Immunoglobulin (Ig) E is well-known to play a critical role in allergic diseases. We investigated the association between longitudinal change in total IgE level and the asthma control in patients with adult asthma.
For this retrospective study, 154 patients with asthma aged 21–82 years were recruited from the allergy and pulmonary units of the Showa University Hospital. Data on longitudinal changes in IgE over the preceding 10 years were collected and logarithmically transformed. Associations between longitudinal change in IgE and clinical characteristics including asthma control test (ACT) score, asthma control, pulmonary function test, and antigen specific IgE, were assessed.
Patients with increased IgE tended to have significantly higher mean age, more episodes of acute exacerbation within a year, lower ACT scores, and used oral corticosteroids more frequently than those with decreased or unchanged IgE. The prevalence of uncontrolled asthma was higher in patients with increased IgE than in those with decreased or unchanged IgE. Mean %FEV1 and FEV1% were lower in patients with increased IgE than in those with decreased or unchanged IgE. Moreover, the prevalence of Aspergillus-specific IgE was higher in patients with increased IgE than in those with decreased or unchanged IgE.
These data suggest that a longitudinal increase in total IgE is associated with both poor asthma control and Aspergillus-specific IgE in patients with adult asthma.
IgE; Longitudinal change; Severe asthma; Aspergillus; house dust mite
The winter wheat variety Kitahonami shows a superior flour yield in comparison to other Japanese soft wheat varieties. To map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with this trait, association mapping was performed using a panel of lines from Kitahonami’s pedigree, along with leading Japanese varieties and advanced breeding lines. Using a mixed linear model corrected for kernel types and familial relatedness, 62 marker-trait associations for flour yield were identified and classified into 21 QTLs. In eighteen of these, Kitahonami alleles showed positive effects. Pedigree analysis demonstrated that a continuous pyramiding of QTLs had occurred throughout the breeding history of Kitahonami. Linkage analyses using three sets of doubled haploid populations from crosses in which Kitahonami was used as a parent were performed, leading to the validation of five of the eight QTLs tested. Among these, QTLs on chromosomes 3B and 7A showed highly significant and consistent effects across the three populations. This study shows that pedigree-based association mapping using breeding materials can be a useful method for QTL identification at the early stages of breeding programs.
Homeobox B9 (HOXB9), a member of the homeobox gene family, is overexpressed in breast cancer and promotes tumor progression and metastasis by stimulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis within the tumor microenvironment. HOXB9 activates the TGFβ-ATM axis, leading to checkpoint activation and DNA repair, which engenders radioresistance in breast cancer cells. Despite detailed reports of the role of HOXB9 in breast cancer, the factors that regulate HOXB9 transcription have not been extensively examined. Here we uncover an underlying mechanism that may suggest novel targeting strategies for breast cancer treatment. To identify a transcription factor binding site (TFBS) in the HOXB9 promoter region, a dual luciferase reporter assay was conducted. Protein candidates that may directly attach to a TFBS of HOXB9 were examined by Q-PCR, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and mutation analysis. A HOXB9 promoter region from −404 to −392 was identified as TFBS, and E2F1 was a potential binding candidate in this region. The induction of HOXB9 expression by E2F1 was observed by Q-PCR in several breast cancer cell lines overexpressing E2F1. The stimulatory effect of E2F1 on HOXB9 transcription and its ability to bind the TFBS were confirmed by luciferase, EMSA and ChIP assay. Immunohistochemical analysis of 139 breast cancer tissue samples revealed a significant correlation between E2F1 and HOXB9 expression (p<0.001). Furthermore, a CDK4/6 inhibitor suppressed E2F1 expression and also reduced expression of HOXB9 and its downstream target genes. Our in vitro analysis identified the TFBS of the HOXB9 promoter region and suggested that E2F1 is a direct regulator of HOXB9 expression; these data support the strong correlation we found between E2F1 and HOXB9 in clinical breast cancer samples. These results suggest that targeting the E2F1/HOXB9 axis may be a novel strategy for the control or prevention of cancer progression and metastasis.
