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1.  Inter-rater Reliability of Videofluoroscopic Dysphagia Scale 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2012;36(6):791-796.
Objective
To investigate the inter-rater agreement using the Videofluoroscopic Dysphagia Scale (VDS).
Method
The present study was designed as a multicenter, single-blind trial. A Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS) was performed using the protocol described by J.A Logemann. Thick-fluid, pureed food, mechanically altered food, regularly textured food, and thin-fluid boluses were sequentially swallowed. Each participant received a 3 ml bolus followed by a 5 ml bolus of each food material, in the order mentioned above. All study procedures were video recorded. Discs containing these video recordings in random order were distributed to interpreters who were blinded to the participant information. The video recordings were evaluated using a standardized VDS sheet and the inter-rater reliability was calculated.
Results
In total, 100 patients participated in this study and 10 interpreters analyzed the findings. Inter-rater reliability was fair in terms of lip closure (κ: 0.325), oral transit time (0.253), delayed triggering of pharyngeal swallowing (0.300), vallecular residue (0.275), laryngeal elevation (0.345), pyriform sinus residue (0.310), coating of the pharyngeal wall (0.310), and aspiration (0.393). However, other parameters of the oral phase were lower than those of the pharyngeal phase (0.06-0.153). Moreover, the summation of VDS reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.556) showed moderate agreement.
Conclusion
VDS shows a moderate rate of agreement for evaluating the swallowing function. However, many of the parameters demonstrated a lower rate of agreement, particularly the oral phase parameters.
doi:10.5535/arm.2012.36.6.791
PMCID: PMC3546181  PMID: 23342311
VDS; Reliability; Inter-rater; Dysphagia; VFSS
2.  Association between Cross-sectional Areas of Lumbar Muscles on Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Chronicity of Low Back Pain 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2011;35(6):852-859.
Objective
To investigate the prognostic value of cross-sectional areas (CSA) of paraspinal (multifidus and erector spinae) and psoas muscles on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chronicity of low back pain.
Method
Thirty-eight subjects who visited our hospital for acute low back pain were enrolled. Review of their medical records and telephone interviews were done. Subjects were divided into two groups; chronic back pain group (CBP) and a group showing improvement within 6 months after onset of pain (IBP). The CSA of paraspinal and psoas muscles were obtained at the level of the lower margin of L3 and L5 vertebrae using MRI.
Results
CSA of erector spinae muscle and the proportion of the area to lumbar muscles (paraspinal and psoas muscles) at L5 level in the CBP group were significantly smaller than that of the IBP group (p<0.05). The mean value of CSA of multifidus muscle at L5 level in the CBP group was smaller than that of the IBP group, but was not statistically significant (p>0.05). CSA of psoas muscle at L5 level and all values measured at L3 level were not significantly different between the groups (p>0.05).
Conclusion
CSA of erector spinae muscle at the lower lumbar level and the proportion of the area to the lumbar muscles at the L5 level can be considered to be prognostic factors of chronicity of low back pain.
doi:10.5535/arm.2011.35.6.852
PMCID: PMC3309393  PMID: 22506214
Low back pain; Magnetic resonance imaging; Cross-sectional area; Muscles
3.  A Case of a False-Positive Anti-Myeloperoxidase Antibody ELISA in a Patient with Hypothyroidism 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2011;47(1):48-50.
We present a case of a false-positive anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) antibody result on an ELISA in a patient with anti-thyroid microsomal antibody (TMA)-positive hypothyroidism. A 41-year-old woman presented with dyspnea on exertion. The initial evaluation revealed pericardial effusion associated with hypothyroidism. In addition, microscopic hematuria with normal renal function and positive cytoplasmic anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCA) on immunofluorescent assay were found. In further evaluation, elevated anti-TMA and MPO antibodies by ELISA. While no definite signs of vasculitis were present, the clinical state improved with thyroid hormone replacement and diuretics. Anti-MPO antibody was still positive in the follow-up tests, and microscopic hematuria persisted. On the basis of previous reports that thyroid peroxidase and MPO molecules contain cross-reactive epitopes that are exposed in denaturated molecules, we suggest that in a patient with anti-TMA-positive hypothyroidism, anti-MPO antibody might also be positive on ELISA without clinical signs of vasculitis.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2011.47.1.48
PMCID: PMC3214856  PMID: 22111058
Hypothyroidism; Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodg; Anti-myeloperoxi dase antibody
4.  Umbilical Cord Blood Therapy Potentiated with Erythropoietin for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial 
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)  2012;31(3):581-591.
Allogeneic umbilical cord blood (UCB) has therapeutic potential for cerebral palsy (CP). Concomitant administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) may boost the efficacy of UCB, as it has neurotrophic effects. The objectives of this study were to assess the safety and efficacy of allogeneic UCB potentiated with rhEPO in children with CP. Children with CP were randomly assigned to one of three parallel groups: the pUCB group, which received allogeneic UCB potentiated with rhEPO; the EPO group, which received rhEPO and placebo UCB; and the Control group, which received placebo UCB and placebo rhEPO. All participants received rehabilitation therapy. The main outcomes were changes in scores on the following measures during the 6 months treatment period: the gross motor performance measure (GMPM), gross motor function measure, and Bayley scales of infant development-II (BSID-II) Mental and Motor scales (18). F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) were acquired at baseline and followed up to detect changes in the brain. In total, 96 subjects completed the study. Compared with the EPO (n = 33) and Control (n = 32) groups, the pUCB (n = 31) group had significantly higher scores on the GMPM and BSID-II Mental and Motor scales at 6 months. DTI revealed significant correlations between the GMPM increment and changes in fractional anisotropy in the pUCB group. 18F-FDG-PET/CT showed differential activation and deactivation patterns between the three groups. The incidence of serious adverse events did not differ between groups. In conclusion, UCB treatment ameliorated motor and cognitive dysfunction in children with CP undergoing active rehabilitation, accompanied by structural and metabolic changes in the brain. Stem Cells2013;31:581–591
doi:10.1002/stem.1304
PMCID: PMC3744768  PMID: 23281216
Umbilical cord blood; Erythropoietin; Cerebral palsy; Clinical trial; Function

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