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2.  Differential Cell Count and CRP Level in Blood as Predictors for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in Acute Febrile Patients during Nosocomial Outbreak 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2016;32(1):151-154.
A case-control study was performed to identify clinical predictors for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection among patients with acute febrile illness during the nosocomial outbreak. Patients with MERS-CoV were more likely to have monocytosis with normal white blood cell (WBC) count and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Simple laboratory data such as complete blood counts (CBC) with differential count could be a useful marker for the prediction of MERS and triage at the initial presentation of acute febrile patients in outbreak setting.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2017.32.1.151
PMCID: PMC5143288  PMID: 27914145
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome; Coronavirus; Predictors; Monocytosis
3.  Risk factors and molecular epidemiology of community-onset, multidrug resistance extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli infections 
Background/Aims
Although multidrug resistance (MDR) among extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) poses significant therapeutic challenges, little is known regarding the risk factors and epidemiology of community-onset MDR-ESBL-EC infections. We performed this study to investigate risk factors and the molecular epidemiology of community-onset MDR-ESBL-EC infections.
Methods
We conducted a case-control-control study of community-onset infections. MDR-ESBL-EC was defined as ESBL-EC that demonstrated in vitro resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones (FQs), and gentamicin. Patients with MDR-ESBL-EC infections were designated as case patients. A control group I (CG I) patient was defined as a person whose clinical sample yielded ESBL-EC that did not meet the criteria for MDR. A control group II (CG II) patient was defined as a patient with a non-ESBL-EC infection.
Results
Of 108 patients with ESBL-EC infections, 30 cases (27.8%) were due to MDR-ESBL-EC. Compared with CG I, prior use of FQs (odds ratio [OR], 3.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 to 8.98) and immunosuppressant use (OR, 10.47; 95% CI, 1.07 to 102.57) were significantly associated with MDR-ESBL-EC. Compared with CG II, prior use of FQs (OR, 15.53; 95% CI, 2.86 to 84.27) and healthcare-associated infection (OR, 5.98; 95% CI, 2.26 to 15.86) were significantly associated with MDR-ESBL-EC. CTX-M-15 was the most common in MDR-ESBL-EC infections (59.1% [13/22]), while CTX-M-14 was the most common in non-MDR-ESBL-EC infections (41.6% [32/77]). CTX-M-15 was significantly associated with MDR-ESBL-EC (59.1% vs. 32.5%, p = 0.028). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed clonal diversity of MDR-ESBL-EC isolates.
Conclusions
The emergence of strains of MDR-ESBL-EC in the community poses an important new public health threat. More information on the emergence and transmission of these strains will be necessary in order to prevent their spread.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2015.113
PMCID: PMC5214718  PMID: 27093979
Drug resistance, multiple; Extended-spectrum β-lactamase; Escherichia coli; Community-onset infection
4.  Emergence of serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae ST23 strains co-producing the plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase DHA-1 and an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in Korea 
Background
Serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged as an important community pathogen causing various infections, including liver abscesses. Although serotype K1 K. pneumoniae community isolates have been reported as susceptible to most classes of antimicrobial agents, a few cases of infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing serotype K1 K. pneumoniae have recently been reported in Asian countries. We identified three ESBL-producing strains of serotype K1 K. pneumoniae and conducted a molecular characterization of their drug resistance.
Methods
Three ESBL-producing serotype K1 K. pneumoniae ST23 strains were identified from strains in the Asian Bacterial Bank. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the broth microdilution method, and ESBL production was tested by the double-disk synergy test and a confirmatory test. PCR was performed to detect the genes for plasmid-mediated ESBL and AmpC beta-lactamases.
Results
All three strains were resistant to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and piperacillin/tazobactam, and all were determined to be ESBL-producers. No known ESBL genes, including bla SHV, bla TEM, bla CTX-M, bla GES, bla PER, and bla VEB, were detected among the three strains. Of all plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase (PAB) genes, including bla DHA-1, bla CMY, bla FOX, and bla MOX, the bla DHA-1 gene was detected in two of the strains. The PFGE patterns revealed that the two isolates carrying bla DHA-1 were closely related (84% similarity).