Voltage‐sensing phosphatases (VSPs) share the molecular architecture of the voltage sensor domain (VSD) with voltage‐gated ion channels and the phosphoinositide phosphatase region with the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), respectively. VSPs enzymatic activities are regulated by the motions of VSD upon depolarization. The physiological role of these proteins has remained elusive, and insights may be gained by investigating biological variations in different animal species. Urodele amphibians are vertebrates with potent activities of regeneration and also show diverse mechanisms of polyspermy prevention. We cloned cDNAs of VSPs from the testes of two urodeles; Hynobius nebulosus and Cynops pyrrhogaster, and compared their expression and voltage‐dependent activation. Their molecular architecture is highly conserved in both Hynobius VSP (Hn‐VSP) and Cynops VSP (Cp‐VSP), including the positively‐charged arginine residues in the S4 segment of the VSD and the enzymatic active site for substrate binding, yet the C‐terminal C2 domain of Hn‐VSP is significantly shorter than that of Cp‐VSP and other VSP orthologs. RT‐PCR analysis showed that gene expression pattern was distinct between two VSPs. The voltage sensor motions and voltage‐dependent phosphatase activities were investigated electrophysiologically by expression in Xenopus oocytes. Both VSPs showed “sensing” currents, indicating that their voltage sensor domains are functional. The phosphatase activity of Cp‐VSP was found to be voltage dependent, as shown by its ability to regulate the conductance of coexpressed GIRK2 channels, but Hn‐VSP lacked such phosphatase activity due to the truncation of its C2 domain.
To gain insights into physiological roles of VSP, VSP orthologs were identified from two urodeles, newt and salamander. Cp‐VSP has voltage‐dependent phosphatase activity. Hn‐VSP lacks phosphatase activity due to its truncation in the C2 domain of the cytoplasmic region.
C2 domain; phosphoinositides; testis; voltage‐sensing phosphatase
The chemokine receptors (CKRs), mainly CCR5 and CXCR4 function as major coreceptors in infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Approximately 20 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified as minor coreceptors, alike CCR6 that we reported recently. Since CKR-L3 is indentified as a natural isoform of CCR6, we attempted in this study to explore the coreceptor function of CKR-L3.
NP-2 cells transduced with CD4-receptor (NP-2/CD4) normally remain resistant to HIV or SIV infection. However, the introduction of functional coreceptors can make these cells susceptible to these viruses. NP-2/CD4/CKR-L3 cells were produced to examine the coreceptor activity of CKR-L3. Likely, CCR6-isoform and the major coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4 were also examined in parallel. Presence of viral antigen in infected NP-2/CD4/coreceptor cells was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The results were validated by detection of syncytia, proviral DNA and by measuring reverse transcriptase (RT) activities.
HIV-2MIR and SIVsmE660 were found to infect NP-2/CD4/CKR-L3 cells, indicative of the coreceptor function of CKR-L3. Viral antigens appeared faster in NP-2/CD4/CKR-L3 cells than in NP-2/CD4/CCR6, indicating that CKR-L3 is a more efficient coreceptor. Moreover, syncytia formation was more rapid and RT release evidenced earlier and at higher levels with CKR-L3 than with CCR6. Sequence analysis in the C2-V3 envelope region of HIV-2MIR replicated through CKR-L3 and CCR6 coreceptor showed two and three amino acid substitutions respectively, in the C2 region compared to the CCR5-variant. The SIVsmE660-CKRL3 variant showed three amino acid substitutions in the V1 region, one change in the V2 and two changes in the C2 region. The SIVsmE660-CCR6 variant produced two changes in the V1 region, and three in the C2 region.
Isoform CKR-L3 exhibited coreceptor activity for limited primary HIV and SIV isolates with better efficiency than the parent CCR6-isoform. Amino acid substitutions in the envelope region of these viruses may confer selective pressure towards CKR-L3-use. CKR-L3 with other minor coreceptors may contribute to HIV and SIV pathogenesis including dissemination, trafficking and latency especially when major coreceptors become compromised. However, further works will be required to determine its clinical significance in HIV and SIV infection.
