A ganglion cyst is a relatively common benign tumor on the wrist. Conservative and surgical approaches have been used for its treatment. Various conservative treatment methods have been suggested such as reassurance, aspiration, sclerosant injection, and direct compression. But, there is no acceptable treatment of choice yet because each suggested method has a relatively high recurrence rate. We want to report two cases in which the size of the wrist ganglion was decreased by using electroacupuncture. One patient presented with a chronic ganglion for six years and the other patient presented with a recently occurred acute ganglion. We applied electroacupuncture for 20 minutes once a week for eight weeks to both of them. Afterwards, the size of the wrist ganglion diminished in the follow-up sonography and the accompanying pain was also relieved. Herein we report both cases along with a review of the relevant literature.
Ganglion cysts; Electroacupuncture
To determine whether a routine ultrasonography (US) is necessary for diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of hip (DDH), presenting with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT).
Cases of 133 patients (81 males, 52 females) diagnosed as CMT were reviewed, retrospectively. We reviewed the medical charts and diagnostic examination. We also assessed the coincidence of CMT and DDH, and investigated the clinical features of CMT related to DDH.
Twenty (15.0%) patients out of 133 CMT patients were diagnosed as having DDH by US. Of whom, 8 patients were radiographically positive and 4 patients were both clinically and radiographically positive. Nine patients were treated with a harness and 1 of them needed closed reduction and casting. Out of 9 patients treated with a harness, only 4 were clinically positive. The difference and ratio of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle thickness between the normal and abnormal side was significantly greater in DDH patients (p=0.014). Further, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed when the SCM ratio is greater than 2.08 and the SCM difference is greater than 6.1 mm, the efficiency of US for the diagnosis of the DDH was found to be the best (p<0.05).
To evaluate DDH, physical examination showed low sensitivity and radiologic study has limitation for the child before 4 to 6 months of age. Therefore, we recommend that hip is screened by US for the diagnosis of DDH associated with CMT when physical examination is positive or CMT patients with large SCM difference and high SCM ratio.
Torticollis; Hip dysplasia; Ultrasonography
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of phase contrast X-ray microtomography and microradiography, using a polychromatic synchrotron X-ray, for analysis of the mouse lung microstructure.
Materials and Methods
Normal mice were used for experiments. Some of the mouse lungs were prepared by the lung fixation-inflation method. The resulting sponge-like inflated lung samples were used for microtomography. The remaining mouse lungs were cut into 10 um sections and were used for microradiography and optical microscopic correlation. The experiments on mouse lung samples were performed at the 7B2 beamline of the Pohang Light Source in Korea.
Phase contrast X-ray microtomography of inflated lung samples showed individual alveolar structure on 3-D reconstruction. Phase contrast microradiographs of thin lung samples showed microstructure of lung, such as alveoli and bronchioles, and were well correlated with optical microscopic images.
The results indicate that the phase contrast X-ray microtomography and microradiography using polychromatic synchrotron X-ray is feasible for evaluation of microstructure of the lung.
Phase contrast microradiography; polychromatic synchrotron X-ray; refraction enhanced imaging; lung
This study was done to demonstrate the computed tomography (CT) and pathologic findings of the sequential changes for experimental pulmonary fat embolism (PFE), and to correlate the CT and pathologic findings of rabbit lung. PFE was induced by an intravenous injection of 0.2 mL linoleic acid in 24 rabbits. The rabbits were divided into 4 groups of 6 rabbits each. CT scans were obtained sequentially at 2 hr (n=24), day 1 (n=18), day 3 (n=12) and day 7 (n=6) after fat embolization. The pathologic findings were analyzed and CT-pathologic correlation was done. CT scans showed bilateral ground-glass opacity (GGO), consolidation and nodule in all cases. The findings of PFE at 2 hr after fat embolization were areas of decreased attenuation, GGO, consolidation and nodule. These findings were aggravated on the follow-up CT after 1 day and 3 days. The follow-up CT revealed linear density in the subpleural lungs after 7 days. On CT-pathology correlation, wedge-shaped ischemic necrosis in the subpleural lungs correlated with nodule at 2 hr. GGO and consolidation at day 1 on CT correlated with congestion and edema, and these findings at day 3 were correlated with inflammation and hemorrhagic edema. The linear density in the subpleural lungs correlated with interstitial fibrosis and pleural contraction at day 7. In conclusion, PFE was caused by using linoleic acid which is kind of free fatty acid and this study served as one model of the occurrence of nontraumatic PFE. CT accurately depicted the natural evolution of PFE in the serial followup, and this correlated well with the pathologic findings.