Conclusions
No ESBL genes were detected among three ESBL-producing serotype K1 K. pneumoniae ST23 strains. Two strains contained the PAB gene bla DHA-1. The emergence of resistant strains of community-origin serotype K1 K. pneumoniae has important implications for effective treatment and infection control practices.
doi:10.1186/s13756-016-0151-2
PMCID: PMC5126987  PMID: 27933141
Klebsiella pneumoniae; Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase; AmpC beta-lactamase
5.  Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in Patients Suspected of Having Scrub Typhus 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2016;22(11):1992-1995.
To determine prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in South Korea, we examined serum samples from patients with fever and insect bite history in scrub typhus–endemic areas. During the 2013 scrub typhus season, prevalence of this syndrome among patients suspected of having scrub typhus was high (23.0%), suggesting possible co-infection.
doi:10.3201/eid2211.160597
PMCID: PMC5088014  PMID: 27767909
SFTS and Suspected Scrub Typhus; severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome; scrub typhus; mite; tick; vector; vector-borne infections; severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus; viruses; bacteria; South Korea
6.  Analysis of intrapatient heterogeneity uncovers the microevolution of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus 
Genome sequence analysis of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) variants from patient specimens has revealed the evolutionary dynamics and mechanisms of pathogenesis of the virus. However, most studies have analyzed the consensus sequences of MERS-CoVs, precluding an investigation of intrapatient heterogeneity. Here, we analyzed non–consensus sequences to characterize intrapatient heterogeneity in cases associated with the 2015 outbreak of MERS in South Korea. Deep-sequencing analysis of MERS-CoV genomes performed on specimens from eight patients revealed significant intrapatient variation; therefore, sequence heterogeneity was further analyzed using targeted deep sequencing. A total of 35 specimens from 24 patients (including a super-spreader) were sequenced to detect and analyze variants displaying intrapatient heterogeneity. Based on the analysis of non–consensus sequences, we demonstrated the intrapatient heterogeneity of MERS-CoVs, with the highest level in the super-spreader specimen. The heterogeneity could be transmitted in a close association with variation in the consensus sequences, suggesting the occurrence of multiple MERS-CoV infections. Analysis of intrapatient heterogeneity revealed a relationship between D510G and I529T mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike glycoprotein. These two mutations have been reported to reduce the affinity of the RBD for human CD26. Notably, although the frequency of both D510G and I529T varied greatly among specimens, the combined frequency of the single mutants was consistently high (87.7% ± 1.9% on average). Concurrently, the frequency of occurrence of the wild type at the two positions was only 6.5% ± 1.7% on average, supporting the hypothesis that selection pressure exerted by the host immune response played a critical role in shaping genetic variants and their interaction in human MERS-CoVs during the outbreak.
doi:10.1101/mcs.a001214
PMCID: PMC5111008  PMID: 27900364
recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections
7.  Effects of inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy on mortality in patients with healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a propensity-matched analysis 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2016;16:331.
Background
The purported value of empirical therapy to cover methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been debated for decades. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy on clinical outcomes in patients with healthcare-associated MRSA bacteremia (HA-MRSAB).
Methods
A prospective, multicenter, observational study was conducted in 15 teaching hospitals in the Republic of Korea from February 2010 to July 2011. The study subjects included adult patients with HA-MRSAB. Covariate adjustment using the propensity score was performed to control for bias in treatment assignment. The predictors of in-hospital mortality were determined by multivariate logistic regression analyses.
Results
In total, 345 patients with HA-MRSAB were analyzed. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 33.0 %. Appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy was given to 154 (44.6 %) patients. The vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations of the MRSA isolates ranged from 0.5 to 2 mg/L by E-test. There was no significant difference in mortality between propensity-matched patient pairs receiving inappropriate or appropriate empirical antibiotics (odds ratio [OR] = 1.20; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 0.71–2.03). Among patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, there was no significant difference in mortality between the treatment groups. In multivariate analyses, severe sepsis or septic shock (OR = 5.45; 95 % CI = 2.14–13.87), Charlson’s comorbidity index (per 1-point increment; OR = 1.52; 95 % CI = 1.27–1.83), and prior receipt of glycopeptides (OR = 3.24; 95 % CI = 1.08–9.67) were independent risk factors for mortality.