HIV/SIV; Coreceptors; Chemokine receptors (CKRs); G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs); CCR6 and CKR-L3
SHOX haploinsufficiency due to mutations in the coding exons or
microdeletions involving the coding exons and/or the enhancer regions accounts for
approximately 80% and 2–16% of genetic causes of Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis and
idiopathic short stature, respectively. The most characteristic feature in patients with
SHOX deficiency is Madelung deformity, a cluster of anatomical changes
in the wrist that can be attributed to premature epiphyseal fusion of the distal radius.
Computed tomography of SHOX-deficient patients revealed a thin bone cortex and an enlarged
total bone area at the diaphysis of the radius, while histopathological analyses showed a
disrupted columnar arrangement of chondrocytes and an expanded hypertrophic layer of the
growth plate. Recent studies have suggested that perturbed programmed cell death of
hypertrophic chondrocytes may underlie the skeletal changes related to
SHOX deficiency. Furthermore, the formation of an aberrant ligament
tethering the lunate and radius has been implicated in the development of Madelung
deformity. Blood estrogen levels and mutation types have been proposed as phenotypic
determinants of SHOX deficiency, although other unknown factors may also
affect clinical severity of this entity.
chondrocyte; Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis; Madelung deformity; short stature; Vickers ligament
The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with low peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and delayed recovery of dental patients with disabilities after intravenous sedation. A total of 1213 patients with disabilities were retrospectively investigated with respect to demographic parameters and sedation conditions. Multivariate logistic analyses were conducted for patients with an SpO2 <90% and a recovery period of >60 minutes to identify the risk factors for poor sedation conditions. A significant odds ratio related to decreased SpO2 was observed for age, sex, midazolam and propofol levels, concurrent use of nitrous oxide, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, and mental retardation. The most problematic patients were those diagnosed with Down syndrome (odds ratio, 3.003–7.978; 95% confidence interval; P < .001). Decision tree analysis showed an increased risk of decreased SpO2 in males with Down syndrome or after administration of >0.493 mg/kg propofol in combination with midazolam. An increased risk of delayed awakening was seen in patients aged less than 21 years and in males administered >0.032 mg/kg of midazolam. Intravenous sedation for dental patients with disabilities, particularly those with cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, or mental retardation, increases the risk of decreased SpO2. In addition, delayed recovery is expected after midazolam administration.
Dental sedation; Low peripheral oxygen saturation; Delayed recovery
The synthesis and subsequent genomic integration of DNA that is complementary to the genomes of non-retroviral RNA viruses are rarely observed. However, upon infection of various human cell lines and primary fibroblasts with the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), we detected DNA complementary to the VSV RNA. The VSV DNA was detected in the cytoplasm as single-stranded DNA fully complementary to the viral mRNA from the poly(A) region to the 7-methyl guanosine cap. The formation of this DNA was cell-dependent. Experimentally, we found that the transduction of cells that do not produce VSV DNA with the long interspersed nuclear element 1 and their infection with VSV could lead to the formation of VSV DNA. Viral DNA complementary to other RNA viruses was also detected in the respective infected human cells. Thus, the genetic information of the non-retroviral RNA virus genome can flow into the DNA of mammalian cells expressing LINE-1-like elements.
Homeobox B9 (HOXB9), a transcriptional factor, regulates developmental processes and tumor progression and has recently been recognized as one of important transcriptional factors related to angiogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the role of HOXB9 in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis.
We examined the expression of HOXB9 in colorectal cancer using qPCR and in situ hybridization. We also examined the effect of HOXB9 overexpression in colorectal cancer using a proliferation assay, ELISA, a multiplex assay, and xenograft models. The clinical significance of HOXB9 was statistically evaluated in resected specimens.