Embolism, Experimental Studies; Embolism, Fat; Pulmonary Embolism; Lung, Computed Tomography
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can produce unusual radiographic findings. Further, negative sputum and bronchoscopic results are common. Early diagnosis is equally as significant as treatment in the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with pulmonary TB.
The aim of this study was to assess computed tomography (CT) findings of pulmonary TB, confirmed via percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB), and to correlate these findings with coexisting, underlying, lung diseases if present.
Cross sectional study.
We selected eighty-four patients who were diagnosed with pulmonary TB by way of PTNB. Initially, acid-fast bacilli smear test results from these patients were negative. CT findings were reviewed to detect the presence of parenchymal abnormalities as follows: nodule(s) (<3 cm in diameter), mass (any masses ≥3 cm), daughter nodules, air-space consolidation, cavitation, calcification, lymphadenopathy, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and associated lung parenchymal disease.
The CT findings of pulmonary TB confirmed by PTNB included nodules in 44 of 84 (52.4%) cases; 15 of these 44 cases (34.1%) had daughter nodules. The second most common finding was masses in 24 cases (28.6%), nine of which also had daughter nodules. 16 cases (19.0%) displayed nonsegmental consolidation. Of these 16 cases, four had coexisting usual interstitial pneumonia; four others had emphysema. Two patients with a mass had underlying pneumoconiosis.
Nodules or a mass mimicking lung cancer were the most common findings on CT scans in patients with pulmonary TB, confirmed via PTNB. The second most common finding was airspace consolidation. Therefore, PNTB is useful for the accurate diagnosis of pulmonary TB in the following cases: airspace consolidation or mass associated with underlying usual interstitial pneumonia, emphysema mimicking lung malignancy or cases of bacterial pneumonia.
Percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy; pulmonary; tuberculosis
This pilot study aimed to evaluate prognostic factors of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) for breast cancer patients undergoing systemic therapy in either preoperative or postoperative setting.
Between 2003 and 2009, 113 patients received PMRT: 61 underwent preoperative systemic therapy (PST subgroup) and 52 received postoperative systemic therapy (non-PST subgroup).
The median follow-up time was 72.3 months (range, 34.0-109.4 months) for surviving patients. In univariate analysis of all patients, disease-free survival (DFS) was associated with age, nodal ratio (NR), and Ki-67 expression; overall survival (OS) was associated with NR and Ki-67 expression. Pathologic N stage and HER2 expression were marginally associated with DFS and OS. In the non-PST subgroup, DFS was associated with age, NR, venous invasion, and Ki-67 expression; OS was associated with age. In the PST subgroup, DFS was associated with ypN stage and NR; OS was associated with ypN, histologic grade, HER2 expression, and p53 expression. In multivariate analysis of all patients, DFS and OS were significantly associated with NR (p=0.003 and p=0.019, respectively) and Ki-67 expression (p=0.002 and p=0.015, respectively). Patients were classified into low-risk (NR ≤0.2 and Ki-67 ≤20%; n=34), intermediate-risk (NR >0.2 or Ki-67 >20%; n=63), and high-risk (NR >0.2 and Ki-67 >20%; n=16) subgroups. All low-risk patients were alive at the time of analysis. High-risk (p<0.001 and p=0.001, respectively) and intermediate-risk (p=0.022 and p=0.008, respectively) patients had significantly shorter DFS and OS than low-risk patients. This prognostic model was statistically significant for DFS when applied to the PST (p=0.001) and non-PST (p=0.016) subgroups separately.
For breast cancer patients undergoing PMRT, NR and Ki-67 are potential prognostic factors. A model using these factors might help predict a poor prognosis. Whether NR and Ki-67 are also prognostic for different setting of systemic therapy, preoperative or postoperative, warrants further study.
