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1.  Efficacy and safety of solifenacin succinate in Korean patients with overactive bladder: a randomised, prospective, double-blind, multicentre study 
We assessed the efficacy and safety of solifenacin compared with tolterodine for treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) in Korean patients.
Materials and methods:
The study was randomised, double-blind, tolterodine-controlled trial in Korea. Patients had average frequency of ≥ 8 voids per 24 h and episodes of urgency or urgency incontinence ≥ 3 during 3-day voiding diary period. Patients were randomised to 12-week double-blind treatment with either tolterodine immediate release (IR) 2 mg twice daily (TOL4) or solifenacin 5 mg (SOL5) or 10 mg (SOL10) once daily. The outcome measure was mean change in daily micturition frequency, volume, daily frequency of urgency incontinence, urgency and nocturia from baseline to week 12. Quality of life was assessed using the King’s Health Questionnaire.
A total of 357 were randomised and 329 were evaluated for efficacy. All voiding parameters recorded in micturition diary improved after treatment in all three groups. Mean changes in volume voided were 19.30 ml (26.69%) in TOL4, 30.37 ml (25.89%) in SOL5 and 37.12 ml (33.36%) in SOL10 group (p = 0.03). Speed of onset of SOL10 efficacy on urgency incontinence was faster than that of SOL5 and TOL4. Quality of life improved in all three groups. Dry mouth was the most common adverse event; its incidence was the lowest in SOL5 group (7.63%, compared with 19.49% and 18.64% in SOL10 and TOL4 groups respectively).
Solifenacin succinate 5 and 10 mg once daily improve OAB symptoms with acceptable tolerability levels compared with tolterodine IR 4 mg. Solifenacin 5 mg is a recommended starting dose in Korean patients with OAB.
PMCID: PMC2680337  PMID: 19143854
2.  Helicobacter pylori eradication for low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is more successful in inducing remission in distal compared to proximal disease 
British Journal of Cancer  2007;96(9):1324-1328.
A series of studies has shown that Helicobacter pylori eradication induces remission in most patients with low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. However, there have been few reports about the effect of bacterial treatment on the gastric MALT lymphoma in Korea, a well-known H. pylori endemic area. A total of 111 H. pylori-infected patients were prospectively enrolled in Seoul National University Hospital and 99 among them were completely followed up according to our protocol. After H. pylori eradication, tumoural response was evaluated by endoscopy and histopathology every 2–3 months till complete remission (CR) and every 6 months after achieving CR. Median follow-up period was 41 months (range, 11–125 months). Helicobacter pylori was successfully eradicated in all 99 patients and CR was obtained in 84 (84.8%) of 99 patients. The median time to reach CR was 3 months and 94% of CR is in continuous complete remission. Five patients with CR relapsed after 10–22 months without the evidence of H. pylori reinfection. Cumulative recurrence rate was 2.3, 7.7 and 9.3% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively. Tumours were mainly located in distal stomach (67.7%) and tumours in distal stomach were associated with more favourable response than those in proximal stomach (P=0.001). Majority of patients with low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma treated by exclusive H. pylori eradication have a favourable long-term outcome, offering a real chance of cure. Tumour location could be a predictive factor for remission following H. pylori eradication.
PMCID: PMC2360178  PMID: 17406363
mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; Helicobacter pylori; long-term outcome; tumour location
3.  A distinct array of proinflammatory cytokines is expressed in human colon epithelial cells in response to bacterial invasion. 
Pathogenic bacteria that penetrate the intestinal epithelial barrier stimulate an inflammatory response in the adjacent intestinal mucosa. The present studies asked whether colon epithelial cells can provide signals that are important for the initiation and amplification of an acute mucosal inflammatory response. Infection of monolayers of human colon epithelial cell lines (T84, HT29, Caco-2) with invasive strains of bacteria (Salmonella dublin, Shigella dysenteriae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli) resulted in the coordinate expression and upregulation of a specific array of four proinflammatory cytokines, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, GM-CSF, and TNF alpha, as assessed by mRNA levels and cytokine secretion. Expression of the same cytokines was upregulated after TNF alpha or IL-1 stimulation of these cells. In contrast, cytokine gene expression was not altered after infection of colon epithelial cells with noninvasive bacteria or the noninvasive protozoan parasite, G. lamblia. Notably, none of the cell lines expressed mRNA for IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12p40, IFN-gamma, or significant levels of IL-1 or IL-10 in response to the identical stimuli. The coordinate expression of IL-8, MCP-1, GM-CSF and TNF alpha appears to be a general property of human colon epithelial cells since an identical array of cytokines, as well as IL-6, also was expressed by freshly isolated human colon epithelial cells. Since the cytokines expressed in response to bacterial invasion or other proinflammatory agonists have a well documented role in chemotaxis and activation of inflammatory cells, colon epithelial cells appear to be programmed to provide a set of signals for the activation of the mucosal inflammatory response in the earliest phases after microbial invasion.
