threshold cannot be estimated based on iPTH alone, and but other factors concerning bone health should also be considered. Older people seemingly need higher 25(OH)D levels to offset age-associated hyperparathyroidism. Elderly vitamin D-inadequate women in the winter are most vulnerable to age-associated hyperparathyroidism.
Vitamin D; Intact Parathyroid Hormone; Bone Density; Age; Sex
The present study was designed to develop criteria for screening patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD).
A total of 213 patients with T2DM without typical angina or chest pain were studied between 2002 and 2007. We also evaluated 53 patients with T2DM who had reported chest discomfort using an exercise treadmill test (ETT).
Thirty-one of the 213 asymptomatic patients had positive ETT results. We performed coronary angiography on 23 of the 31 patients with a positive ETT and found that 11 of them had significant coronary stenosis. The main differences between the patients with significant stenosis and those with a negative ETT were age (63.1±9.4 vs. 53.7±10.1 years, P=0.008) and duration of diabetes (16.0±7.5 vs. 5.5±5.7 years, P<0.001). The positive predictive value (PPV) of the ETT was calculated to be 47.8%. The PPV of the ETT increased to 87.5% in elderly patients (≥60 years) with a long duration of diabetes (≥10 years). The latter value is similar to that of patients with T2DM who presented with chest discomfort or exertional dyspnea. The PPV of the ETT in symptomatic patients was 76.9%.
In the interest of cost-effectiveness, screening for asymptomatic CAD could be limited to elderly patients with a duration of diabetes ≥10 years.
Diabetes mellitus; Duration of diabetes; Exercise treadmill test; Silent myocardial ischemia
Currently, there is no consensus on the necessity of repeated radioiodine therapy (RAI) in patients who show iodine uptake in the thyroid bed on a diagnostic whole-body scan (DxWBS) despite undetectable thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after remnant ablation. The present study investigated the clinical outcomes of scan-positive, Tg-negative patients (WBS+Tg-) who did or did not receive additional RAI.
We retrospectively reviewed 389 differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy and received high-dose RAI from January 2003 through December 2005. The patients were classified according to surveillance DxWBS findings and TSH-stimulated Tg levels 6 to 12 months after the initial RAI.
Forty-four of the 389 patients (11.3%) showed thyroid bed uptake on a DxWBS despite negative Tg levels (WBS+Tg-). There was no difference in clinical and pathological parameters between WBS+Tg- and WBS-Tg- patients, except for an increased frequency of thyroiditis in the WBS+Tg- group. Among the 44 WBS+Tg- patients, 27 subjects were treated with additional RAI; 25 subjects showed no uptake in subsequent DxWBS. Two patients were evaluated only by ultrasonography (US) and displayed no persistent/recurrent disease. The other 17 patients received no further RAI; Eight patients and two patients showed no uptake and persistent uptake, respectively, on subsequent DxWBS. Six patients presented negative subsequent US findings, and one was lost to follow-up. Over the course of 53.2 ± 10.1 months, recurrence/persistence was suspicious in two patients in the treatment group.
There were no remarkable differences in clinical outcomes between observation and treatment groups of WBS+Tg- patients. Observation without repeated RAI may be an alternative management option for WBS+Tg- patients.
Iodine radioisotopes; Thyroglobulin; Thyroid neoplasms; Whole body scan
The transitional-CpG sites between weakly methylated genes and densely methylated retroelements are overmethylated in the gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and they are undermethylated in the gastric cancers depending on the level of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) events. This study delineated the transitional-CpG methylation patterns of CpG-island-containing and -lacking genes in view of the retroelements.
The transitional-CpG sites of eight CpG-island-containing genes and six CpG-island-lacking genes were semi-quantitatively examined by performing radioisotope-labelling methylation-specific PCR under stringent conditions. The level of LOH in the gastric cancers was estimated using the 40 microsatellite markers on eight cancer-associated chromosomes. Each gene was scored as overmethylated or undermethylated based on an intermediate level of transitional-CpG methylation common in the H. pylori-negative gastric mucosa.
