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2.  Rural Health in Pharmacy Curricula 
The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act proposes strategies to address the workforce shortages of primary care practitioners in rural America. This review addresses the question, “What specialized education and training are colleges and schools of pharmacy providing for graduates who wish to enter pharmacy practice in rural health?” All colleges and schools accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education or those in precandidate status as of December 2011 were included in an Internet-based review of Web sites. A wide scope of curricular offerings were found, ranging from no description of courses or experiences in a rural setting to formally developed programs in rural pharmacy. Although the number of pharmacy colleges and schools providing either elective or required courses in rural health is encouraging, more education and training with this focus are needed to help overcome the unmet need for quality pharmacy care for rural populations.
doi:10.5688/ajpe769180
PMCID: PMC3508494  PMID: 23193344
rural health; pharmacy curriculum; underserved; experiential
3.  Prospective Student Pharmacist Interest in a Rural Pharmacy Curriculum 
Objective. To determine prospective student pharmacists’ interest in a rural pharmacy health curriculum.
Methods. All applicants who were selected to interview for fall 2011 enrollment at the UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy were invited to participate in a Web-based survey. Questions addressed participants’ willingness to participate in a rural health pharmacy curriculum, interest in practicing in a rural area, and beliefs regarding patient access to healthcare in rural areas.
Results. Of the 250 prospective student pharmacists invited to participate, 91% completed the survey instrument. Respondents agreed that populations living in rural areas may have different health needs, and students were generally interested in a rural pharmacy health curriculum.
Conclusions. An online survey of prospective student pharmacists was an effective way to assess their interest in a rural pharmacy program being considered by the study institution. Location of the rural program at a satellite campus and availability of housing were identified as factors that could limit enrollment.
doi:10.5688/ajpe766105
PMCID: PMC3425920  PMID: 22919081
Rural health; pharmacy curriculum; underserved; manpower; survey
4.  Practice Settings, Job Responsibilities, and Job Satisfaction of Nontraditional PharmD and BS Pharmacy Graduates 
Objectives
To assess differences in the practice of pharmacy and in job satisfaction between graduates of a nontraditional doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program and a bachelor of science (BS) in pharmacy program.
Methods
Two separate survey instruments were mailed to 293 PharmD graduates and 293 BS graduates.
Results
Two hundred fourteen (73.0%) of the 293 nontraditional PharmD graduates and 189 (64.5%) of the 293 BS graduates completed the survey instruments. Nontraditional PharmD graduates expressed greater satisfaction, both in their current position and with pharmacy as a career, compared to BS graduates. Nontraditional PharmD graduates were more likely than BS graduates to practice in a hospital and have more clinical responsibilities.
Conclusions
Nontraditional PharmD graduates are more likely to have greater satisfaction with their job and with pharmacy as a career compared to BS-trained pharmacists.
PMCID: PMC2690895  PMID: 19513171
nontraditional PharmD degree; job responsibilities; job satisfaction
5.  The Structured Interview and Interviewer Training in the Admissions Process 
Objectives
To determine the extent to which the structured interview is used in the PharmD admissions process in US colleges and schools of pharmacy, and the prevalence and content of interviewer training.
Methods
A survey instrument consisting of 7 questions regarding interviews and interviewer training was sent to 92 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States that were accredited or seeking accreditation.
Results
Sixty survey instruments (65% response rate) were returned. The majority of the schools that responded (80%) used interviews as part of the PharmD admissions process. Of the schools that used an interview as part of the admissions process, 86% provided some type of interviewer training and 13% used a set of predefined questions in admissions interviews.
Conclusions
Most colleges and schools of pharmacy use some components of the structured interview in the PharmD admissions process; however, training for interviewers varies widely among colleges and schools of pharmacy.
PMCID: PMC2064881  PMID: 17998980
structured interview; interview; interviewer training; admissions
6.  Development of a Course Review Process 
Objective. To describe and assess a course review process designed to enhance course quality.
Design. A course review process led by the curriculum and assessment committees was designed for all required courses in the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program at a school of pharmacy. A rubric was used by the review team to address 5 areas: course layout and integration, learning outcomes, assessment, resources and materials, and learner interaction.
Assessment. One hundred percent of targeted courses, or 97% of all required courses, were reviewed from January to August 2010 (n=30). Approximately 3.5 recommendations per course were made, resulting in improvement in course evaluation items related to learning outcomes. Ninety-five percent of reviewers and 85% of course directors agreed that the process was objective and the course review process was important.
Conclusion. The course review process was objective and effective in improving course quality. Future work will explore the effectiveness of an integrated, continual course review process in improving the quality of pharmacy education.
doi:10.5688/ajpe767130
PMCID: PMC3448468  PMID: 23049102
course review; curriculum; assessment; instructional methods; course evaluations
8.  Roles of Innovation in Education Delivery 
This paper reviews trends in higher education, characterizing both the current learning environments in pharmacy education as well as a vision for future learning environments, and outlines a strategy for successful implementation of innovations in educational delivery. The following 3 areas of focus are addressed: (1) rejecting the use of the majority of classroom time for the simple transmission of factual information to students; (2) challenging students to think critically, communicate lucidly, and synthesize broadly in order to solve problems; and (3) adopting a philosophy of “evidence-based education” as a core construct of instructional innovation and reform.
PMCID: PMC2828315  PMID: 20221347
blended learning; distance education; e-learning; learning environment; online learning

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