HOXB9 was expressed in colorectal cancer specimens. HOXB9 induced angiogenesis and tumor proliferation in vitro, which resulted in high tumorigenicity in vivo and poor overall survival. Bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody, remarkably suppressed tumor proliferation by inhibiting angiogenesis in HOXB9-overexpressing xenografts, and it improved overall survival and provided prolonged progression-free survival in HOXB9-overexpressing patients. A comprehensive multiplex assay of the supernatant of cancer cells co-cultured with human vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts indicated significantly higher interleukin-6 (IL6) levels than those in the supernatant of monocultured cells. HOXB9 overexpression in clinical specimens was significantly correlated with increased IL6 expression. An IL6-neutralizing antibody inhibited VEGF secretion and tumor proliferation in the co-culture system.
HOXB9 promotes the secretion of angiogenic factors, including VEGF, to induce tumor proliferation through microenvironmental production of cytokines including IL6 signaling. Moreover, silencing of VEGF or IL6 terminates cytokine release in tumor microenvironment. Thus, HOXB9 and IL6 may be potential biomarkers for bevacizumab treatment.
Colorectal cancer; Aangiogenesis; Bevacizumab; Biomarker
In mice, a minimum number of healthy embryos is required to trigger and maintain
pregnancy. Therefore, when recovering mouse embryos from a limited litter, one useful
technique is to transfer carrier ICR embryos along with the embryos of interest, a
technique referred to as cotransfer. In this study, we examined suitable mouse strains for
cotransfer with C57BL/6J (B6) embryos in regards to the maintenance of pregnancy, number
of pups born, intrauterine growth, and postnatal growth. Because the coat color of B6 is
black, we compared two white coat-colored strains, SJL/J and ICR. Cotransfer of SJL/J and
ICR embryos had similar effects on maintenance of pregnancy, number of pups born, and
intrauterine growth. However, the postnatal growth of B6 mouse pups cotransferred and
grown with SJL/J pups was better than for B6 mouse pups cotransferred and grown with ICR
pups, suggesting competition among littermates. These results demonstrate that cotransfer
of SJL/J embryos will be useful not only as carrier embryos with B6-background embryos but
also as a model system to examine littermate competition.
C57BL/6; cotransfer; embryo transfer; ICR; SJL/J
Although second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy provides unique imaging advantages for voltage imaging and other biological applications, genetically-encoded SHG chromophores remain relatively unexplored. SHG only arises from non-centrosymmetric media, so an anisotropic arrangement of chromophores is essential to provide strong SHG signals. Here, inspired by the mechanism by which K-Ras4B associates with plasma membranes, we sought to achieve asymmetric arrangements of chromophores at the membrane-cytoplasm interface using the fluorescent protein mVenus. After adding a farnesylation motif to the C-terminus of mVenus, nine amino acids composing its β-barrel surface were replaced by lysine, forming an electrostatic patch. This protein (mVe9Knus-CVIM) was efficiently targeted to the plasma membrane in a geometrically defined manner and exhibited SHG in HEK293 cells. In agreement with its design, mVe9Knus-CVIM hyperpolarizability was oriented at a small angle (~7.3°) from the membrane normal. Genetically-encoded SHG chromophores could serve as a molecular platform for imaging membrane potential.
fluorescence protein; mutagenesis; electrostatic surface potential; second harmonic generation
The optimal treatment of early syphilis (primary, secondary and early latent) in HIV-infected patients remains controversial. The Center for Diseases Control STD Treatment Guidelines recommended 1 dose of benzathine penicillin G (BPG) regardless of HIV infection. However, many providers modify the treatment for early syphilis.
We performed a retrospective chart review of all cases of early syphilis with positive serologic test results in HIV-infected patients from May 2006 to May 2011 in 2 large, urban HIV clinics. Early syphilis includes primary, secondary, and early latent syphilis. Serological failure was defined as a lack of 4-fold decrease in rapid plasma reagent (RPR) titers 9 to 12 months after syphilis treatment. Patients whose RPR titers decreased after treatment and subsequently increased 4-fold at 9 to 12 months were excluded from the analysis of serological response because of possibility as “reinfection”. Baseline characteristics were tested as predictive factors of serological failure using a univariate and multivariate logistic regression model, respectively.
