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1.  Modification of a Rodent Hindlimb Model of Secondary Lymphedema: Surgical Radicality versus Radiotherapeutic Ablation 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:208912.
Secondary lymphedema is an intractable disease mainly caused by damage of the lymphatic system during surgery, yet studies are limited by the lack of suitable animal models. The purpose of this study was to create an improved model of secondary lymphedema in the hindlimbs of rodents with sustained effects and able to mimic human lymphedema. This was achieved by combining previously reported surgical methods and radiation to induce chronic lymphedema. Despite more radical surgical destruction of superficial and deep lymphatic vessels, surgery alone was not enough to sustain increased hindlimb volume. Radiotherapy was necessary to prolong these effects, with decreased lymphatic flow on lymphoscintigraphy, but hindlimb necrosis occurred after 4 weeks due to radiation toxicity. The applicability of this model for studies of therapeutic lymphangiogenesis was subsequently tested by injecting muscle-derived stem cells previously cocultured with the supernatant of human lymphatic endothelial cells in vitro. There was a tendency for increased lymphatic flow which significantly increased lymphatic vessel formation after cell injection, but attenuation of hindlimb volume was not observed. These results suggest that further refinement of the rodent hindlimb model is needed by titration of adequate radiation dosage, while stem cell lymphangiogenesis seems to be a promising approach.
doi:10.1155/2013/208912
PMCID: PMC3856125  PMID: 24350251
2.  Individualized Cutoff Value of the Preoperative Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level is Necessary for Optimal Use as a Prognostic Marker 
Annals of Coloproctology  2013;29(3):106-114.
Purpose
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an important prognostic marker in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, in some stages, it does not work. We performed this study to find a way in which preoperative CEA could be used as a constant prognostic marker in harmony with the TNM staging system.
Methods
Preoperative CEA levels and recurrences in CRC were surveyed. The distribution of CEA levels and the recurrences in each TNM stage of CRC were analyzed. An optimal cutoff value for each TNM stage was calculated and tested for validity as a prognostic marker within the TNM staging system.
Results
The conventional cutoff value of CEA (5 ng/mL) was an independent prognostic factor on the whole. However, when evaluated in subgroups, it was not a prognostic factor in stage I or stage III of N2. A subgroup analysis according to TNM stage revealed different CEA distributions and recurrence rates corresponding to different CEA ranges. The mean CEA levels were higher in advanced stages. In addition, the recurrence rates of corresponding CEA ranges were higher in advanced stages. Optimal cutoff values from the receiver operating characteristic curves were 7.4, 5.5, and 4.5 ng/mL for TNM stage I, II, and III, respectively. Those for N0, N1, and N2 stages were 5.5, 4.8, and 3.5 ng/mL, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survivals were significantly different according to these cutoff values for each TNM and N stage. The multivariate analysis confirmed the new cutoff values to be more efficient in discriminating the prognosis in the subgroups of the TNM stages.
Conclusion
Individualized cutoff values of the preoperative CEA level are a more practical prognostic marker following and in harmony with the TNM staging system.
doi:10.3393/ac.2013.29.3.106
PMCID: PMC3710771  PMID: 23862128
Carcinoembryonic antigen; Colorectal neoplasms; Prognosis; TNM Staging; Cutoff value
3.  Comparison of Costs of Endovascular Repair versus Open Surgical Repair for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(4):416-422.
This study was designed to compare the hospital-related costs of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) treatment and cost structure between endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and open surgical repair (OSR) in Korean health care system. One hundred five primary elective AAA repairs (79 OSRs and 26 EVARs) performed in the Seoul National University Hospital from 2005 to 2009 were included. Patient characteristics were similar between two groups except for older age (P = 0.004) and more frequent history of malignancy (P = 0.031) in EVAR group. Thirty-day mortality rate was similar between two groups and there was no AAA-related mortality in both groups for 5 yr after repair. The total in-hospital costs for the index admission were significantly higher in EVAR patients (mean, KRW19,857,119) than OSR patients (mean KRW12,395,507) (P < 0.001). The reimbursement was also significantly higher in EVAR patients than OSR patients (mean, KRW14,071,081 vs KRW6,238,895, P < 0.001) while patients payments was comparable between two groups. EVAR patients showed higher follow-up cost up to 2 yr due to more frequent imaging studies and reinterventions for type II endoleaks (15.4%). In the perspective of cost-effectiveness, this study suggests that the determination of which method to be used in AAA treatment be more finely trimmed and be individualized.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.4.416
PMCID: PMC3314855  PMID: 22468106
Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal; Endovascular Repair; Open Surgical Repair; Cost Effectiveness
4.  Carcinoembryonic antigen level of draining venous blood as a predictor of recurrence in colorectal cancer patient 
Purpose
We designed this study to evaluate the efficacy of carcinoembryonic antigen in draining venous blood (vCEA) as a predictor of recurrence.
Methods
Draining venous and supplying arterial bloods were collected separately during the operation of 82 colorectal cancer patients without distant metastasis from September 2004 to December 2006. Carcinoembryonic antigen was measured and assessed for the efficacy as a prognostic factor of recurrence using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Kaplan-Meier curves.
Results
vCEA is a statistically significant factor that predicts recurrence (P = 0.032) and the optimal cut-off value for vCEA from ROC curve is 8.0 ng/mL. The recurrence-free survival between patients with vCEA levels >8 ng/mL and ≤8 ng/mL significantly differed (P < 0.001). The significance of vCEA as a predictor of recurrence gets higher when limited to patients without lymph node metastasis. The proper cut-off value for vCEA is 4.0 ng/mL if confined to patients without lymph node metastasis. The recurrence-free survival between the patients of vCEA levels >4 ng/mL and ≤4 ng/mL significantly differed (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed vCEA is an independent prognostic factor in patients without lymph node metastasis.
