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1.  GABAB-mediated rescue of altered excitatory–inhibitory balance, gamma synchrony and behavioral deficits following constitutive NMDAR-hypofunction 
Translational Psychiatry  2012;2(7):e142-.
Reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) signaling has been associated with schizophrenia, autism and intellectual disability. NMDAR-hypofunction is thought to contribute to social, cognitive and gamma (30–80 Hz) oscillatory abnormalities, phenotypes common to these disorders. However, circuit-level mechanisms underlying such deficits remain unclear. This study investigated the relationship between gamma synchrony, excitatory–inhibitory (E/I) signaling, and behavioral phenotypes in NMDA-NR1neo−/− mice, which have constitutively reduced expression of the obligate NR1 subunit to model disrupted developmental NMDAR function. Constitutive NMDAR-hypofunction caused a loss of E/I balance, with an increase in intrinsic pyramidal cell excitability and a selective disruption of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. Disrupted E/I coupling was associated with deficits in auditory-evoked gamma signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Gamma-band abnormalities predicted deficits in spatial working memory and social preference, linking cellular changes in E/I signaling to target behaviors. The GABAB-receptor agonist baclofen improved E/I balance, gamma-SNR and broadly reversed behavioral deficits. These data demonstrate a clinically relevant, highly translatable neural-activity-based biomarker for preclinical screening and therapeutic development across a broad range of disorders that share common endophenotypes and disrupted NMDA-receptor signaling.
PMCID: PMC3410621  PMID: 22806213
animal model; GABAergic signaling; gamma oscillation; neuropsychiatric disease; NMDA-receptor
2.  Sequence requirements for synthetic peptide-mediated translocation to the nucleus. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1989;9(6):2487-2492.
The abilities of 18 synthetic peptides to target a carrier protein to the nucleus following microinjection into the cytoplasm of HeLa cells were determined. Eight of the sequences chosen for synthesis were based on published nuclear targeting regions as determined by gene fusion and deletion experiments. Six of these sequences were found to be effective when mimicked by a synthetic peptide and conjugated to a carrier protein. One additional peptide was based on a region of lamin L1, a nuclear protein from Xenopus laevis, in which the nuclear targeting region had not been previously investigated. This peptide was also able to target a carrier protein to the nucleus. Eight other peptides which resemble the known targeting signals had little or no nuclear targeting ability. Peptides which were able to target a carrier protein to the nucleus did so within 45 min of injection into the cytoplasm. Two peptides with little or no apparent nuclear targeting ability after 45 min were examined for longer times as well. No increase in nuclear accumulation was observed between 45 min and 4 h after cytoplasmic injection. Comparison of the sequences which were effective at nuclear targeting with those that were not revealed a possible consensus sequence for peptide-mediated nuclear transport.
PMCID: PMC362321  PMID: 2668735
3.  Mutational analysis of simian virus 40 T antigen: stimulation of cellular DNA synthesis and activation of rRNA genes by mutants with deletions in the T-antigen gene. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1983;3(2):214-219.
The biological activity of several deletion mutants of simian virus 40, cloned in pBR322, was determined. Three functions of the simian virus 40 A gene were studied: (i) the ability to express T antigen; (ii) the ability to induce cell DNA replication; and (iii) the ability to reactivate silent rRNA genes in hybrid cells. Recombinant plasmid DNA was introduced into cells by manual microinjection or by transfection. The results (together with previous reports) indicate that the critical sequences for these three functions are located separately on the simian virus 40 A gene, as follows: (i) the sequences necessary for the detection of the common antigenic determinant of T antigen extend from nucleotide 4147 to nucleotide 4001 (map units 0.45 to 0.42); (ii) the sequences critical for the stimulation of cell DNA synthesis extend from nucleotide 4327 to nucleotide 4001 (map units 0.49 to 0.42); and (iii) those critical for the reactivation of rRNA genes extend approximately from nucleotide 3827 to nucleotide 3526 (map units 0.39 to 0.33).
PMCID: PMC368524  PMID: 6300657
4.  Identification of adenovirus 2 early genes required for induction of cellular DNA synthesis in resting hamster cells. 
Journal of Virology  1981;38(3):982-986.
tsAF8 cells are temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of BHK-21 cells that arrest at the nonpermissive temperature in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. When made quiescent by serum restriction, they can be stimulated to enter the S phase by 10% serum at 34 degrees C, but not at 40.6 degrees C. Infection by adenovirus type 2 or type 5 stimulates cellular DNA synthesis in tsAF8 cells at both 34 and 40.6 degrees C. Infection of these cells with deletion Ad5dl312, Ad5dl313, Ad2 delta p305, and Ad2+D1) and temperature-sensitive (H5ts125, H5ts36) mutants of adenovirus indicates that the expression of both early regions 1A and 2 is needed to induce quiescent tsAF8 cells to enter the S phase at the permissive temperature. This finding has been confirmed by microinjection of selected adenovirus DNA fragments into the nucleus of tsAF8 cells. In addition, we have shown that additional viral functions encoded by early regions 1B and 5 are required for the induction of cellular DNA synthesis at the nonpermissive temperature.
PMCID: PMC171237  PMID: 7241670

Results 1-4 (4)