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1.  Evaluation of Some Plasma Coagulation Factors in Women with Spontaneous Miscarriage  
It has been reported that 15-20% of parous female have experienced at least one miscarriage, while 3% of them have experienced two miscarriages. The goal of this study was to evaluate the plasma level of coagulation factors in women with a history of spontaneous abortions.
Materials and Methods
In this case-control study, 82 women with a history of two or more abortions referred to the six private gynecologic clinics in Gorgan city without any structural abnormality were recruited during 2011-2012. Plasma levels of antithrombin III (ATIII) using colorimetric assay, protein C, protein S, factor V Leiden and lupus anticoagulant (LAC) using coagulation method were measured. The control group was women with a history of normal delivery and no abortions. Those under anti-coagulant therapy were excluded from the study. Data were entered into the computer using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) version 16 and analyzed by Chi-square, t test and non-parametric tests.
At least one abnormality was reported in 35 cases (42.7%). Among them, protein C deficiency was the most prevalent (30.5%). ATIII was abnormal in 17.1% and lupus anti-coagulant was abnormal in 8.5%. Factor V Leiden was normal in all cases and protein S deficiency was only seen in one case.
We suggest to perform these tests in regards to the thrombophilia in cases with spontaneous abortions in order to find an early cure for this treatable disorder.
PMCID: PMC4671379  PMID: 26644853
Thrombophilia; Abortion; Protein C; Protein S; Factor V Leiden
2.  The association between abdominal obesity and serum cholesterol level 
The main aim of this study is to evaluate the association between serum cholesterol level and abdominal obesity in adult men and women in the north of Iran.
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional and analytical study was conducted on the 1956 subjects (990 men and 966 women) between 25 and 65 years old chosen by cluster sampling. Plasma cholesterol was measured in the morning after a 12 h fast and determined by auto-analyzer. Hypercholesterolemia (HC) was defined by a total plasma cholesterol level over 200 mg/dl. Waist circumference ≥102 cm and ≥88 cm in men and women were defined as abdominal obesity. SPSS 16.0 software was used for statistical analysis and P < 0.05 considered as statistical significance.
Averagely, the mean of age was 44.2 years and mean ± standard deviation of plasma total cholesterol level was 203 ± 11.3 mg/dl. The HC was seen in 50.8% of subjects with a more common in women than in men. Compared with normal subjects, in abdominal obese people, the odds ratio (OR) of HC was (OR = 4.208 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.939–9.130]) and (OR = 3.956 [95% CI: 1.821–8.592]) in men aged 25–35 and 35–45 years, respectively. In women aged 25–35 years, it was (OR = 3.444 [95% CI: 1.959–6.056]) in abdominal obese compared with normal subjects.
Hypercholesterolemia was revealed as a major health problem among adults, and it was associated with abdominal obesity especially in the early middle-age in the north of Iran. This association was not significant in men and women after the age of 45 and 35, respectively.
PMCID: PMC4456899  PMID: 26097812
Abdominal obesity; adult; gender; Iran; serum cholesterol level
3.  Correlation Between Low Bone Density and Disease Activity in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis 
Different clinical and epidemiological studies using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry have shown an increased prevalence of low bone mineral density in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between bone density and the disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis.
In this cross-sectional study, 52 patients with ulcerative colitis (duration of the disease less than 5 years) were invited to our research center, Golestan province, northeast of Iran, during February 2012 up to August 2012. A demographic checklist and Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index was completed for each patients and 5 cc of blood sample was taken after obtaining the informed consent. We used colorimetry method for measuring serum calcium, UV method for serum phosphorus and ELISA for serum vitamin D. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was done to evaluate the bone density. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 16. Normality of data was assessed using Kolmogorov– Smirnov test. T and ANOVA tests were used if data had normal distribution. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for the remaining data. Correlation between qualitative variables was evaluated by Chi-square test.