Breast neoplasms; Ki-67 antigen; Lymph nodes; Mastectomy; Radiotherapy
The authors describe a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method targeting the 18S rRNA gene for the species detection of medically important trematode infecting fish and oysters, and suggest that this PCR-RFLP method based on a specific Tre-18 primer and the restriction enzymes, Acc1, Ava2, Msp1, and Hinf1, is useful for the detection of parasites in aquatic food.
Breast cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in Korean women, and its incidence is increasing at a rapid rate. Since 1996, the Korean Breast Cancer Society has collected nationwide breast cancer data using an online registration program and analyzed the data biennial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of Korean breast cancer and to analyze changes in these characteristics over the period of time.
Data were collected from 41 medical schools (74 hospitals), 24 general hospitals, and 6 private clinics. Data on the total number, gender, and age of newly-diagnosed breast cancer patients were collected through a questionnaire. Additional data were collected and analyzed from the online database.
In 2010, 16,398 patients in Korea were newly diagnosed with breast cancer. The crude incidence rate of female breast cancer was 67.2 cases per 100,000, and the median age at diagnosis was 49 years. The incidence of breast cancer was highest in patients aged between 40 and 49 years. Since 1996, there has been a significant increase in the proportion of early-stage cancers (detected in stage 1 or 2), the percentage of estrogen receptor-positive cancers, and in the proportion of patients receiving breast-conserving surgery.
The incidence and clinical characteristics of Korean breast cancer are slowly changing to the patterns of Western countries. To understand changing patterns in the characteristics of Korean breast cancer, the nationwide data should be continuously analyzed.
Breast neoplasms; Korea; Online registration program
Neodiplostomum seoulense (Digenea: Neodiplostomidae) is an intestinal trematode that can cause severe mucosal pathology in the small intestines of mice and even mortality of the infected mice within 28 days after infection. We observed neuronal growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) expression in the myenteric plexus of the small intestinal wall of N. seoulense-infected mice until day 35 post-infection (PI). BALB/c mice were infected with 200 or 500 N. seoulense metacercariae isolated from naturally infected snakes and were killed every 7 days for immunohistochemical demonstration of GAP-43 in the small intestines. N. seoulense-infected mice showed remarkable dilatation of intestinal loops compared with control mice through days 7-28 PI. Conversely, GAP-43 expression in the mucosal myenteric plexus was markedly (P<0.05) reduced in the small intestines of N. seoulense-infected mice during days 7-28 PI and was slightly normalized at day 35 PI. From this study, it is evident that neuronal damage occurs in the intestinal mucosa of N. seoulense-infected mice. However, the correlation between intestinal pathology, including the loop dilatation, and depressed GAP-43 expression remains to be elucidated.
Neodiplostomum seoulense; growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43); myenteric plexus; intestinal loop dilatation
Although the nodal ratio (NR) has been recognized as a prognostic factor in breast cancer, its clinical implication in patients with 1-3 positive nodes (N1) remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the prognostic value of the NR and identified other clinico-pathologic variables associated with poor prognosis in these patients.
We analyzed 130 patients with N1 invasive breast cancer who were treated at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from March 2003 to December 2007. Disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were compared according to the NR with a cut-off value of 0.15.
We followed patients' recovery for a median duration of 59 months. An NR > 0.15 was found in 23.1% of patients, and a median of 18 nodes were dissected per patient (range 1-59). The NR was statistically independent from other prognostic variables, such as patient age, T stage, extent of surgery, pathologic factors in the chi square test. On univariate analysis, patients with a NR > 0.15 had significantly lower 5-year LRRFS (88.7% vs. 97.9%, p = 0.033) and 5-year DMFS (81.3% vs. 96.4%, p = 0.029) and marginally lower 5-year DFS (81.3% vs. 94.0%, p = 0.069) than those with a NR ≤0.15, respectively. Since the predictive power of the NR was found to differ with diverse clinical and pathologic variables, we performed adjusted analysis stratified by age, pathologic characteristics, and adjuvant treatments. Only young patients with a NR > 0.15 showed significantly lower DFS (p = 0.027) as well as those presenting an unfavorable pathologic profile such as advanced T stage (p = 0.034), histologic grade 3 (p = 0.034), positive lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.037), involved resection margin (p = 0.007), and no chemotherapy (p = 0.014) or regional radiotherapy treatment (p = 0.039). On multivariate analysis, a NR > 0.15 was significantly associated with lower DFS (p = 0.043) and DMFS (p = 0.012), but not LRRFS (p = 0.064).
