More than 12 chemokine receptors (CKRs) have been identified as coreceptors for the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), type 2 (HIV-2), and simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) into target cells. The expression of CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) on Th17 cells and regulatory T cells make the host cells vulnerable to HIV/SIV infection preferentially. However, only limited information is available concerning the specific role of CCR6 in HIV/SIV infection. We examined CCR6 as a coreceptor candidate in this study using NP-2 cell line-based in-vitro studies. Normally, CD4-transduced cell line, NP-2/CD4, is strictly resistant to all HIV/SIV infection. When CCR6 was transduced there, the resultant NP-2/CD4/CCR6 cells became susceptible to HIV-1HAN2, HIV-2MIR and SIVsmE660, indicating coreceptor roles of CCR6. Viral antigens in infected cells were detected by IFA and confirmed by detection of proviral DNA. Infection-induced syncytia in NP-2/CD4/CCR6 cells were detected by Giemsa staining. Amount of virus release through CCR6 has been detected by RT assay in spent culture medium. Sequence analysis of proviral DNA showed two common amino acid substitutions in the C2 envelope region of HIV-2MIR clones propagated through NP-2/CD4/CCR6 cells. Conversely, CCR6-origin SIVsmE660 clones resulted two amino acid changes in the V1 region and one change in the C2 region. The substitutions in the C2 region for HIV-2MIR and the V1 region of SIVsmE660 may confer selection advantage for CCR6-use. Together, the results describe CCR6 as an independent coreceptor for HIV and SIV in strain-specific manner. The alteration of CCR6 uses by viruses may influence the susceptibility of CD4+ CCR6+ T-cells and dendritic cell subsets in vivo and therefore, is important for viral pathogenesis in establishing latent infections, trafficking, and transmission. However, clinical relevance of CCR6 as coreceptor in HIV/SIV infections should be investigated further.
The accumulated uremic toxins inhibit the expression of various renal transporters and this inhibition may further reduce renal function and subsequently cause the accumulation of uremic toxins. However, the precise mechanism of the nephrotoxicity of uremic toxins on renal transport has been poorly understood. Here we report that indoxyl sulfate, one of the potent uremic toxins, directly suppresses the renal-specific organic anion transporter SLCO4C1 expression through a transcription factor GATA3. The promoter region of SLCO4C1 gene has several GATA motifs, and indoxyl sulfate up-regulated GATA3 mRNA and subsequently down-regulated SLCO4C1 mRNA. Overexpression of GATA3 significantly reduced SLCO4C1 expression, and silencing of GATA3 increased SLCO4C1 expression vice versa. Administration of indoxyl sulfate in rats reduced renal expression of slco4c1 and under this condition, plasma level of guanidinosuccinate, one of the preferable substrates of slco4c1, was significantly increased without changing plasma creatinine. Furthermore, in 5/6 nephrectomized rats, treatment with oral adsorbent AST-120 significantly decreased plasma indoxyl sulfate level and conversely increased the expression of slco4c1, following the reduction of plasma level of guanidinosuccinate. These data suggest that the removal of indoxyl sulfate and blocking its signal pathway may help to restore the SLCO4C1-mediated renal excretion of uremic toxins in CKD.
Nerve-derived neural crest cells are essential for regeneration in certain animals, such as newts. Here, we asked whether they play a similar role during mammalian tissue repair, focusing on Sox2-positive neural crest precursors in skin. In adult skin, Sox2 was expressed in nerve-terminal-associated neural crest precursor cells (NCPCs) around the hair follicle bulge, and following injury was induced in nerve-derived cells, likely dedifferentiated Schwann cell precursors. At later times postinjury, Sox2-positive cells were scattered throughout the regenerating dermis, and lineage tracing showed that these were all neural-crest-derived NCPCs. These Sox2-positive NCPCs were functionally important, since acute deletion of Sox2 prior to injury caused a decrease of NCPCs in the wound and aberrant skin repair. These data demonstrate that Sox2 regulates skin repair, likely by controlling NCPCs, and raise the possibility that nerve-derived NCPCs may play a general role in mammalian tissue repair.