The eight CpG-island genes examined were overmethylated depending on the proximity to the nearest retroelement in the H. pylori-positive gastric mucosa. The six CpG-island-lacking genes were similarly methylated in the H. pylori-positive and -negative gastric mucosa. In the gastric cancers, long transitional-CpG segments of the CpG-island genes distant from the retroelements remained overmethylated, whereas the overmethylation of short transitional-CpG segments close to the retroelements was not significant. Both the CpG-island-containing and -lacking genes tended to be decreasingly methylated in a LOH-level-dependent manner.
The overmethylated genes under the influence of retroelement methylation in the H. pylori-infected stomach are demethylated in the gastric cancers influenced by LOH.
Recent evidence suggests that gastric mucosal injury induces adaptive changes in DNA methylation. In this study, the methylation status of the key tissue-specific genes in normal gastric mucosa of healthy individuals and cancer patients was evaluated. The methylation-variable sites of 14 genes, including ulcer-healing genes (TFF1, TFF2, CDH1, and PPARG), were chosen from the CpG-island margins or non-island CpGs near the transcription start sites. The healthy individuals as well as the normal gastric mucosa of 23 ulcer, 21 non-invasive cancer, and 53 cancer patients were examined by semiquantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The ulcer-healing genes were concurrently methylated with other genes depending on the presence or absence of CpG-islands in the normal mucosa of healthy individuals. Both the TFF2 and PPARG genes were frequently undermethylated in ulcer patients. The over- or intermediate-methylated TFF2 and undermethylated PPARG genes was more common in stage-1 cancer patients (71%) than in healthy individuals (10%; odds ratio [OR], 21.9) and non-invasive cancer patients (21%; OR, 8.9). The TFF2-PPARG methylation pattern of cancer patients was stronger in the older-age group (≥55 yr; OR, 43.6). These results suggest that the combined methylation pattern of ulcer-healing genes serves as a sensitive marker for predicting cancer-prone gastric mucosa.
DNA Methylation; Stomach; Ulcer; Non-Invasive Cancer; Neoplasms
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common among patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Our aim was to investigate the frequency of chronic GI symptoms in Korean patients with NIDDM.
A cross-sectional survey, using a reliable and valid questionnaire, was performed in diabetes clinics from seven hospitals of the Catholic University of Korea.
A total of 608 patients (249 males and 359 females, mean age 53.7±10.9 years) were investigated. The frequencies of weekly heartburn and acid regurgitation (esophageal symptoms) were 7.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.0 to 9.2) and 4.4% (95% CI, 2.8 to 6.1), respectively. The frequency of dyspepsia was 13.2% (95% CI, 10.5 to 15.8). The frequencies of constipation and diarrhea were 15.0% (95% CI, 12.2 to 18.0) and 5.3% (95% CI, 3.5 to 7.1), respectively. Nausea and the use of manual maneuvers to facilitate defecation were more prevalent in women than in men. Constipation and fecal incontinence were more common in diabetes patients with long duration (>10 years). Fecal incontinence and using laxatives were more frequent in the complicated diabetes group. Using laxatives was more frequent in the uncontrolled diabetes group.
Two-thirds of diabetic patients experienced GI symptoms. The prevalence of GI symptoms was more common in patients who had diabetic complications and a long duration of diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Prevalence; Signs and symptoms, digestive; Diabetes complications
Patient preferences, convenience, and bone turnover markers were evaluated for the monthly ibandronate over the weekly risedronate regimen in Korean postmenopausal osteoporotic women. This was a 6-month, prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter study with a two-period and two-sequence crossover treatment design. After a 30-day screening period, eligible participants with postmenopausal osteoporosis were randomized to receive either monthly oral ibandronate 150 mg for 3 months followed by weekly oral risedronate 35 mg for 12 weeks (sequence A) or the same regimen in reverse order (sequence B). Patient preference and convenience were evaluated by questionnaire. The changes in serum C-telopeptide after 3 months of treatment were analyzed. A total of 365 patients were enrolled in this study (sequence A 182, sequence B 183). Of patients expressing a preference (83.4%), 74.8% preferred the monthly ibandronate regimen over the weekly regimen (25.2%). More women stated that the monthly ibandronate regimen was more convenient (84.2%) than the weekly regimen (15.8%). There was no significant difference in the change in bone turnover marker between the two treatments. The two regimens were similarly tolerable. There were fewer adverse events in the monthly ibandronate group compared to the weekly risedronate group in terms of gastrointestinal side effects (nausea and abdominal distension). This study revealed a strong preference and convenience for monthly ibandronate over weekly risedronate in Korean postmenopausal osteoporotic women. There was no significant difference in change of bone turnover marker and safety profile between the two regimens.