Conclusion
Inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy was not associated with clinical outcome in patients with HA-MRSAB. Prudent use of empirical glycopeptide therapy should be justified even in hospitals with high MRSA prevalence.
doi:10.1186/s12879-016-1650-8
PMCID: PMC4946186  PMID: 27418274
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Bacteremia; Risk factors; Treatment outcome; Anti-bacterial agents
8.  Diagnostic yield of computed tomography-guided bone biopsy and clinical outcomes of tuberculous and pyogenic spondylitis 
Background/Aims:
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided bone biopsy for the diagnosis of spinal infection and compared the clinical outcomes between tuberculous and pyogenic spinal infections.
Methods:
The retrospective cohort study included patients who received CT-guided bone biopsy at a tertiary hospital over the 13 years.
Results:
Among 100 patients, 67 had pyogenic spondylitis and 33 had tuberculous spondylitis. Pathogens were isolated from bone specimens obtained by CT-guided biopsy in 42 cases, with diagnostic yields of 61% (20/33) for tuberculous spondylitis and 33% (22/67) for pyogenic spondylitis. For 36 culture-proven pyogenic cases, Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated organism. Patients with pyogenic spondylitis more frequently presented with fever accompanied by an increase in inflammatory markers than did those with tuberculosis. Among all patients who underwent surgery, the incidence of late surgery performed one month after diagnosis was higher in patients with tuberculous infection (56.3%) than in those with pyogenic disease (23.3%, p = 0.026).
Conclusions:
Results obtained by CT-guided bone biopsy contributed to prompt diagnoses of spinal infections, especially those caused by tuberculosis. Despite administration of anti-tuberculous agents, patients with tuberculous spondylitis showed an increased tendency to undergo late surgery.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2013.019
PMCID: PMC4939487  PMID: 27079327
Spondylitis; Computed tomography; Biopsy; Tuberculosis; Percutaneous
9.  Clinical Presentation and Outcomes of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in the Republic of Korea 
Infection & Chemotherapy  2016;48(2):118-126.
Background
From May to July 2015, the Republic of Korea experienced the largest outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outside the Arabian Peninsula. A total of 186 patients, including 36 deaths, had been diagnosed with MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection as of September 30th, 2015.
Materials and Methods
We obtained information of patients who were confirmed to have MERS-CoV infection. MERS-CoV infection was diagnosed using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay.
Results
The median age of the patients was 55 years (range, 16 to 86). A total of 55.4% of the patients had one or more coexisting medical conditions. The most common symptom was fever (95.2%). At admission, leukopenia (42.6%), thrombocytopenia (46.6%), and elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (42.7%) were observed. Pneumonia was detected in 68.3% of patients at admission and developed in 80.8% during the disease course. Antiviral agents were used for 74.7% of patients. Mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and convalescent serum were employed for 24.5%, 7.1%, and 3.8% of patients, respectively. Older age, presence of coexisting medical conditions including diabetes or chronic lung disease, presence of dyspnea, hypotension, and leukocytosis at admission, and the use of mechanical ventilation were revealed to be independent predictors of death.
Conclusion
The clinical features of MERS-CoV infection in the Republic of Korea were similar to those of previous outbreaks in the Middle East. However, the overall mortality rate (20.4%) was lower than that in previous reports. Enhanced surveillance and active management of patients during the outbreak may have resulted in improved outcomes.
doi:10.3947/ic.2016.48.2.118
PMCID: PMC4945721  PMID: 27433382
Middle East respiratory syndrome; Republic of Korea
10.  Case-Control Study of the Risk Factors for Acquisition of Pseudomonas and Proteus Species during Tigecycline Therapy 
Tigecycline is an important agent in clinical practice because of its broad-spectrum activity. However, it has no activity against Pseudomonas or Proteus species. We conducted a case-control study to analyze risk factors for the acquisition of Pseudomonas or Proteus spp. during tigecycline therapy. Placement of suction drainage at infected wound sites, ICU stay, and neurologic disease were identified as independent risk factors for the acquisition of Pseudomonas and Proteus spp.
