Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies were undertaken to investigate the consistently deleted loci/? tumor suppressor gene loci (TSG) on 3p in conventional renal cell carcinoma (cRCC).
Materials and Methods:
LOH studies were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using 15 micro satellite markers mapped in region 3p12-p26 on 40 paired cRCC tumors and normal kidney at Stages I-IV. Simultaneously, fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) studies were performed to investigate the allelic deletion of fragile histidine triad (FHIT).
Our studies revealed three affected regions; 3p12.2-p14.1, 3p14.2-p21.1, and 3p24.2-p26.1 with differential frequencies in Group I (Stage I and II) and Group II (Stage III and IV). Incidence for D3S1234 (FHIT locus) and D3S2454 (3p13) was 75% and 83% in Group I and II, respectively. Comparative allelotyping in epithelial malignancies like lung, bladder, and breast tumors revealed LOH (frequency 14–20%) only in breast tumors for D3S2406, D3S1766 (distal to FHIT), and D3S1560 (distal to VHL, Von-Hippal Lindau). FISH using FHIT gene probe revealed deletions in cRCC (88%), breast (30%), and lung tumors (10%) with no deletions in bladder tumors and leukemias, signifying the importance of FHIT in the pathogenesis of tumors of epithelial origin.
Our findings suggested FHIT deletion as an early and VHL deletion as an early and/or late event in cRCC. Additionally, studies also disclosed the recurrent deletions of flanking loci to FHIT and VHL in cRCC. The dilemma of interstitial or continuous deletion on 3p needs to be resolved by implementation of latest sensitive molecular techniques that would further help to narrow down search for TSG loci specific to cRCC, other than VHL and FHIT.