•Sox2 regulates murine skin repair•Sox2 regulates the neural crest precursor response to tissue injury•Sox2 identifies a nerve terminal-associated neural crest precursor in hair follicles
While common in viral infections and neoplasia, spontaneous cell-cell fusion, or syncytialization, is quite restricted in healthy tissues. Such fusion is essential to human placental development, where interactions between trophoblast-specific human endogenous retroviral (HERV) envelope proteins, called syncytins, and their widely-distributed cell surface receptors are centrally involved. We have identified the first host cell-encoded protein that inhibits cell fusion in mammals. Like the syncytins, this protein, called suppressyn, is HERV-derived, placenta-specific and well-conserved over simian evolution. In vitro, suppressyn binds to the syn1 receptor and inhibits syn1-, but not syn2-mediated trophoblast syncytialization. Suppressyn knock-down promotes cell-cell fusion in trophoblast cells and cell-associated and secreted suppressyn binds to the syn1 receptor, ASCT2. Identification of the first host cell-encoded inhibitor of mammalian cell fusion may encourage improved understanding of cell fusion mechanisms, of placental morphogenesis and of diseases resulting from abnormal cell fusion.
This phase I first-in-human study was conducted in Japanese patients to investigate the safety, pharmacokinetics (PKs), and determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oral TAK-285, a novel dual erbB protein kinase inhibitor that specifically targets human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2.
The TAK-285 dose was escalated until MTD was determined. A second patient cohort received TAK-285 at the MTD for at least 4 weeks.
In all, 26 patients received TAK-285 at doses ranging from 50 to 400 mg once daily (q.d.) or twice daily (b.i.d.); 20 patients made up the dose escalation cohort and the remaining 6 patients were the repeated administration cohort. TAK-285 was well tolerated. Dose-limiting toxicities noted in two patients who received 400 mg b.i.d. were grade 3 increases in aminotransferases and grade 3 decreased appetite. Consequently, the MTD was determined to be 300 mg b.i.d. Absorption of TAK-285 was rapid after oral dosing, and plasma exposure at steady-state increased in a dose-proportional fashion for doses ranging from 50 to 300 mg b.i.d. A partial response was observed for one patient with parotid cancer who received 300 mg b.i.d.
The toxicity profile and PK properties of oral TAK-285 warrant further evaluation.
first-in-human; phase I TAK-285; epidermal growth factor receptor; dual erbB protein kinase inhibitor family; receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor
We report a case of Coccidioides thyroiditis in an HIV-infected patient with a history of recent Coccidioides pneumonia but with negative Coccidioides serology determined by enzyme immunoassay at presentation. Diagnosis of Coccidioides thyroiditis was made based on histopathologic examination and culture of thyroid abscess material obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
Three molecules have been identified as the main cellular factors required for binding and entry of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1): glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), heparan sulfate (HS), and neuropilin 1 (NRP-1). However, the precise mechanism of HTLV-1 cell tropism has yet to be elucidated. Here, we examined the susceptibilities of various human cell lines to HTLV-1 by using vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotypes bearing HTLV-1 envelope proteins. We found that the cellular susceptibility to HTLV-1 infection did not correlate with the expression of GLUT1, HS, or NRP-1 alone. To investigate whether other cellular factors were responsible for HTLV-1 susceptibility, we conducted expression cloning. We identified two HS proteoglycan core proteins, syndecan 1 and syndecan 2, as molecules responsible for susceptibility to HTLV-1. We found that treatment of syndecan 1-transduced cells (expressing increased HS) with heparinase, a heparin-degradative enzyme, reduced HTLV-1 susceptibility without affecting the expression levels of HS chains. To further elucidate these results, we characterized the expression of HS chains in terms of the mass, number, and length of HS in several syndecan 1-transduced cell clones as well as human cell lines. We found a significant correlation between HTLV-1 susceptibility and the number of HS chains with short chain lengths. Our findings suggest that a combination of the number and the length of HS chains containing heparin-like regions is a critical factor which affects the cell tropism of HTLV-1.
Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) are multipotent dermal stem cells that reside within a hair follicle niche and that share properties with embryonic neural crest precursors. Here, we have asked whether SKPs and their endogenous dermal precursors originate from the neural crest or whether, like the dermis itself, they originate from multiple developmental origins. To do this, we used two different mouse Cre lines that allow us to perform lineage tracing: Wnt1-cre, which targets cells deriving from the neural crest, and Myf5-cre, which targets cells of a somite origin. By crossing these Cre lines to reporter mice, we show that the endogenous follicle-associated dermal precursors in the face derive from the neural crest, and those in the dorsal trunk derive from the somites, as do the SKPs they generate. Despite these different developmental origins, SKPs from these two locations are functionally similar, even with regard to their ability to differentiate into Schwann cells, a cell type only thought to be generated from the neural crest. Analysis of global gene expression using microarrays confirmed that facial and dorsal SKPs exhibit a very high degree of similarity, and that they are also very similar to SKPs derived from ventral dermis, which has a lateral plate origin. However, these developmentally distinct SKPs also retain differential expression of a small number of genes that reflect their developmental origins. Thus, an adult neural crest-like dermal precursor can be generated from a non-neural crest origin, a finding with broad implications for the many neuroendocrine cells in the body.
Dermis; Stem cells; Lineage tracing; Neural crest; Somites
We examined Notch signaling molecules, Notch1 and Jagged1, in serial large cases of typical solid/multicystic ameloblastoma. In general, Notch positive staining products were frequently detected in the cytoplasms of the cells. In the same cells, Jagged positive staining were also frequently observed, while only occasionally positive in peripheral cells, especially in cuboidal cells. The results showed that these morphogenesis regulation factors are closely related to cytological differentiation in neoplastic cells of ameloblastoma. The Notch and Jagged positive-cell ratios were frequently positive, and the ratios were nearly the same between the varied histopathological, cytological patterns. However, the less-differentiated cells were fewer in number than that of well-differentiated cells.
Ameloblastoma; Notch signaling; Notch Jagged; Cell differentiation; Immunohistochemistry
We report a case of Histoplasma capsulatum endocarditis in which Histoplasma antigen assay and fungal blood cultures were negative. The diagnosis was made by microscopic examination and culture of the excised valve. Histoplasma capsulatum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of culture-negative endocarditis in regions where it is endemic and in travelers.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a multistep process in which cells acquire molecular alterations such as loss of cell-cell junctions and restructuring of the cytoskeleton. There is an increasing understanding that this process may promote breast cancer progression through promotion of invasive and metastatic tumor growth. Recent observations imply that there may be a cross-talk between EMT and cancer stem cell properties, leading to enhanced tumorigenicity and the capacity to generate heterogeneous tumor cell populations. Here, we review the experimental and clinical evidence for the involvement of EMT in cancer stem cell theory, focusing on the common characteristics of this phenomenon.
GABA is a key mediator of neural activity in the mammalian central nervous system, and a diverse set of GABAergic neurons utilize GABA as a transmitter. It has been widely accepted that GABAergic neurons typically serve as interneurons while glutamatergic principal cells send excitatory signals to remote areas. In general, glutamatergic projection neurons monosynaptically innervate both principal cells and local GABAergic interneurons in each target area, and these GABAergic cells play a vital role in modulation of the activity of principal cells. The formation and recall of sensory, motor and cognitive representations require coordinated fast communication among multiple areas of the cerebral cortex, which are thought to be mostly mediated by glutamatergic neurons. However, there is an increasing body of evidence showing that specific subpopulations of cortical GABAergic neurons send long-range axonal projections to subcortical and other cortical areas. In particular, a variety of GABAergic neurons in the hippocampus project to neighboring and remote areas. Using anatomical, molecular and electrophysiological approaches, several types of GABAergic projection neurons have been shown to exist in the hippocampus. The target areas of these cells are the subiculum and other retrohippocampal areas, the medial septum and the contralateral dentate gyrus. The long-range GABAergic projection system of the hippocampus may serve to coordinate precisely the multiple activity patterns of widespread cortical cell assemblies in different brain states and among multiple functionally related areas.
