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1.  Moderate Increase of Mean Daily Temperature Adversely Affects Fruit Set of Lycopersicon esculentum by Disrupting Specific Physiological Processes in Male Reproductive Development 
Annals of Botany  2006;97(5):731-738.
• Background and Aims Global warming is gaining significance as a threat to natural and managed ecosystems since temperature is one of the major environmental factors affecting plant productivity. Hence, the effects of moderate temperature increase on the growth and development of the tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum) were investigated.
• Methods Plants were grown at 32/26 °C as a moderately elevated temperature stress (METS) treatment or at 28/22 °C (day/night temperatures) as a control with natural light conditions. Vegetative growth and reproductive development as well as sugar content and metabolism, proline content and translocation in the androecium were investigated.
• Key Results METS did not cause a significant change in biomass, the number of flowers, or the number of pollen grains produced, but there was a significant decrease in the number of fruit set, pollen viability and the number of pollen grains released. Glucose and fructose contents in the androecium (i.e. all stamens from one flower) were generally higher in the control than METS, but sucrose was higher in METS. Coincidently, the mRNA transcript abundance of acid invertase in the androecium was decreased by METS. Proline contents in the androecium were almost the same in the control and METS, while the mRNA transcript level of proline transporter 1, which expresses specifically at the surface of microspores, was significantly decreased by METS.
• Conclusions The research indicated that failure of tomato fruit set under a moderately increased temperature above optimal is due to the disruption of sugar metabolism and proline translocation during the narrow window of male reproductive development.
PMCID: PMC2803419  PMID: 16497700
Lycopersicon esculentum; moderately elevated temperature stress; microsporogenesis; mean daily temperature; fruit set; pollen release; male reproductive development; tapetum; hexose; sucrose; acid invertase; proline transporter
2.  Undetectable S cone electroretinogram b-wave in complete congenital stationary night blindness. 
AIMS: The short wavelength sensitive (S) cone electroretinograms (ERGs) were examined in two patients with the complete type of congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB). METHODS: Ganzfeld spectral flashes in the presence of strong white adapting fields were used to elicit the S cone ERGs. RESULTS: The S cone ERG b-wave was not detectable to short wavelength stimuli, while the mixed long (L) and middle (M) wavelength sensitive cone responses appeared normal in waveforms with normal amplitude in both patients. Both patients had normal colour vision on the Farnsworth Panel D-15. CONCLUSIONS: These ERG results indicated that the S cone system as well as rod system is more impaired in complete CSNB than the L and M cone system and that normal colour vision may not depend on a normal S cone ERG to full field stimuli.
PMCID: PMC505559  PMID: 8795377
3.  Selective reduction of the S cone electroretinogram in diabetes. 
AIMS: To determine whether the short wavelength sensitive (S) cone electroretinogram (ERG) is selectively altered in diabetic patients with and without retinopathy. METHODS: Ganzfeld spectral flashes in the presence of bright white background illumination were used to elicit S cone ERGs is 15 non-retinopathic diabetics, 16 background retinopathic diabetics, and 16 age matched normal controls. RESULTS: The amplitude of the S cone ERG b-wave was significantly reduced in both non-retinopathic and retinopathic diabetics. An action spectrum based on equal response criteria revealed a selective loss of S cone sensitivity in diabetics. However, no significant difference was observed in the long and middle wavelength sensitive cone ERG. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic patients showed selective reduction of the S cone ERG, which is thought to reflect changes in the outer retina.
PMCID: PMC505674  PMID: 8976724
4.  In vivo binding of circulating immune complexes by C3b receptors (CR1) of transfused erythrocytes. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1989;48(4):287-294.
The effects of packed erythrocyte transfusion with high CR1 activity on circulating immune complex concentrations were studied in 14 transfusion experiments involving 12 patients with immune complex related diseases. Before erythrocyte transfusion circulating immune complex concentrations ranged from 8 to 128 micrograms/ml. After transfusion (2-3 units) immune complex concentrations decreased depending on the levels of CH50 titres in the recipients. In 11 experiments, in which the patients' CH50 titres ranged from 21 to 44, immune complex concentrations decreased by 75-100% within five days. The CH50 titres were also decreased after erythrocyte transfusion but subsequently increased to initial ranges within 6-35 days. In three patients with low CH50 titres (1.0-10.0) decreases in immune complexes were not observed. Direct Coombs' tests for IgG and C3 were performed before and after erythrocyte transfusion to determine potential in vivo binding of circulating immune complexes. Thus in eight of 14 experiments, in which erythrocytes carried no IgG before packed erythrocyte transfusion, seven became Coombs' positive for IgG after the transfusion. In seven of 14 experiments, in which erythrocytes were negative for complement before transfusion, five became positive afterwards. Moreover, in 12 instances slight increases of CR1 activity of patients' erythrocytes were observed within eight days, which improved further within 35 days after erythrocyte transfusion. These studies suggest that transfusion of erythrocytes with high CR1 activity results in the removal of circulating immune complexes and that this process is dependent on complement consumption. These experiments support the hypothesis that erythrocyte-CR1 has a functional role in the removal of circulating immune complexes and may thereby inhibit the deposition of immune complexes within body tissue constituents.
PMCID: PMC1003743  PMID: 2523692
5.  Relationships between C3b receptor (CR1) activity of erythrocytes and positive Coombs' tests. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1986;45(5):367-372.
Although positive direct Coombs' tests occur in most patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), haemolytic anaemic associated with antibody to erythrocytes (E) occurs in less than 10%. Our studies show an association between positive direct Coombs' tests and both the presence of circulating immune complexes and diminished activity of the C3b receptor (CR1) of E. Data presented in this report suggest that in vivo binding of immune complexes and complement by the CR1 of E results in positive direct Coombs' tests in the absence of antibody to E. These observations explain the low frequency of haemolytic anaemia compared with the high frequency of direct positive Coombs' tests in patients with SLE.
PMCID: PMC1001893  PMID: 2940981

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