Ibandronate; Risedronate; Preference; Convenience; Korean
CpG-island margins and non-island-CpG sites round the transcription start sites of CpG-island-positive and -negative genes are methylated to various degrees in a tissue-specific manner. These methylation-variable CpG sites were analyzed to delineate a relationship between the methylation and transcription of the tissue-specific genes. The level of tissue-specific transcription was estimated by counting the number of the total transcripts in the SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) database. The methylation status of 12 CpG-island margins and 21 non-island CpG sites near the key tissue-specific genes was examined in pluripotent stromal cells obtained from fat and bone marrow samples as well as in lineage-committed cells from marrow bulk, stomach, colon, breast, and thyroid samples. Of the 33 CpG sites examined, 10 non-island-CpG sites, but none of the CpG-island margins were undermethylated concurrent with tissue-specific expression of their nearby genes. The net methylation of the 33 CpG sites and the net amount of non-island-CpG gene transcripts were high in stomach tissues and low in stromal cells. The present findings suggest that the methylation of the non-island-CpG sites is inversely associated with the expression of the nearby genes, and the concert effect of transitional-CpG methylation is linearly associated with the stomach-specific genes lacking CpG-islands.
DNA Methylation; Stem Cells; Stomach; Tissue-Specific Gene; CpG Islands
Thiazolidinediones reduce urinary albumin excretion and may prevent the development of renal injury. We evaluated the long-term effects of rosiglitazone on the progression of renal dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
We enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who initially had normal or mildly impaired renal function, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60-120 mL/min per 1.73 m2, and normoalbuminuria. Patients were divided into two groups according to their use of rosiglitazone during 3 years of follow-up: those treated with rosiglitazone (rosiglitazone group, n=52) and those treated without rosiglitazone (control group, n=85). Progression of renal dysfunction was defined as a decrease in eGFR of ≥9 mL/min per 1.73 m2 after 3 years.
A greater difference was observed in the decrease in eGFR between the rosiglitazone and control groups after 3 years (3.8±9.9 vs. 12.6±10.5 mL/min per 1.73 m2, p<0.001). Seventeen of 52 (32.7%) patients in the rosiglitazone group and 53 of 85 (62.3%) patients in the control group showed progression of renal dysfunction (p=0.001). The progressors had a longer duration of diabetes (6.7±5.9 vs. 3.9±4.1 years, p=0.002), higher HbA1c levels (7.4±1.8 vs. 6.8±1.3%, p=0.023), and less frequent use of rosiglitazone (24.2 vs. 52.2%, p<0.001) compared to non-progressors. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the use of rosiglitazone was a significant and independent predictor of the progression of renal dysfunction.