GABAergic neuron; long-range projection; hippocampus; medial septum; subiculum; retrosplenial cortex; multiregional coordination
Background: A dominant T helper type 1 (Th1) immune response is thought to be involved in Crohn’s disease (CD). SLC/CCL21 and ELC/CCL19, chemokines that regulate T cell homing and promote recirculating T and dendritic cell (DC) interactions, help control antigen specific T cell responses.
Aims: To investigate the Th1 response and SLC and ELC in CD pathogenesis.
Methods: Surgically resected intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) from controls and patients with CD and ulcerative colitis (UC) were investigated. CD3, CD83, HECA452, VEGFR3, SLC, ELC, and CCR7 expression was studied immunohistochemically. CCR7 mRNA was quantified using real time RT-PCR.
Results: ELC was almost undetectable in intestinal samples. SLC was found sporadically in lymphoid follicles, lymphoid aggregate venules, and lymphatic vessels. In MLNs, SLC was highly expressed in high endothelial venules (HEVs), lymphatic vessels, and stromal DCs, predominantly in T cell areas. ELC was highly expressed in mature DCs. There were significantly more SLC positive HEVs and ELC positive mature DCs, important components of T cell areas, in CD. SLC, ELC, and CCR7 mRNA was significantly higher in CD MLNs compared with UC. CD MLNs had increased expression of SLC and ELC, mainly in HEVs, mature DCs, and lymphatic vessels, inducing T cell hyperplasia. CCR7 mRNA was increased in T cell areas.
Conclusion: The dominant Th1 immune response is facilitated by interaction of SLC positive HEVs/lymphatic vessels, ELC positive mature DCs, and CCR7 positive T cells in hyperplastic T cell areas. In CD, memory T cells and mature DCs may home to MLN.
Crohn’s disease; ulcerative colitis chemokine; lymphatic vessel; recruitment; homing; T helper type 1; T helper type 2; inflammatory bowel disease; secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine; EBI1 ligand chemokine
More than 10 members of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been shown to work as coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HIV type 2 (HIV-2), and simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). As a common feature of HIV/SIV coreceptors, tyrosine residues are present with asparagines, aspartic acids or glutamic acids in the amino-terminal extracellular regions (NTRs).
We noticed that a receptor for N-formylpeptides, FPRL1, also contains two tyrosine residues accompanied by glutamic acids in its NTR. It was reported that monocytes expressing CCR5 and FPRL1 in addition to CD4 are activated by treatment with ligands or agonists of FPRL1. Activated monocytes down-modulate CCR5 and become resistant to infection by HIV-1 strains. Thus, FPRL1 plays important roles in protection of monocyptes against HIV-1 infection. However, its own coreceptor activity has not been elucidated yet. In this study, we examined coreceptor activities of FPRL1 for HIV/SIV strains including primary HIV-1 isolates.
A CD4-transduced human glioma cell line, NP-2/CD4, is strictly resistant to HIV/SIV infection. We have reported that when NP-2/CD4 cells are transduced with a GPCR having coreceptor activity, the cells become susceptible to HIV/SIV strains. When NP-2/CD4 cells were transduced with FPRL1, the resultant NP-2/CD4/FPRL1 cells became markedly susceptible to some laboratory-adapted HIV/SIV strains. We found that FPRL1 is also efficiently used as a coreceptor by primary HIV-1 isolates as well as CCR5 or CXCR4.
Amino acid sequences linked to the FPRL1 use could not be detected in the V3 loop of the HIV-1 Env protein. Coreceptor activities of FPRL1 were partially blocked by the forymyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF) peptide.