A NR > 0.15 was associated with an increased risk of recurrence, especially in young patients with unfavorable pathologic profiles.
breast cancer; N1; nodal ratio; prognostic factor
Petroleum ether extracts of Viola websteri Hemsl (Violaceae) were reported to have anti-plasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro, with this activity being largely attributable to 6-(8'Z-pentadecenyl)-salicylic acid (6-SA).
The schizontocidal activity of 6-SA on early Plasmodium berghei infections was evaluated in a four-day test. The possible 'repository' activity of 6-SA was assessed using the method described by Peters. The median lethal dose (LD50) of 6-SA, when given intraperitoneally, was also determined using uninfected ICR mice and the method of Lorke.
In the present study, 6-SA was found to have anti-malarial activity in vivo, when tested against P. berghei in mice. 6-SA at 5, 10 and 25 mg/kg·day exhibited a significant blood schizontocidal activity in four-day early infections, repository evaluations and established infections with a significant mean survival time comparable to that of the standard drug, chloroquine (5 mg/kg·day).
6-SA possesses a moderate anti-malarial activity that could be exploited for malaria therapy.
The aim of this study was to evaluate new cardiac deformity indexes (CDIs) for diagnosis of pectus excavatum as well as morphological assessment of heart on computed tomography (CT).
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively evaluated the CT images of the control group (n=200), and the pectus excavatum before and after correction groups (n=178), and calculated the CDIs; cardiac compression index (CCI), and cardiac asymmetry index (CAI). We also calculated chest wall compression index (CWCI) and asymmetry index (CWAI) on the axial images. We performed logistic regression analysis using each index and age as predictor variables.
The CDIs (CCI and CAI) were significant (p < 0.05) in the diagnosis of pectus excavatum, regardless of age (p = 0.4033, p = 0.8113). The CWCI and CWAI were significant (p < 0.05) and significantly affected by age (p < 0.05). If we selected 1.82 as the cutoff of the CCI, the sensitivity and specificity were 99.4% and 98%, respectively. The following cutoffs and the sensitivity and specificity were obtained: 1.15 for the CAI gave 94.4% and 94.5%, 3.05 for the CWCI gave 92.1% and 92%, and 1 for the CWAI gave 62.4% and 65%, respectively. The CCI after repair improved from 2.83 ± 0.84 to 1.84 ± 0.33, while the CWCI improved from 4.49 ± 1.61 to 2.57 ± 0.44.
CDIs such as the CCI and CAI may be potentially useful to detect and estimate repair for pectus excavatum.
Pectus excavatum; minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum (MIRPE); CT scan; cardiac deformity index
To study the effect of the degree of scoliosis, degree of hypokyphosis/lordosis and rotation of apical vertebra on individual lung volume (measured with CT scan) in asymptomatic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Individual (right and left) lung volume, angle of kyphosis and rotation of apical vertebra, were measured in 77 asymptomatic AIS patients having right thoracic curve, using modern computed tomography (CT) scan. To compare, lung volumes were measured in 22 normal persons (control group). The ratio of “right to left lung volume (convex to concave side)” was obtained and compared among these groups. With increased Cobb’s angle, ratio of convex to concave lung volume increased. For Cobb’s angle more than 40°, it was increased significantly (P = 0.0042). A significant degree of correlation was found between axial rotation angle of apical vertebra and right to left lung volume ratio (P = 0.0067, r = 0.271). A significant inverse correlation was found between the angle of kyphosis and right to left lung volume ratio, i.e., as the angle of kyphosis decreased the convex to concave lung volume ratio increased (P = 0.0109, r = −0.255). In asymptomatic, AIS patients, with increase in degree of curvature, and rotation of apical vertebra, the ratio of convex to concave side lung volume increases; indicating concave side lung volume is comparatively more affected (decreased) than convex side lung volume. On the other hand with decrease in the angle of kyphosis the convex to concave lung volume ratio increases indicating kyphotic angle has an inverse relation to convex to concave lung volume ratio.