doi:10.1128/AAC.04865-14
PMCID: PMC4538539  PMID: 26100705
11.  In Vitro Activities of 21 Antimicrobial Agents Alone and in Combination with Aminoglycosides or Fluoroquinolones against Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates Causing Bacteremia 
We evaluated the in vitro activity of various antimicrobials alone and in combination against 291 extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) isolates causing bacteremia in South Korean hospitals. Ceftazidime, cefepime, and piperacillin-tazobactam in combination with amikacin showed greater activity than found in combination with ciprofloxacin. In settings with a high prevalence of ESBL-producing pathogens, combination aminoglycoside antimicrobial therapy, especially with amikacin, may be considered for empirical therapy against suspected Gram-negative sepsis as a carbapenem-saving strategy.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01121-15
PMCID: PMC4538563  PMID: 26124174
12.  Clinical Significance of Non-neutropenic Fever in the Management of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients Treated with Rituximab-CHOP: Comparison with Febrile Neutropenia and Risk Factor Analysis 
Purpose
Rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) is the standard chemotherapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Although febrile neutropenia (FN) is the major toxicity of this regimen, non-neutropenic fever (NNF) becomes an emerging issue.
Materials and Methods
We analyzed clinical features and outcomes of febrile complications from 397 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who were registered in the prospective cohort study. They had completed R-CHOP between September 2008 and January 2013.
Results
Thirty-nine patients (9.8%) had NNF whereas 160 patients (40.3%) had FN. Among them, 24 patients (6.0%) had both during their treatment. Compared to frequent occurrence of initial FN after the first cycle (> 50% of total events), more than 80% of NNF cases occurred after the third cycle. Interstitial pneumonitis comprised the highest proportion of NNF cases (54.8%), although the causative organism was not identified in the majority of cases. Thus, pathogen was identified in a limited number of patients (n=9), and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) was the most common. Considering that interstitial pneumonitis without documented pathogen could be clinically diagnosed with PJP, the overall rate of PJP including probable cases was 4.5% (18 cases from 397 patients). The NNF-related mortality rate was 10.3% (four deaths from 39 patients with NNF) while the FN-related mortality rate was only 1.3%.
Conclusion
NNF was observed with incidence of 10% during R-CHOP treatment, and showed different clinical manifestations with respect to the time of initial episode and causes.
doi:10.4143/crt.2014.034
PMCID: PMC4506109  PMID: 25648098
Fever; Lymphoma; Rituximab
13.  Combined use of basal insulin analog and acarbose reduces postprandial glucose in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes 
Aims/Introduction
Early initiation of basal insulin therapy is recommended for normalizing fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, basal insulin treatment might not adequately control postprandial glucose levels. The present study evaluated whether the combination of the α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, and basal insulin improved blood glucose control under daily-life treatment conditions in a large sample of Korean patients.
Materials and Methods
The present study was a multicenter, prospective, observational study under daily-life treatment conditions. A total of 539 patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with basal insulin and additional acarbose were enrolled and followed up for 20 weeks. Changes in hemoglobin A1c, fasting and postprandial blood glucose were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the observation period. The physician and patient satisfaction of the combination treatment and safety were assessed.
Results
Hemoglobin A1c decreased by 0.55 ± 1.05% from baseline (P < 0.0001). Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were reduced by 0.89 ± 3.79 and 2.59 ± 4.77 mmol/L (both P < 0.0001). The most frequently reported adverse drug reactions were flatulence (0.37%) and abnormal gastrointestinal sounds (0.37%), and all were mild in intensity and transient. In the satisfaction evaluation, 79.0% of physicians and 77.3% of patients were ‘very satisfied’ or ‘satisfied’ with the combined basal insulin and acarbose therapy.