Of 560 patients with confirmed cases of early syphilis, 51 (9.0%) experienced serological failure. Multivariate logistic regression modeling demonstrated that the predictive factors associated with serological failure after early syphilis treatment were baseline RPR titer ≤ 1:16 (OR 3.91 [95% CI, 2.04-7.47]), a previous history of syphilis (OR 3.12 [95% CI, 1.55-6.26]), and a CD4 T-cell count below 350 cells/ml (OR 2.41 [95% CI, 1.27-4.56]). Of note, type of syphilis treatment (1 dose versus 3 doses of BPG) did not appear to affect the proportion of serological failure (4% versus 10%, P = 0.29), however the power of this study to detect small differences was limited.
HIV-infected patients with baseline RPR titer ≤1:16, syphilis history, and/or a CD4 T-cell count <350 cells/ml should be closely monitored for serologic failure after early syphilis treatment. This study did not detect a substantial difference between treatment with > 1 dose of BPG and decreased frequency of serological failure, supporting the current recommendation that one dose of BPG is adequate treatment for early syphilis in HIV-infected patients.
Syphilis; HIV; Serological failure; Benzathine penicillin
More than 12 chemokine receptors (CKRs) have been identified as coreceptors for the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), type 2 (HIV-2), and simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) into target cells. The expression of CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) on Th17 cells and regulatory T cells make the host cells vulnerable to HIV/SIV infection preferentially. However, only limited information is available concerning the specific role of CCR6 in HIV/SIV infection. We examined CCR6 as a coreceptor candidate in this study using NP-2 cell line-based in-vitro studies. Normally, CD4-transduced cell line, NP-2/CD4, is strictly resistant to all HIV/SIV infection. When CCR6 was transduced there, the resultant NP-2/CD4/CCR6 cells became susceptible to HIV-1HAN2, HIV-2MIR and SIVsmE660, indicating coreceptor roles of CCR6. Viral antigens in infected cells were detected by IFA and confirmed by detection of proviral DNA. Infection-induced syncytia in NP-2/CD4/CCR6 cells were detected by Giemsa staining. Amount of virus release through CCR6 has been detected by RT assay in spent culture medium. Sequence analysis of proviral DNA showed two common amino acid substitutions in the C2 envelope region of HIV-2MIR clones propagated through NP-2/CD4/CCR6 cells. Conversely, CCR6-origin SIVsmE660 clones resulted two amino acid changes in the V1 region and one change in the C2 region. The substitutions in the C2 region for HIV-2MIR and the V1 region of SIVsmE660 may confer selection advantage for CCR6-use. Together, the results describe CCR6 as an independent coreceptor for HIV and SIV in strain-specific manner. The alteration of CCR6 uses by viruses may influence the susceptibility of CD4+ CCR6+ T-cells and dendritic cell subsets in vivo and therefore, is important for viral pathogenesis in establishing latent infections, trafficking, and transmission. However, clinical relevance of CCR6 as coreceptor in HIV/SIV infections should be investigated further.
The accumulated uremic toxins inhibit the expression of various renal transporters and this inhibition may further reduce renal function and subsequently cause the accumulation of uremic toxins. However, the precise mechanism of the nephrotoxicity of uremic toxins on renal transport has been poorly understood. Here we report that indoxyl sulfate, one of the potent uremic toxins, directly suppresses the renal-specific organic anion transporter SLCO4C1 expression through a transcription factor GATA3. The promoter region of SLCO4C1 gene has several GATA motifs, and indoxyl sulfate up-regulated GATA3 mRNA and subsequently down-regulated SLCO4C1 mRNA. Overexpression of GATA3 significantly reduced SLCO4C1 expression, and silencing of GATA3 increased SLCO4C1 expression vice versa. Administration of indoxyl sulfate in rats reduced renal expression of slco4c1 and under this condition, plasma level of guanidinosuccinate, one of the preferable substrates of slco4c1, was significantly increased without changing plasma creatinine. Furthermore, in 5/6 nephrectomized rats, treatment with oral adsorbent AST-120 significantly decreased plasma indoxyl sulfate level and conversely increased the expression of slco4c1, following the reduction of plasma level of guanidinosuccinate. These data suggest that the removal of indoxyl sulfate and blocking its signal pathway may help to restore the SLCO4C1-mediated renal excretion of uremic toxins in CKD.
