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Journal of Clinical Microbiology (1)
The Canadian Veterinary Journal (1)
Kalin, M (2)
Devaux, C (1)
DiFruscia, R (1)
Granath, F (1)
Granström, M (1)
Hedlund, J U (1)
Higgins, R (1)
KALIN, M. (1)
Kalin, M E (1)
Kanclerski, K (1)
Lemay, S (1)
Möllby, R (1)
Ortqvist, A B (1)
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Pneumococcal serotypes and their clinical relevance
Three cases of canine leptospirosis in Quebec.
The Canadian Veterinary Journal
Three dogs from different locations with acute renal failure were hospitalized in autumn 1996 and 1997. Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona was detected by the microscopic agglutination test. All dogs recovered after antibiotic treatment. The importance of the development of vaccines adapted to emerging serovars in dogs should be addressed.
Factors of importance for the long term prognosis after hospital treated pneumonia.
Hedlund, J U
Ortqvist, A B
BACKGROUND--Elderly patients admitted to hospital for community acquired pneumonia have a high risk of recurrence of pneumonia and of death during the years after discharge. In this study potential factors of importance for the long term prognosis after hospital treated pneumonia were retrospectively investigated. METHODS--A total of 241 patients (103 men) with a mean age of 60 (range 18-102) years discharged from hospital after treatment for community acquired pneumonia were studied. After an average follow up period of 31 months, 18 independent variables present during hospital treatment of the initial pneumonia were examined for association with the following end points: recurrence of pneumonia, death from any cause, and death from pneumonia. RESULTS--Age adjusted analysis showed that systemic treatment with corticosteroids correlated significantly with recurrence of pneumonia and with death. The presence of low serum albumin levels on admission or colonisation of the respiratory tract with Gram negative enteric bacteria seemed to be important negative prognostic factors for the outcome during pneumonia recurrences after discharge. CONCLUSIONS--Patients who are admitted to hospital with pneumonia are at risk of subsequent pneumonia and death after discharge. This risk seems to be even higher in patients who are treated with corticosteroids systemically, who have a low serum albumin level on admission, or who become colonised in the respiratory tract with Gram negative enteric bacteria during their hospital stay.
Diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of antibodies to pneumococcal hemolysin (pneumolysin).
Journal of Clinical Microbiology
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a highly purified pneumolysin as the antigen was evaluated for serological diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia. One hundred four healthy controls were tested, and the specificity of the test was set to 95%. In samples from patients with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, 82% (18 of 22) were positive, i.e., at least one serum sample had a titer above the upper normal limit or at least a twofold rise in antibody titers was noted. In nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, 45% (21 of 47) of samples were positive. All sera were negative for patients with pneumonia caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydia psittaci, and influenza A virus. However, in patients with a diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, 8 of 25 (32%) samples were positive for antibodies to pneumolysin. All sera, including those from patients with mycoplasma infection, were negative to a protein control antigen by ELISA. Serum immunoglobulin G response to pneumolysin as measured by ELISA might thus be an aid in the laboratory diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia. This assay may also help to further elucidate the occurrence of dual infections with pneumococci.
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