Conclusions
Combination therapy of basal insulin and acarbose in patients with type 2 diabetes improved glucose control, and had no drug-specific safety concerns, suggesting that the treatment might benefit individuals who cannot control blood glucose with basal insulin alone.
doi:10.1111/jdi.12261
PMCID: PMC4364857  PMID: 25802730
Acarbose; Long-acting insulin; Type 2 diabetes
14.  Evaluation of shear bond strength between dual cure resin cement and zirconia ceramic after thermocycling treatment 
PURPOSE
This study was performed to evaluate shear bond strength (SBS) between three dual-cured resin cements and silica coated zirconia, before and after thermocycling treatment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Sixty specimens were cut in 15 × 2.75 mm discs using zirconia. After air blasting of 50 µm alumina, samples were prepared by tribochemical silica coating with Rocatec™ plus. The specimens were divided into three groups according to the dual-cure resin cement used: (1) Calibra silane+Calibra®, (2) Monobond S+Multilink® N and (3) ESPN sil+RelyX™ Unicem Clicker. After the resin cement was bonded to the zirconia using a Teflon mold, photopolymerization was carried out. Only 10 specimens in each group were thermocycled 6,000 times. Depending on thermocycling treatment, each group was divided into two subgroups (n=10) and SBS was measured by applying force at the speed of 1 mm/min using a universal testing machine. To find out the differences in SBS according to the types of cements and thermocycling using the SPSS, two-way ANOVA was conducted and post-hoc analysis was performed by Turkey's test.
RESULTS
In non-thermal aged groups, SBS of Multilink group (M1) was higher than that of Calibra (C1) and Unicem (U1) group (P<.05). Moreover, even after thermocycling treatment, SBS of Multilink group (M2) was higher than the other groups (C2 and U2). All three cements showed lower SBS after the thermocycling than before the treatments. But Multilink and Unicem had a significant difference (P<.05).
CONCLUSION
In this experiment, Multilink showed the highest SBS before and after thermocycling. Also, bond strengths of all three cements decreased after thermocycling.
doi:10.4047/jap.2015.7.1.1
PMCID: PMC4341180  PMID: 25722830
Y-TZP zirconia; Resin cement; Shear bond strength; Thermocycling treatment; Silica coating
15.  Multicenter Prospective Observational Study of the Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Vancomycin versus Teicoplanin in Patients with Health Care-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia 
The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of vancomycin to those of teicoplanin for the treatment of adult patients with health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) bacteremia. A multicenter observational study was prospectively conducted in 15 teaching hospitals in Korea between February 2010 and July 2011. Adult patients (≥18 years old) with HA-MRSA bacteremia who were initially treated with vancomycin (VAN) (n = 134) or teicoplanin (TEC) (n = 56) were enrolled. Clinical and microbiological responses and drug-related adverse events were compared between the two treatment groups using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The vancomycin and teicoplanin MICs were determined by Etest. The MRSA-related mortality, duration of fever, and duration of MRSA bacteremia in the treatment groups were not significantly different. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of drug-related adverse events. Among the 190 MRSA isolates, the VAN MICs ranged from 0.5 to 2 μg/ml (MIC50 and MIC90, 1.5 μg/ml), and the TEC MIC ranged from 0.5 to 8 μg/ml (MIC50, 3 μg/ml; MIC90, 6 μg/ml). In multivariate analyses, the antibiotic type (vancomycin or teicoplanin) was not associated with treatment outcomes. This study indicates that teicoplanin is an effective and safe alternative to vancomycin for the treatment of HA-MRSA bacteremia.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00520-13
PMCID: PMC3910721  PMID: 24165181
16.  Can Levofloxacin Be a Useful Alternative to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole for Treating Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Bacteremia? 
A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin in the treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteremia. The 30-day mortality rates were similar between the trimerthoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and levofloxacin treatment groups. Adverse events related to antibiotics occurred more frequently in patients receiving TMP-SMX, and recurrent bacteremia due to levofloxacin-resistant S. maltophilia strains developed in patients treated with levofloxacin. Our data suggest that levofloxacin can be a useful alternative option for treating S. maltophilia infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01682-13
PMCID: PMC3910801  PMID: 24126583
17.  Extensively Drug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, South Korea, 2011–2012 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2014;20(5):869-871.