PMCID: PMC295369  PMID: 7814646
4.  Polymorphic reticulosis with colonic lesion--a case report. 
A 38-year-old man was admitted with a high fever, sore throat, and right upper quadrant pain. Nine months before his admission, he had undergone right hemicolectomy under the impression of intestinal lymphoma. But there had been no evidence of lymphoma on microscopic examination. Under the postoperative diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease, corticosteroid therapy was tried without response. On the follow-up colonoscopic examination, an ovoid ulcer, with convergence of the surrounding mucosal folds at the descending colon and an irregularly shaped ulcer at the ileocolic anastomotic site, were found. The colonoscopic diagnosis was Behcet's colitis. After pathologic slides of biopsy and surgical specimens obtained from the palatine tonsil and colon were reviewed, the diagnosis of polymorphic reticulosis was made. The patient received anticancer chemotherapy, including cyclophophamide and glucocorticosteroid. To date, colonic involvement of polymorphic reticulosis has not been reported. Because of the similarity of the colonoscopic findings to those of Behcet's colitis, polymorphic reticulosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. We assume that this is the first case of polymorphic reticulosis involving the colon with characteristic colonoscopic findings.
PMCID: PMC3053731  PMID: 2278664
5.  Temporal changes in the clinical type or diagnosis of Behçet's colitis in patients with aphthoid or punched-out colonic ulcerations. 
The intestinal lesion of Behçet's colitis shows aphthoid or punched-out ulceration. However, the diagnosis of Behçet's colitis should be based on the presence of other stigmata of Behçet's syndrome, since these morphological characteristics are not pathognomonic by themselves. Furthermore, the stigmata of Behçet's syndrome could appear simultaneously or separately with intervals of several months to years. Besides, when a physician first meets patients with intestinal ulcerations of aphthoid or punched-out shape, if they do not have any stigma of Behçet's syndrome, the physician has some difficulty in making a diagnosis of Behçet's colitis. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the followings: 1) The upgrade in clinical type of Behçet's colitis with the advance of time. 2) What portion of the patients with aphthoid or punched-out ulcerations, but without any other clinical feature of Behçet's syndrome, could be diagnosed as Behçet's colitis with the advance of time? During the mean follow-up period of 38.2 months, 4 (22.2%) out of 18 patients with Behçet's colitis upgraded their clinical types. In the nonspecific ileocolitis group, who had no major stigma of Behçet's syndrome on their initial visit, 3 (30%) out of 10 patients were subsequently diagnosed as Behçet's colitis during the mean follow-up period of 33.3 months. From these results, we could conclude that in possible or suspicious cases of Behçet's colitis, a more confident diagnosis could be made by close observations for new developments of major stigma of Behçet's syndrome. Even in cases of nonspecific ileocolitis, the diagnosis of Behçet's colitis could be made in a significant number of cases as time goes by.
PMCID: PMC3049715  PMID: 1844639
6.  Atypical clinical manifestations of amebic colitis. 
Amebic colitis is a disease revealing diverse clinical manifestations and endoscopic gross features and often confused with other types of colitis. In case of misdiagnosis as an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease or delayed recognition of intestinal amebiasis, an undesirable outcome may occur resulting from erroneous administration of steroids or delayed antiamebic treatment. To demonstrate the pitfalls in the diagnosis and treatment of intestinal amebiasis, 3 cases of amebic colitis with atypical clinical manifestations are presented in this paper. In conclusion, despite the low sensitivities of routine stool examination for parasite and histopathologic confirmation in biopsy specimen, every effort must be made to find amebic trophozoites either in fresh stool or biopsy specimens for prompt and correct diagnosis of amebic colitis when we manage patients with chronic intestinal ulcerations, even though their clinical course and endoscopic findings are not typical of amebiasis. Moreover, following initial successful anti-amebic therapy, more careful clinical, endoscopical, and parasitological follow-up should be done for the early detection of recurrence.
PMCID: PMC3049708  PMID: 1777131

Results 1-6 (6)