This study suggests that rosiglitazone theatment slows the progressive deterioration of renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetic nephropathies; Rosiglitazone; Renal insufficiency
Statins have been postulated to affect the bone metabolism. Recent experimental and epidemiologic studies have suggested that statins may also have bone protective effects. This study assessed the effects of simvastatin on the proliferation and differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in an ex vivo culture. The bone marrow was obtained from healthy donors. Mononuclear cells were isolated and cultured to osteoblastic lineage. In the primary culture, 10-6 M simvastatin diminished the mean size of the colony forming units-fibroblastic (CFU-Fs) and enhanced matrix calcification. At near confluence, the cells were sub-cultured. Thereafter, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities of each group were measured by the time course of the secondary culture. Simvastatin increased the ALP activity in a dose dependent manner, and this stimulatory effect was more evident during the early period of culture. A 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed during the secondary culture in order to estimate the effect of simvastatin on the proliferation of human BMSCs. When compared to the control group, simvastatin significantly decreased the proliferation of cells of each culture well. 10-6 M of simvastatin also significantly enhanced the osteocalcin mRNA expression level. This study shows that simvastatin has a stimulatory effect on bone formation through osteoblastic differentiation, and has an inhibitory effect on the proliferative potential of human BMSCs
Simvastatin; Osteoblasts; Cell Proliferation; Cell Differentiation; Bone Marrow Cells; Stromal Cells
Loss of bone mass is usually detected after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) during the early post-transplant period. However, little is known about the long-term effects of BMT on bone metabolism. We have prospectively investigated 11 patients undergoing BMT. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured before BMT, and 1, 2, and 3 yr after BMT. Serum markers of bone turnover were serially measured before BMT and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 12 weeks, 6 months, and 1 yr after BMT. The mean change in the lumbar spine (L2-4) BMD, calculated as the percent change from the baseline to the level at 1, 2, and 3 yr was -4.7% (NS), -1.1% (NS), and +6.4% (p<0.05), respectively. The mean change in the total proximal femur BMD from the baseline to the level at 1, 2, and 3 yr was -8.5% (p<0.01), -8.7% (p<0.05) and -5.6% (p<0.05), respectively. In summary, there was little decline in lumbar BMD at 1 yr following BMT and gradual recovery until 3 yr. In contrast, femoral BMD decreased much more than the lumbar area at 1 yr and did not recover until 3 yr. The mechanism of skeletal site-selective differences in the changes of BMD needs to be elucidated.
It is generally agreed that euthyroid sick syndromes (ESS) are associated with an increased production of cytokines. However, there has been scarce data on the relationship thyroid hormone changes and cytokines among the patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Because interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been identified as a potent proinflammatory and interleukin-10 (IL-10) as an antiinflammatory cytokine, we studied the relation between thyroid hormone parameters and these cytokines following BMT. We studied 80 patients undergoing allogeneic BMT. Serum T3 decreased to nadir at post-BMT 3 weeks. Serum T4 was the lowest at the post-BMT 3 months. Serum TSH sharply decreased to nadir at 1 week and gradually recovered. Serum free T4 significantly increased during 3 weeks and then returned to basal level. Mean levels of serum IL-8 significantly increased at 1 week after BMT. Mean levels of serum IL-10 significantly increased until 4 weeks after BMT. No significant correlation was found between serum thyroid hormone parameters and cytokines (IL-8, IL-10) after adjusting steroid doses during the entire study period. In conclusion, ESS developed frequently following allogeneic BMT and cytokine levels were increased in post-BMT patients. However, no significant correlation was found between serum thyroid hormone parameters and these cytokines.
To determine whether the TyG index, a product of the levels of triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) might be a valuable marker for predicting future diabetes.
A total of 5,354 nondiabetic subjects who had completed their follow-up visit for evaluating diabetes status were selected from a large cohort of middle-aged Koreans in the Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort study. The risk of diabetes was assessed according to the baseline TyG index, calculated as ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × FPG (mg/dL)/2]. The median follow-up period was 4.6 years.
During the follow-up period, 420 subjects (7.8%) developed diabetes. The baseline values of the TyG index were significantly higher in these subjects compared with nondiabetic subjects (8.9±0.6 vs. 8.6±0.6; P<0.0001) and the incidence of diabetes increased in proportion to TyG index quartiles. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level, a family history of diabetes, smoking, alcohol drinking, education level and serum insulin level, the risk of diabetes onset was more than fourfold higher in the highest vs. the lowest quartile of the TyG index (relative risk, 4.095; 95% CI, 2.701–6.207). The predictive power of the TyG index was better than the triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio or the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance.
The TyG index, a simple measure reflecting insulin resistance, might be useful in identifying individuals at high risk of developing diabetes.