To better understand extensively drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, we assessed clinical and microbiological characteristics of 5 extensively drug-resistant pneumococcal isolates. We concluded that long-term care facility residents who had undergone tracheostomy might be reservoirs of these pneumococci; 13- and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccines should be considered for high-risk persons; and antimicrobial drugs should be used judiciously.
doi:10.3201/eid2005.131371
PMCID: PMC4012805  PMID: 24750694
Streptococcus pneumoniae; extensively drug-resistant; bacteria; South Korea; antimicrobial drug resistance
18.  Native valve endocarditis due to extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae 
doi:10.3904/kjim.2014.29.3.398
PMCID: PMC4028533  PMID: 24851078
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Endocarditis
19.  Exposure to hypergravity increases serum interleukin-5 and pulmonary infiltration in mice with allergic asthma 
Objective
We evaluated the effect of acute hypergravity (HG) on the immune response in a murine model of allergic asthma.
Material and methods
Twenty-eight BALB/c mice were used. Group A (control group, n = 7) mice were sensitized and challenged with normal saline. Group B (control HG exposure group, n = 7) mice were sensitized, challenged with saline, and exposed to acute HG (+10 Gz) for 4 hours. Group C (asthma group, n = 7) mice were challenged with intraperitoneal and intranasal ovalbumin (OVA) to induce asthma. Group D (asthma HG exposure group, n = 7) mice were exposed to HG for 4 hours after the induction of asthma. We estimated the total and OVA-specific serum IgE, serum titers of various cytokines, and the number of eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Histopathology of the lung was also evaluated.
Results
The serum level of interleukin (IL)-5 was significantly higher in Group D (12.9 ±4.9 pg/ml) compared to that in Group C (4.7 ±6.5 pg/ml, p = 0.017). In BAL fluid, the number of neutrophils was significantly increased in Group D compared to Group C (p = 0.014). Group D demonstrated a higher infiltration of inflammatory cells (9973.8 ±1642.7 cells/mm2) compared to Group C (7666.3 ±586.5 cells/mm2, p = 0.017). This tendency of increase in infiltration was not significant in non-asthmatic animals (Group A: 4488.8 ±176.1 cells/mm2 vs. Group B: 4946.3 ±513.7 cells/mm2, p > 0.05).
Conclusions
Acute HG exacerbated the allergic response by increasing serum IL-5 levels and promoting pulmonary infiltration of inflammatory cells.
doi:10.5114/ceji.2014.47725
PMCID: PMC4439952  PMID: 26155159
cytokines; asthma; allergy; hypergravity
20.  Incidence and Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection after Gastric Surgery: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study 
Infection & Chemotherapy  2013;45(4):422-430.
Background
Surgical site infection (SSI) is a potentially morbid and costly complication of surgery. While gastrointestinal surgery is relatively common in Korea, few studies have evaluated SSI in the context of gastric surgery. Thus, we performed a prospective cohort study to determine the incidence and risk factors of SSI in Korean patients undergoing gastric surgery.
Materials and Methods
A prospective cohort study of 2,091 patients who underwent gastric surgery was performed in 10 hospitals with more than 500 beds (nine tertiary hospitals and one secondary hospital). Patients were recruited from an SSI surveillance program between June 1, 2010, and August 31, 2011 and followed up for 1 month after the operation. The criteria used to define SSI and a patient's risk index category were established according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System. We collected demographic data and potential perioperative risk factors including type and duration of the operation and physical status score in patients who developed SSIs based on a previous study protocol.
Results
A total of 71 SSIs (3.3%) were identified, with hospital rates varying from 0.0 - 15.7%. The results of multivariate analyses indicated that prolonged operation time (P = 0.002), use of a razor for preoperative hair removal (P = 0.010), and absence of laminar flow in the operating room (P = 0.024) were independent risk factors for SSI after gastric surgery.
Conclusions
Longer operation times, razor use, and absence of laminar flow in operating rooms were independently associated with significant increased SSI risk after gastric surgery.
doi:10.3947/ic.2013.45.4.422
PMCID: PMC3902821  PMID: 24475356
Surgical site infection; Risk factors; Gastric surgery
22.  Mortality of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Korea: Assessed with the Pneumonia Severity Index and the CURB-65 Score 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(9):1276-1282.
The pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65 are widely used tools for the prediction of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study was conducted to evaluate validation of severity scoring system including the PSI and CURB-65 scores of Korean CAP patients. In the prospective CAP cohort (participated in by 14 hospitals in Korea from January 2009 to September 2011), 883 patients aged over 18 yr were studied. The 30-day mortalities of all patients were calculated with their PSI index classes and CURB scores. The overall mortality rate was 4.5% (40/883). The mortality rates per CURB-65 score were as follows: score 0, 2.3% (6/260); score 1, 4.0% (12/300); score 2, 6.0% (13/216); score 3, 5.7% (5/88); score 4, 23.5% (4/17); and score 5, 0% (0/2). Mortality rate with PSI risk class were as follows: I, 2.3% (4/174); II, 2.7% (5/182); III, 2.3% (5/213); IV, 4.5% (11/245); and V, 21.7% (15/69). The subgroup mortality rate of Korean CAP patients varies based on the severity scores and CURB-65 is more valid for the lower scores, and PSI, for the higher scores. Thus, these variations must be considered when using PSI and CURB-65 for CAP in Korean patients.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.9.1276
PMCID: PMC3763099  PMID: 24015030
Pneumonia; Prognosis; Severity Index
23.  First Imported Case of Skin Infection Caused by PVL-positive ST30 Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clone in a Returning Korean Traveler from the Philippines 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(7):1100-1102.
Although pandemic community-associated (CA-) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST30 clone has successfully spread into many Asian countries, there has been no case in Korea. We report the first imported case of infection caused by this clone in a Korean traveler returning from the Philippines. A previously healthy 30-yr-old Korean woman developed a buttock carbuncle while traveling in the Philippines. After coming back to Korea, oral cephalosporin was given by a primary physician without any improvement. Abscess was drained and MRSA strain isolated from her carbuncle was molecularly characterized and it was confirmed as ST30-MRSA-IV. She was successfully treated with vancomycin and surgery. Frequent international travel and migration have increased the risk of international spread of CA-MRSA clones. The efforts to understand the changing epidemiology of CA-MRSA should be continued, and we should raise suspicion of CA-MRSA infection in travelers with skin infections returning from CA-MRSA-endemic countries.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.7.1100
PMCID: PMC3708085  PMID: 23853497
Staphylococcus aureus; Methicillin Resistance; Community-Acquired Infections; Carbuncle; Travel
24.  Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Community-Onset Bacteremia Caused by Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli over a 6-Year Period 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(7):998-1004.
Although extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) has emerged as a significant community-acquired pathogen, there is little epidemiological information regarding community-onset bacteremia due to ESBL-EC. A retrospective observational study from 2006 through 2011 was performed to evaluate the epidemiology of community-onset bacteremia caused by ESBL-EC. In a six-year period, the proportion of ESBL-EC responsible for causing community-onset bacteremia had increased significantly, from 3.6% in 2006 to 14.3%, in 2011. Of the 97 clinically evaluable cases with ESBL-EC bacteremia, 32 (33.0%) were further classified as healthcare-associated infections. The most common site of infection was urinary tract infection (n=35, 36.1%), followed by biliary tract infections (n=29, 29.9%). Of the 103 ESBL-EC isolates, 43 (41.7%) produced CTX-M-14 and 36 (35.0%) produced CTX-M-15. In the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis of 76 isolates with CTX-M-14 or -15 type ESBLs, the most prevalent sequence type (ST) was ST131 (n=15, 19.7%), followed by ST405 (n=12, 15.8%) and ST648 (n=8, 10.5%). No significant differences in clinical features were found in the ST131 group versus the other group. These findings suggest that epidemic ESBL-EC clones such as CTX-M-14 or -15 type ESBLs and ST131 have disseminated in community-onset infections, even in bloodstream infections, which are the most serious type of infection.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.7.998
PMCID: PMC3708098  PMID: 23853481
Escherichia coli; Community-Acquired Infections; Cephalosporin Resistance; Bacteremia; Epidemiology
25.  Bacteremic Pneumonia Caused by Extensively Drug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(12):4175-4177.
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens the successful treatment of pneumococcal infections. Here we report a case of bacteremic pneumonia caused by an extremely drug-resistant strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae, nonsusceptible to at least one agent in all classes but vancomycin and linezolid, posing an important new public health threat in our region.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01642-12
PMCID: PMC3502956  PMID: 23052301

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