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1.  Perceptions of Malawian Nurses about Nursing Interventions for Malnourished Children and Their Parents 
In developing countries, malnutrition among children is a major public-health issue. The aim of the study was to describe perceptions of Malawian nurses about nursing interventions for malnourished children and their parents. A qualitative method was used. Data were collected and analyzed according to the phenomenographic research approach. Twelve interviews were performed with 12 nurses at a rural hospital in northern Malawi, Southeast Africa. Through the analysis, two major concepts, comprising four categories of description, emerged: managing malnutrition today and promotion of a favourable nutritional status. The categories of description involved identification and treatment of malnutrition, education during treatment, education during prevention, and assurance of food security. The participating nurses perceived education to be the most important intervention, incorporated in all areas of prevention and treatment of malnutrition. Identification and treatment of malnutrition, education during treatment, education to prevent malnutrition, and assurance of food security were regarded as the most important areas of intervention.
PMCID: PMC3259724  PMID: 22283035
Child; Child nutrition disorders; Health education; Interventions; Nutrition education; Perceptions; Phenomenography; Malawi
2.  Parents’ experiences of participating in an intervention on tobacco prevention in Child Health Care 
BMC Pediatrics  2014;14:69.
Background
Child health care is an important arena for tobacco prevention in Sweden. The aim of this study was to describe parents’ experiences from participating in a nursebased tobacco prevention intervention.
Methods
Eleven parents were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. The material was analysed in a qualitative content analysis process.
Results
The analysis emerged four categories; Receiving support, Respectful treatment, Influence on smoking habits and Receiving information. The parents described how the CHC nurses treated them with support and respect. They described the importance of being treated with respect for their autonomy in their decisions about smoking. They also claimed that they had received little or no information about health consequences for children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The findings also indicate that both the questionnaire used and the urine-cotinine test had influenced parents’ smoking.
Conclusion
The clinical implication is that CHC is an important arena for preventive work aiming to minimize children’s tobacco smoke exposure. CHC nurses can play an important role in tobacco prevention but should be more explicit in their communication with parents about tobacco issues. The SiCET was referred to as an eye-opener and can be useful in the MI dialogues nurses perform in order to support parents in their efforts to protect their children from ETS.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-14-69
PMCID: PMC3975308  PMID: 24612749
3.  How to minimize children’s environmental tobacco smoke exposure: an intervention in a clinical setting in high risk areas 
BMC Pediatrics  2013;13:76.
Background
Despite the low prevalence of daily smokers in Sweden, children are still being exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), primarily by their smoking parents. A prospective intervention study using methods from Quality Improvement was performed in Child Health Care (CHC). The aim was to provide nurses with new methods for motivating and supporting parents in their efforts to protect children from ETS exposure.
Method
Collaborative learning was used to implement and test an intervention bundle. Twenty-two CHC nurses recruited 86 families with small children which had at least one smoking parent. Using a bundle of interventions, nurses met and had dialogues with the parents over a one-year period. A detailed questionnaire on cigarette consumption and smoking policies in the home was answered by the parents at the beginning and at the end of the intervention, when children also took urine tests to determine cotinine levels.
Results
Seventy-two families completed the study. Ten parents (11%) quit smoking. Thirty-two families (44%) decreased their cigarette consumption. Forty-five families (63%) were outdoor smokers at follow up. The proportion of children with urinary cotinine values of >6 ng/ml had decreased.
Conclusion
The intensified tobacco prevention in CHC improved smoking parents’ ability to protect their children from ETS exposure.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-76
PMCID: PMC3660282  PMID: 23672646
Children; Child Health Care; Tobacco smoke prevention; Passive smoking
4.  Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Celiac Disease: From the Perspectives of Children and Parents 
Aim. To examine how celiac children and adolescents on gluten-free diet valued their health-related quality of life, and if age and severity of the disease at onset affected the children's self-valuation later in life. We also assessed the parents' valuation of their child's quality of life. Methods. The DISABKIDS Chronic generic measure, short versions for both children and parents, was used on 160 families with celiac disease. A paediatric gastroenterologist classified manifestations of the disease at onset retrospectively. Results. Age or sex did not influence the outcome. Children diagnosed before the age of five scored higher than children diagnosed later. Children diagnosed more than eight years ago scored higher than more recently diagnosed children, and children who had the classical symptoms of the disease at onset scored higher than those who had atypical symptoms or were asymptomatic. The parents valuated their children's quality of life as lower than the children did. Conclusion. Health-related quality of life in treated celiac children and adolescents was influenced by age at diagnosis, disease severity at onset, and years on gluten-free diet. The disagreement between child-parent valuations highlights the importance of letting the children themselves be heard about their perceived quality of life.
doi:10.1155/2012/986475
PMCID: PMC3324145  PMID: 22548054
5.  "Smoking in Children's Environment Test": a qualitative study of experiences of a new instrument applied in preventive work in child health care 
BMC Pediatrics  2011;11:113.
Background
Despite knowledge of the adverse health effects of passive smoking, children are still being exposed. Children's nurses play an important role in tobacco preventive work through dialogue with parents aimed at identifying how children can be protected from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. The study describes the experiences of Child Health Care (CHC) nurses when using the validated instrument SiCET (Smoking in Children's Environment Test) in dialogue with parents.
Method
In an intervention in CHC centres in south-eastern Sweden nurses were invited to use the SiCET. Eighteen nurses participated in focus group interviews. Transcripts were reviewed and their contents were coded into categories by three investigators using the method described for focus groups interviews.
Results
The SiCET was used in dialogue with parents in tobacco preventive work and resulted in focused discussions on smoking and support for behavioural changes among parents. The instrument had both strengths and limitations. The nurses experienced that the SiCET facilitated dialogue with parents and gave a comprehensive view of the child's ETS exposure. This gave nurses the possibility of taking on a supportive role by offering parents long-term help in protecting their child from ETS exposure and in considering smoking cessation.
Conclusion
Our findings indicate that the SiCET supports nurses in their dialogue with parents on children's ETS exposure at CHC. There is a need for more clinical use and evaluation of the SiCET to determine its usefulness in clinical practice under varying circumstances.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-11-113
PMCID: PMC3267672  PMID: 22172056
6.  Cardiovascular disease occurrence in two close but different social environments 
Background
Cardiovascular diseases estimate to be the leading cause of death and loss of disability-adjusted life years globally. Conventional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases only partly account for the social gradient. The purpose of this study was to compare the occurrence of the most frequent cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular mortality in two close cities, the Twin cities.
Methods
We focused on the total population in two neighbour and equally sized cities with a population of around 135 000 inhabitants each. These twin cities represent two different social environments in the same Swedish county. According to their social history they could be labelled a "blue-collar" and a "white-collar" city. Morbidity data for the two cities was derived from an administrative health care register based on medical records assigned by the physicians at both hospitals and primary care. The morbidity data presented are cumulative incidence rates and the data on mortality for ischemic heart diseases is based on official Swedish statistics.
Results
The cumulative incidence of different cardiovascular diagnoses for younger and also elderly men and women revealed significantly differences for studied cardiovascular diagnoses. The occurrence rates were in all aspects highest in the population of the "blue-collar" twin city for both sexes.
Conclusions
This study revealed that there are significant differences in risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality between the populations in the studied different social environments. These differences seem to be profound and stable over time and thereby give implication for public health policy to initiate a community intervention program in the "blue-collar" twin city.
doi:10.1186/1476-072X-10-5
PMCID: PMC3025825  PMID: 21226912

Results 1-6 (6)