Nerve-derived neural crest cells are essential for regeneration in certain animals, such as newts. Here, we asked whether they play a similar role during mammalian tissue repair, focusing on Sox2-positive neural crest precursors in skin. In adult skin, Sox2 was expressed in nerve-terminal-associated neural crest precursor cells (NCPCs) around the hair follicle bulge, and following injury was induced in nerve-derived cells, likely dedifferentiated Schwann cell precursors. At later times postinjury, Sox2-positive cells were scattered throughout the regenerating dermis, and lineage tracing showed that these were all neural-crest-derived NCPCs. These Sox2-positive NCPCs were functionally important, since acute deletion of Sox2 prior to injury caused a decrease of NCPCs in the wound and aberrant skin repair. These data demonstrate that Sox2 regulates skin repair, likely by controlling NCPCs, and raise the possibility that nerve-derived NCPCs may play a general role in mammalian tissue repair.
•Sox2 regulates murine skin repair•Sox2 regulates the neural crest precursor response to tissue injury•Sox2 identifies a nerve terminal-associated neural crest precursor in hair follicles
While common in viral infections and neoplasia, spontaneous cell-cell fusion, or syncytialization, is quite restricted in healthy tissues. Such fusion is essential to human placental development, where interactions between trophoblast-specific human endogenous retroviral (HERV) envelope proteins, called syncytins, and their widely-distributed cell surface receptors are centrally involved. We have identified the first host cell-encoded protein that inhibits cell fusion in mammals. Like the syncytins, this protein, called suppressyn, is HERV-derived, placenta-specific and well-conserved over simian evolution. In vitro, suppressyn binds to the syn1 receptor and inhibits syn1-, but not syn2-mediated trophoblast syncytialization. Suppressyn knock-down promotes cell-cell fusion in trophoblast cells and cell-associated and secreted suppressyn binds to the syn1 receptor, ASCT2. Identification of the first host cell-encoded inhibitor of mammalian cell fusion may encourage improved understanding of cell fusion mechanisms, of placental morphogenesis and of diseases resulting from abnormal cell fusion.
This phase I first-in-human study was conducted in Japanese patients to investigate the safety, pharmacokinetics (PKs), and determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oral TAK-285, a novel dual erbB protein kinase inhibitor that specifically targets human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2.
The TAK-285 dose was escalated until MTD was determined. A second patient cohort received TAK-285 at the MTD for at least 4 weeks.
In all, 26 patients received TAK-285 at doses ranging from 50 to 400 mg once daily (q.d.) or twice daily (b.i.d.); 20 patients made up the dose escalation cohort and the remaining 6 patients were the repeated administration cohort. TAK-285 was well tolerated. Dose-limiting toxicities noted in two patients who received 400 mg b.i.d. were grade 3 increases in aminotransferases and grade 3 decreased appetite. Consequently, the MTD was determined to be 300 mg b.i.d. Absorption of TAK-285 was rapid after oral dosing, and plasma exposure at steady-state increased in a dose-proportional fashion for doses ranging from 50 to 300 mg b.i.d. A partial response was observed for one patient with parotid cancer who received 300 mg b.i.d.
The toxicity profile and PK properties of oral TAK-285 warrant further evaluation.