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Individual lung volume; Convex to concave lung volume ratio
Some breast neoplasms are classified as primary neuroendocrine carcinomas because they are positive for neuroendocrine markers. Although neuroendocrine carcinomas can originate from various organs of the body, primary neuroendocrine carcinomas of the breast are extremely rare. The diagnosis of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast can only be made if nonmammary sites are confidently excluded or if an in situ component can be found. Here we report a primary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNL) involving the left breast. Breast ultrasonography revealed a lobulated, heterogeneous, low-echoic mass in the left breast, and the lesion ap-peared as a well-defined, highly-enhancing mass on a chest computed tomography scan. Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy was performed on the mass, and primary LCNC was confirmed by histopathologic examination.
Breast; Ultrasonography; Tomography, X-Ray Computed; Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma
This study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of sn-2 palmitic acid-fortified vegetable oil (Sn2PA) on calcium absorption and to confirm the synergistic effects of fructooligosaccharide on calcium absorption. Male SD rats were fed 6 kinds of casein based diets containing vegetable oil (control), sn-2 palmitic acid-fortified vegetable oil (Sn2PA) and Sn2PA with fructooligosaccharide(Sn2PAFO) in two levels of calcium (normal 0.5% and high 1.0%) for 3 weeks. Total lipids, cholesterol, triglyceride and calcium in blood were measured. Feces were collected using cages for 4 days. Serum concentrations of total lipids and calcium were not significantly different among groups. However, serum triglyceride was significantly decreased by fructooligosaccharide supplementation regardless of dietary calcium level. The lipid absorption was not significantly different among experimental groups. Calcium absorption was significantly higher in Sn2PAFO group than other groups. Calcium solubility of intestine was increased by sn-2 palmitic acid supplementation. These results suggest that sn-2 palmitic acid and fructooligosaccharide supplementation could be beneficial for baby foods including infant formula, with regard to increasing absorption of calcium by more soluble calcium in the small intestinal content.
Sn-2 palmitic acid-fortified oil; fructooligosaccharide; lipid metabolism; calcium absorption; baby food
Lansoprazole is an acid proton-pump inhibiting drug that is used for the treatment of duodenal or gastric ulcers, H. pylori infection, gastroesophageal reflux disease or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Although lansoprazole is well known for its gastrointestinal and dermatologic adverse effects, mild pulmonary symptoms are also known to develop from taking this drug. There have been no reports about lansoprazole-induced interstitial lung disease. We report here a case of lansoprazole-induced interstitial lung disease that developed in a 66-year-old man.
Lansoprazole; Interstitial lung disease; Computed tomography (CT)
Disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts, which is associated with abnormal cellular immunity.
A 26-year-old pregnant woman presented with fever and general weakness. Miliary lung nodules were noted on chest X-ray. Under the impression of miliary tuberculosis, anti-tuberculosis medication was administered. However, the patient was not improved. Further work-up demonstrated MAC in the sputum and placenta. The patient was treated successfully with clarithromycin-based combination regimen.
This appears to be the first case of disseminated MAC in an otherwise healthy pregnant woman. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of MAC infection in diverse clinical conditions.
Although pulmonary artery aneurysms are a rare vascular anomaly, they are seen in a wide variety of conditions, such as congenital heart disease, infection, trauma, pulmonary hypertension, cystic medial necrosis and generalized vasculitis. To our knowledge, mycotic aneurysms caused by pulmonary actinomycosis have not been reported in the radiologic literature. Herein, a case of pulmonary actinomycosis complicated by mycotic aneurysm is presented. On CT scans, this case showed focal aneurysmal dilatation of a peripheral pulmonary artery within necrotizing pneumonia of the right lower lobe, which was successfully treated with transcatheter embolization using wire coils.
Lung, Infection; Aneurysm, Mycotic; Aneurysm, Pulmonary; Pulmonary arteries, Abnormalities