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Applied and Environmental Microbiology (1)
Journal of Medical Case Reports (1)
Social science & medicine (1982) (1)
The Scientific World Journal (1)
Jones, Rhys (2)
Alpert, Carl-Alfred (1)
Anglade, Patricia (1)
Ayanian, John Z (1)
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Cook, Christian C. (1)
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Jones, Rhys J. (1)
Jones, Rhys M. (1)
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Year of Publication
Relationship between Repeated Sprint Ability and Aerobic Capacity in Professional Soccer Players
Cook, Christian C.
Kilduff, Liam P.
The Scientific World Journal
Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 max) and repeated sprint ability (RSA) in a group of professional soccer players. Methods. Forty-one professional soccer players (age 23 ± 4 yrs, height 180.0 ± 5.3 cm, weight 79.6 ± 5.3 kg) were required to perform tests to assess RSA and VO2 max on two separate days with at least 48 hr rest between testing sessions. Each player performed a treadmill test to determine their VO2 max and a test for RSA involving the players completing 6 × 40 m sprints (turn after 20 m) with 20 s active recovery between each sprint. Results. There was a significant negative correlation between body mass normalised VO2 max and mean sprint time (RSAmean) (r = −0.655; P < 0.01) and total sprint time (RSAtotal) (r = −0.591, P < 0.01). Conclusion. Results of the current study indicate that VO2 max is one important factor aiding soccer players in the recovery from repeated sprint type activities.
"Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health care"
Trivedi, Amal N
Ayanian, John Z
Social science & medicine (1982)
Reducing racial and ethnic disparities in health care has become an important policy goal in the United States and other countries, but evidence to inform interventions to address disparities is limited. The objective of this study was to identify important dimensions of interventions to reduce health care disparities. We used qualitative research methods to examine interventions aimed at improving diabetes and/or cardiovascular care for patients from racial and ethnic minority groups within five health care organizations. We interviewed 36 key informants and conducted a thematic analysis to identify important features of these interventions. Key elements of interventions included two contextual factors (external accountability and alignment of incentives to reduce disparities) and four factors related to the organization or intervention itself (organizational commitment, population health focus, use of data to inform solutions, and a comprehensive approach to quality). Consideration of these elements could improve the design, implementation, and evaluation of future interventions to address racial and ethnic disparities in health care.
USA; health care disparities; quality improvement; chronic disease care; organizational case studies; race; ethnicity; interventions
Twice recurrent gallstone ileus: a case report
Journal of Medical Case Reports
Gallstone ileus is a rare cause of bowel obstruction and results from the passage of gallstones into the bowel.
We present the case of an 83-year-old Caucasian woman who had three episodes of gallstone ileus, each of which was managed with simple enterotomy. This sequence is one of the first reported in the medical literature and may be seen to challenge the traditional surgical approach of enterotomy alone.
The available evidence comparing enterotomy alone with combined enterotomy, cholecystectomy, and fistula closure in the management of gallstone ileus is reviewed. Neither approach is clearly identified as superior, but available series suggest that simple enterotomy may be safer than a combined approach and does not result in a higher rate of recurrent biliary disease.
Recurrent gallstone ileus; enterotomy; fistulectomy
The Influence of Formulation and Manufacturing Process Parameters on the Characteristics of Lyophilized Orally Disintegrating Tablets
Mohammed, Afzal R.
Gelatin is a principal excipient used as a binder in the formulation of lyophilized orally disintegrating tablets. The current study focuses on exploiting the physicochemical properties of gelatin by varying formulation parameters to determine their influence on orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) characteristics. Process parameters, namely pH and ionic strength of the formulations, and ball milling were investigated to observe their effects on excipient characteristics and tablet formation. The properties and characteristics of the formulations and tablets which were investigated included: glass transition temperature, wettability, porosity, mechanical properties, disintegration time, morphology of the internal structure of the freeze-dried tablets, and drug dissolution. The results from the pH study revealed that adjusting the pH of the formulation away from the isoelectric point of gelatin, resulted in an improvement in tablet disintegration time possibly due to increase in gelatin swelling resulting in greater tablet porosity. The results from the ionic strength study revealed that the inclusion of sodium chloride influenced tablet porosity, tablet morphology and the glass transition temperature of the formulations. Data from the milling study showed that milling the excipients influenced formulation characteristics, namely wettability and powder porosity. The study concludes that alterations of simple parameters such as pH and salt concentration have a significant influence on formulation of ODT.
freeze-drying; orally disintegrating tablets; gelatin; pH; ionic strength; milling
Intraspecies Genomic Diversity and Natural Population Structure of the Meat-Borne Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactobacillus sakei▿ †
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Lactobacillus sakei is a food-borne bacterium naturally found in meat and fish products. A study was performed to examine the intraspecies diversity among 73 isolates sourced from laboratory collections in several different countries. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated a 25% variation in genome size between isolates, ranging from 1,815 kb to 2,310 kb. The relatedness between isolates was then determined using a PCR-based method that detects the possession of 60 chromosomal genes belonging to the flexible gene pool. Ten different strain clusters were identified that had noticeable differences in their average genome size reflecting the natural population structure. The results show that many different genotypes may be isolated from similar types of meat products, suggesting a complex ecological habitat in which intraspecies diversity may be required for successful adaptation. Finally, proteomic analysis revealed a slight difference between the migration patterns of highly abundant GapA isoforms of the two prevailing L. sakei subspecies (sakei and carnosus). This analysis was used to affiliate the genotypic clusters with the corresponding subspecies. These findings reveal for the first time the extent of intraspecies genomic diversity in L. sakei. Consequently, identification of molecular subtypes may in the future prove valuable for a better understanding of microbial ecosystems in food products.
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