We conclude that FPRL1 is a novel and efficient coreceptor for HIV/SIV strains. FPRL1 works as a bifunctional factor in HIV-1 infection. Namely, the role of FPRL1 in HIV-1 infection is protective and/or promotive in different conditions. FPRL1 has been reported to be abundantly expressed in the lung, spleen, testis, and neutrophils. We detected mRNA expression of FPRL1 in 293T (embryonal kidney cell line), C8166 (T cell line), HOS (osteosarcoma cell line), Molt4#8 (T cell line), U251MG (astrocytoma cell line), U87/CD4 (CD4-transduced glioma cell line), and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Roles of FPRL1 in HIV-1 infection in vivo should be further investigated.
The formation and recall of sensory, motor, and cognitive representations require coordinated fast communication among multiple cortical areas. Interareal projections are mainly mediated by glutamatergic pyramidal cell projections; only few long-range GABAergic connections have been reported. Using in vivo recording and labeling of single cells and retrograde axonal tracing, we demonstrate novel long-range GABAergic projection neurons in the rat hippocampus: (1) somatostatin- and predominantly mGluR1α-positive neurons in stratum oriens project to the subiculum, other cortical areas, and the medial septum; (2) neurons in stratum oriens, including somatostatin-negative ones; and (3) trilaminar cells project to the subiculum and/or other cortical areas but not the septum. These three populations strongly increase their firing during sharp wave-associated ripple oscillations, communicating this network state to the septotemporal system. Finally, a large population of somatostatin-negative GABAergic cells in stratum radiatum project to the molecular layers of the subiculum, presubiculum, retrosplenial cortex, and indusium griseum and fire rhythmically at high rates during theta oscillations but do not increase their firing during ripples. The GABAergic projection axons have a larger diameter and thicker myelin sheet than those of CA1 pyramidal cells. Therefore, rhythmic IPSCs are likely to precede the arrival of excitation in cortical areas (e.g., subiculum) that receive both glutamatergic and GABAergic projections from the CA1 area. Other areas, including the retrosplenial cortex, receive only rhythmic GABAergic CA1 input. We conclude that direct GABAergic projections from the hippocampus to other cortical areas and the septum contribute to coordinating oscillatory timing across structures.
cerebral cortex; inhibition; interneuron; oscillation; rhythm; axon
Nocardia asteroides was isolated after prolonged culture from the pericardial fluid of a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient. The lengthy duration required for culture growth and identification of this N. asteroides isolate affected both initial therapeutic decisions and patient management. A proposed algorithm for the microbiological workup of pericardial fluid for possible Nocardia spp. is described in an effort to improve the timeliness of results.
A 62-year-old man visited our clinic for dental implantation under intravenous sedation. He demonstrated increased psychomotor activity and incomprehensible verbal contact during intravenous sedation. Although delirium caused by midazolam or propofol in different patients has been reported, the present case represents a delirium that developed from both drugs in the same patient, possibly because of the patient's smaller tolerance to midazolam and propofol.
Delirium; Midazolam; Propofol; Dental treatment
We previously found that there is a subtle difference in the global methylation state of blood leukocyte DNA between male subjects with and without schizophrenia. The aim of the current study was to determine whether this difference was a primary effect of the disease state, or a secondary effect of antipsychotics administered to these patients.
We examined the methyl cytosine (mC) content of DNA from the leukocytes, brain, and liver of rats using high performance liquid chromatography. A total of 40 male and female rats received for 21 days daily injection of haloperidol or vehicle solution alone.
In control rats injected with buffer only, there was a sex-dependent difference in mC content in leukocyte DNA (male > female; P = 0.028, n = 10), similar to our previous observations in human peripheral leukocytes. No difference in mC content between the sexes was observed in the brain or liver in buffer-treated animals. Haloperidol treatment slightly decreased the mC content of leukocytes in male rats, but unexpectedly, increased the mC content of leukocytes in females. We observed a trend toward a higher level of mC in the liver in both sexes following haloperidol treatment, compared to buffer-treated animals. In contrast, haloperidol treatment resulted in a decrease in mC content in the brain in females, and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.026).