Conclusion
vCEA is an independent prognostic factor of recurrence in colorectal cancer patients especially in patients without lymph node metastases.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.6.387
PMCID: PMC3243855  PMID: 22200039
Colorectal neoplasms; Carcinoembryonic antigen; Prognosis; Recurrence
5.  Experience of non-vascular complications following endovascular aneurysm repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm 
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society  2011;80(Suppl 1):S67-S70.
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a widely used method, and its decreased invasiveness compared to traditional surgical repair has brought about reduced rates of morbidity and mortality. Several vascular complications related to the procedure have been reported, but non-vascular complications have rarely occurred. We report herein the case of a 78-year-old man who underwent EVAR for AAA and presented with active duodenal ulcer bleeding and acute acalculous cholecystitis as complications after the procedure. We must consider that a wide spectrum of complications may occur following EVAR, and therefore it is important to evaluate the risks of complication and to take the necessary measures to minimize them.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.80.Suppl1.S67
PMCID: PMC3205366  PMID: 22066089
Complication; Endovascular aneurysm repair; Abdominal aortic aneurysm
6.  Limited Feasibility in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Using Currently Available Graft in Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2008;23(4):651-656.
Despite the wide acceptance of endovascular aneurysmal repair in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (EVAR), stringent morphologic criteria recommended by manufacturers may preclude this treatment in patients with AAA. The purpose of this study was to investigate how many patients are feasible by Zenith and Excluder stent graft system, which are available in Korea. Eighty-two AAA patients (71 men, mean age 70 yr) who had been treated surgically or medically from January 2005 to December 2006 were included. Criteria for morphologic suitability (MS) were examined to focus on characteristics of aneurysm; proximal and distal landing zone; angulation and involvement of both iliac artery aneurysms. Twenty-eight patients (34.1%) were feasible in Zenith stent graft and 31 patients (37.8%) were feasible in Excluder. The patients who were excluded EVAR had an average of 1.61 exclusion criteria. The main reasons for exclusion were an unfavorable proximal neck (n=34, 41.5%) and problem of distal landing zone (n=25, 30.5%). There was no statistical significance among gender, age or aneurysm size in terms of MS. Only 32 patients (39%) who had AAA were estimated to be suitable for two currently approved grafts by strict criteria. However, even unfavorable AAA patients who have severe co-mobidities will be included in EVAR in the near future. Therefore, more efforts including fine skill and anatomical understanding will be needed to meet these challenging cases.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2008.23.4.651
PMCID: PMC2526404  PMID: 18756052
Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal; Suitability; EVAR
7.  Epstein-Barr Virus, Beta-Catenin, and E-cadherin in Gastric Carcinomas 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(5):855-861.
Activated beta-catenin is suggested to inhibit NF-kappaB activation, and we previously demonstrated that NF-kappaB nuclear positivity was more frequent in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected gastric carcinomas. It is controversial that beta-catenin and E-cadherin are prognostic markers in gastric carcinomas. To define a relationship between beta-catenin and EBV, and the prognostic value of beta-catenin and E-cadherin, we analyzed in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded small RNAs, beta-catenin, and E-cadherin immunohistochemistry, and clinicophatological features in 111 gastric carcinomas. EBV infection was detected in seven carcinomas (6.3%); none of seven showed beta-catenin nuclear accumulation, and five out of seven revealed beta-catenin membranous loss or cytoplamic expression. Eighty cases (72.1%) showed beta-catenin alteration; i.e., loss of membrane staining in 65 (58.6%), cytoplasmic expression in 35 (31.5%), and nuclear accumulation in 15 (13.5%). E-cadherin alteration was observed in 34 cases (30.6%) and correlated with beta-catenin alteration. On multivariate analysis, the combined immunoexpression group of beta-catenin nuclear accumulation/ E-cadherin alteration and the advanced TNM cancer stage group showed poor patient's survival (p<0.05). In conclusion, beta-catenin activation through nuclear accumulation hardly occurred in EBV-infected gastric carcinomas. The combined immunoexpression pattern of beta-catenin and E-cadherin can be used as a prognostic marker in gastric carcinomas.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2007.22.5.855
PMCID: PMC2693853  PMID: 17982235
Stomach Neoplasms; Herpesvirus 4, Human; Beta Catenin; Cadherins; Prognosis
8.  Expression of Cell Cycle Regulators During Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation After Balloon Catheter Injury of Rat Artery 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2004;19(3):327-332.
Intimal hyperplasia is defined as the abnormal migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with deposition of extracellular matrix. However, the cell cycle regulatory mechanisms of injury-induced VSMC proliferation are largely unknown. To examine the expression kinetics of cell cycle regulatory factors which is known to be worked positively or negatively, we used rat balloon injury model. Marked induction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), G1/S cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk2), and its regulatory subunit (cyclin E) occurred between 1 and 3 days after balloon arterial injury, and this was sustained for up to 7 days and then declined. However, the induction of the negative regulators, p21 and p27, occurred between 3 and 5 days of injury, peaked after 7 and 14 days and was then sustained. VSMC proliferation after balloon catheter injury of the rat iliac artery is associated with coordinated expression of positive (cdk2, cyclin E and PCNA) and negative (p21, p27) regulators. Cell cycle regulators such as cdk2, cyclin E, p21, p27 may be suitable targets for the control of intimal hyperplasia.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2004.19.3.327
PMCID: PMC2816830  PMID: 15201495
Endothelium, Vascular; Myocytes, Smooth Muscle; Tunica Intima; Cell Cycle Proteins; Rat

Results 1-8 (8)