The mean (±SD) age and disease activity of the patients were 37.72 (±12.18) years and 4.78 (±1.98), respectively. There were no correlation between disease activity and mean age. Low bone density was seen in 30.8%, 11.5%, and 15.4% in spine, femur neck, and hip, respectively. There was no relationship between Z-score of total hip, spine, and femur neck with disease activity, age, and duration of disease (p>0.05).
Our results showed an acceptable rate of low bone density in patients with ulcerative colitis without any correlation with the disease activity index.
PMCID: PMC4293797  PMID: 25628850
Ulcerative colitis; Z-score; Bone densitometry; Low bone density
4.  The association of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and waist circumference in northern adults in Iran: a population based study 
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) level and Waist Circumference (WC) in men and women among 25–65 years old people in the north of Iran.
Material and methods
This was a cross-sectional and analytical research gender that carried out on the 1797 subjects (941 males and 856 females) between 25–65 years old using multistage cluster sampling technique. FBG was measured in the morning after a 12-hour fast and was determined by using laboratory kits (enzymatic methods) and spectrophotometry technique. Central obesity was defined based on World Health Organization criteria: waist circumference ≥102 cm and ≥88 cm in men and women, respectively. The SPSS.16 software was used for statistical analysis.
As whole, the mean of FBG in women (98.3 ± 40.1 mg/dl) was higher than in men (94.6 ± 32.2 mg/dl). Also, the mean of WC in men 4.5 cm was lower than in women. In men, the mean of FBG statistically differs between normal and central obese subjects both in 35–45 year-age group (P = 0.001) and in 45–55 year-age group (P = 0.042). As whole, in men, the FBG level increased up 2.82 mg/dl in each 10 cm of WC with the highest rate in 35–45 year-age group. In totally, in women, the FBG level increased up 3.48 mg/dl in each 10 cm of WC and in 25–35 year-age group and it was higher than in other age groups. In men, the regression coefficients were constant with age increasing while in women it was decreased. Constant trend in men and decreasing trend in women with age was shown between FBG and WC. The cut-off point of WC for detecting of diabetes obtained 89 cm and 107 cm in men and women, respectively.
The positive correlation was seen between WC and FBG level and it was declined with age in women. Cut-off point for detecting of diabetes in men was less than in women. WC is useable as a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus risk among adults in the north of Iran.
PMCID: PMC3937214  PMID: 24393143
FBG level; Age; Adult; WC; Gender; Iran
5.  Effects of Vitamin E and Zinc Supplementation on Antioxidants in Beta thalassemia major Patients 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2011;21(1):8-14.
In beta thalassemic patients, tissue damage occurs due to oxidative stress and it happens because of the accumulation of iron in the body. This study was conducted to determine the effect of zinc and vitamin E supplementation on antioxidant status in beta-thalassemic major patients.
This double blind randomized clinical trial was carried out on 120 beta thalassemic patients older than 18 years. Patients were randomly categorized in four groups. Zinc (50mg/day) and vitamin E (400mg/day) supplements were administered for former and latter group, respectively. In the third group both supplements were administered in similar doses. The fourth (control) group received no supplement. The effect of supplementations on serum zinc and vitamin E, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured at the beginning and the end of the study.
Serum zinc levels in group 1 and 3 were significantly increased (P<0.007 and P<0.005, respectively). Serum vitamin E levels in group 2 and 3 were also increased significantly (P<0.001). Mean GPX activity in group1, 2 and 3 decreased significantly (P<0.015, P<0.032 and P<0.029, respectively). Mean SOD activity and TAC did not show significant change after supplementation. BMI had significant increase in all treated groups (P<0.001).
Our results suggest that beta thalassemic patients have enhanced oxidative stress and administration of selective antioxidants may preclude oxidative damage.
PMCID: PMC3446117  PMID: 23056757
Vitamin E; Zinc; Glutathione Peroxidase; Superoxide Dismutase; Body Mass Index; Antioxidants

Results 1-5 (5)