first-in-human; phase I TAK-285; epidermal growth factor receptor; dual erbB protein kinase inhibitor family; receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor
We report a case of Coccidioides thyroiditis in an HIV-infected patient with a history of recent Coccidioides pneumonia but with negative Coccidioides serology determined by enzyme immunoassay at presentation. Diagnosis of Coccidioides thyroiditis was made based on histopathologic examination and culture of thyroid abscess material obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
Three molecules have been identified as the main cellular factors required for binding and entry of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1): glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), heparan sulfate (HS), and neuropilin 1 (NRP-1). However, the precise mechanism of HTLV-1 cell tropism has yet to be elucidated. Here, we examined the susceptibilities of various human cell lines to HTLV-1 by using vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotypes bearing HTLV-1 envelope proteins. We found that the cellular susceptibility to HTLV-1 infection did not correlate with the expression of GLUT1, HS, or NRP-1 alone. To investigate whether other cellular factors were responsible for HTLV-1 susceptibility, we conducted expression cloning. We identified two HS proteoglycan core proteins, syndecan 1 and syndecan 2, as molecules responsible for susceptibility to HTLV-1. We found that treatment of syndecan 1-transduced cells (expressing increased HS) with heparinase, a heparin-degradative enzyme, reduced HTLV-1 susceptibility without affecting the expression levels of HS chains. To further elucidate these results, we characterized the expression of HS chains in terms of the mass, number, and length of HS in several syndecan 1-transduced cell clones as well as human cell lines. We found a significant correlation between HTLV-1 susceptibility and the number of HS chains with short chain lengths. Our findings suggest that a combination of the number and the length of HS chains containing heparin-like regions is a critical factor which affects the cell tropism of HTLV-1.
Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) are multipotent dermal stem cells that reside within a hair follicle niche and that share properties with embryonic neural crest precursors. Here, we have asked whether SKPs and their endogenous dermal precursors originate from the neural crest or whether, like the dermis itself, they originate from multiple developmental origins. To do this, we used two different mouse Cre lines that allow us to perform lineage tracing: Wnt1-cre, which targets cells deriving from the neural crest, and Myf5-cre, which targets cells of a somite origin. By crossing these Cre lines to reporter mice, we show that the endogenous follicle-associated dermal precursors in the face derive from the neural crest, and those in the dorsal trunk derive from the somites, as do the SKPs they generate. Despite these different developmental origins, SKPs from these two locations are functionally similar, even with regard to their ability to differentiate into Schwann cells, a cell type only thought to be generated from the neural crest. Analysis of global gene expression using microarrays confirmed that facial and dorsal SKPs exhibit a very high degree of similarity, and that they are also very similar to SKPs derived from ventral dermis, which has a lateral plate origin. However, these developmentally distinct SKPs also retain differential expression of a small number of genes that reflect their developmental origins. Thus, an adult neural crest-like dermal precursor can be generated from a non-neural crest origin, a finding with broad implications for the many neuroendocrine cells in the body.
Dermis; Stem cells; Lineage tracing; Neural crest; Somites
We examined Notch signaling molecules, Notch1 and Jagged1, in serial large cases of typical solid/multicystic ameloblastoma. In general, Notch positive staining products were frequently detected in the cytoplasms of the cells. In the same cells, Jagged positive staining were also frequently observed, while only occasionally positive in peripheral cells, especially in cuboidal cells. The results showed that these morphogenesis regulation factors are closely related to cytological differentiation in neoplastic cells of ameloblastoma. The Notch and Jagged positive-cell ratios were frequently positive, and the ratios were nearly the same between the varied histopathological, cytological patterns. However, the less-differentiated cells were fewer in number than that of well-differentiated cells.
Ameloblastoma; Notch signaling; Notch Jagged; Cell differentiation; Immunohistochemistry
We report a case of Histoplasma capsulatum endocarditis in which Histoplasma antigen assay and fungal blood cultures were negative. The diagnosis was made by microscopic examination and culture of the excised valve. Histoplasma capsulatum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of culture-negative endocarditis in regions where it is endemic and in travelers.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a multistep process in which cells acquire molecular alterations such as loss of cell-cell junctions and restructuring of the cytoskeleton. There is an increasing understanding that this process may promote breast cancer progression through promotion of invasive and metastatic tumor growth. Recent observations imply that there may be a cross-talk between EMT and cancer stem cell properties, leading to enhanced tumorigenicity and the capacity to generate heterogeneous tumor cell populations. Here, we review the experimental and clinical evidence for the involvement of EMT in cancer stem cell theory, focusing on the common characteristics of this phenomenon.