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author:("kairi, Masaki")
1.  Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e106702.
Recent meta-analyses concluded that antibiotic prophylaxis is not warranted in low-risk laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, most trials in the meta-analyses had a relatively small sample size and were statistically underpowered. In addition, many of the trials mentioned potential cost savings owing to the elimination of prophylactic antibiotics. However, no trial has statistically estimated the cost effectiveness. To evaluate the results of meta-analyses, we conducted a randomized controlled trial on the role of prophylactic antibiotics in low-risk laparoscopic cholecystectomy with an adequate sample size.
From March 2007 to May 2013, at the Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, patients who were scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to one of two arms: those who were and were not administered prophylactic antibiotics. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of postoperative infections and secondary endpoints were postoperative hospital stay and medical costs.
During the study period, 518 patients were assigned to the Antibiotics group and 519 to the No antibiotics group. Occurrences of surgical site infections, distant infections and overall infections were significantly lower in the Antibiotics group than in the No antibiotics group (0.8 vs. 3.7%, p = 0.001, OR: 0.205 (95%CI: 0.069 to 0.606); 0.4 vs. 3.1%, p = 0.0004, OR: 0.122 (95%CI: 0.028 to 0.533); 1.2 vs. 6.7%; p<0.0001, OR: 0.162 (95%CI: 0.068 to 0.389), respectively). The postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the Antibiotics group (mean, SD: 3.69±1.56 vs. 4.07±3.00; p = 0.01) and the postoperative medical costs were significantly lower in the Antibiotics group (mean, SD: $766±341 vs. 832±670; p = 0.047). Multivariable analysis showed that independent risk factors for postoperative infectious complications were no prophylactic antibiotics (p<0.0001) and age 65 or older (p = 0.006).
Perioperative administration of prophylactic antibiotics should be recommended in laparoscopic cholecystectomy to prevent postoperative infectious complications and to reduce medical costs.
Trial Registration
UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000003749.
PMCID: PMC4156368  PMID: 25192389
2.  Assessment of preoperative exercise capacity in hepatocellular carcinoma patients with chronic liver injury undergoing hepatectomy 
BMC Gastroenterology  2013;13:119.
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing measures oxygen uptake at increasing levels of work and predicts cardiopulmonary performance under conditions of stress, such as after abdominal surgery. Dynamic assessment of preoperative exercise capacity may be a useful predictor of postoperative prognosis. This study examined the relationship between preoperative exercise capacity and event-free survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with chronic liver injury who underwent hepatectomy.
Sixty-one HCC patients underwent preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing to determine their anaerobic threshold (AT). The AT was defined as the break point between carbon dioxide production and oxygen consumption per unit of time (VO2). Postoperative events including recurrence of HCC, death, liver failure, and complications of cirrhosis were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate associations between 35 clinical factors and outcomes, and identify independent prognostic indicators of event-free survival and maintenance of Child-Pugh class.
Multivariate analyses identified preoperative branched-chain amino acid/tyrosine ratio (BTR) <5, alanine aminotransferase level ≥42 IU/l, and AT VO2 <11.5 ml/min/kg as independent prognostic indicators of event-free survival. AT VO2 <11.5 ml/min/kg and BTR <5 were identified as independent prognostic indicators of maintenance of Child-Pugh class.
This study identified preoperative exercise capacity as an independent prognostic indicator of event-free survival and maintenance of Child-Pugh class in HCC patients with chronic liver injury undergoing hepatectomy.
PMCID: PMC3725155  PMID: 23875788
Liver cancer; Chronic liver injury; Hepatectomy; Exercise capacity; BCAA/tyrosine ratio
3.  Peroxidation of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Inhibits the Induction of iNOS Gene Expression in Proinflammatory Cytokine-Stimulated Hepatocytes 
Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), have a variety of biological activities including anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. We hypothesized that their peroxidized products contributed in part to anti-inflammatory effects. In the liver, the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been implicated as one of the factors in hepatic inflammation and injury. We examined whether the peroxidation of EPA/DHA influences the induction of iNOS and NO production in proinflammatory cytokine-stimulated cultured hepatocytes, which is in vitro liver inflammation model. Peroxidized EPA/DHA inhibited the induction of iNOS and NO production in parallel with the increased levels of their peroxidation, whereas unoxidized EPA/DHA had no effects at all. Peroxidized EPA/DHA reduced the activation of transcription factor, NF-κB, and the expression of the iNOS antisense transcript, which are involved in iNOS promoter transactivation (mRNA synthesis) and its mRNA stabilization, respectively. These findings demonstrated that peroxidized products of EPA/DHA suppressed the induction of iNOS gene expression through both of the transcriptional and posttranscriptional steps, leading to the prevention of hepatic inflammation.
PMCID: PMC3136170  PMID: 21773019

Results 1-3 (3)