These results indicate that haloperidol can affect DNA methylation states in the brain, as well as in certain other tissues, and raise the possibility that antipsychotic drugs play a role in the observed disparity in mC content in male subjects with and without schizophrenia.
It has been difficult to propagate and titrate hepatitis B virus (HBV) in tissue culture. We examined whether vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotypes bearing HBV surface (HBs) proteins infectious for human cell lines could be prepared. For this, expression plasmids for three surface proteins, L, M, and S, of HBV were made. 293T cells were then transfected with these plasmids either individually or in different combinations. 293T cells expressing HBs proteins were infected with VSVΔG*-G, a recombinant VSV expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), to make VSV pseudotypes. Culture supernatants together with cells were harvested and sonicated for a short time. The infectivities of freshly harvested supernatants were determined by quantifying the number of cells expressing GFP after neutralization with anti-VSV serum and mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against HBs protein. Among 14 cell lines tested for susceptibility to HBV pseudotype samples, HepG2, JHH-7, and 293T cells were judged to be the most susceptible. Namely, the infectious units (IU) of the culture supernatant samples neutralized with anti-VSV in the absence and presence of anti-HBs S MAbs and titrated on HepG2 cells ranged from 1,000 to 4,000 IU/ml and 200 to 400 IU/ml, respectively, suggesting the presence of VSVΔG*(HBV) pseudotypes. This infectivity was inhibited by treatment with lactoferrin or dextran sulfate. Pretreatment of the cells with trypsin or tunicamycin inhibited plating of the pseudotype samples. The HBV pseudotypes can be used to analyze early steps of HBV infection, including the entry mechanism of HBV.
An 11-year-old girl was scheduled for alveolar cleft bone grafting with an iliac bone under general anesthesia. Anesthesia was performed with 70% nitrous oxide, 30% oxygen, and propofol. On the first and second postoperative day, persistent hyperthermia was observed. Because the administration of diclofenac sodium had not been effective for the hyperthermia, dantrolene sodium was given. Her body temperature gradually dropped and returned to normal level on the fifth postoperative day. The hyperthermia in the present case might have been caused by a rapidly elevated muscle metabolism in response to pain and stress after the propofol anesthesia. The oral administration of dantrolene sodium successfully lowered the patient's high body temperature.
Postoperative hyperthermia; Myoglobin; Dantrolene sodium
Because a temporal arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle is thought to be a prerequisite for cell differentiation, we investigated cell cycle factors that critically influence the differentiation of mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), a potent inducer of osteoblast differentiation. Of the G1 cell cycle factors examined, the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6) was found to be strongly down-regulated by BMP-2/Smads signaling, mainly via transcriptional repression. The enforced expression of Cdk6 blocked BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation to various degrees, depending on the level of its overexpression. However, neither BMP-2 treatment nor Cdk6 overexpression significantly affected cell proliferation, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of Cdk6 on cell differentiation was exerted by a mechanism that is largely independent of its cell cycle regulation. These results indicate that Cdk6 is a critical regulator of BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation and that its Smads-mediated down-regulation is essential for efficient osteoblast differentiation.
The mouse achaete-scute homolog-2 gene (Ascl2 or Mash2) encodes a transcription factor playing a role in the development of the trophoblast. The Ascl2 is an imprinted gene with maternal expression and assigned to an imprinting gene cluster region (ICR) at a distal region of mouse chromosome 7. We previously isolated a phage clone carrying the human homolog, ASCL2, and mapped it to human chromosome 11p15.5, a human ICR. In the present study, we demonstrate the expression patterns of the human ASCL2 in the fetus at a stage between first and second trimesters and in the placental tissues. In addition, it has been shown that the human ASCL2 gene escapes genomic imprinting.
ASCL2; imprinting; expression; placenta
PVC-211 murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is a neuropathogenic variant of Friend MuLV (F-MuLV) which causes a rapidly progressive spongiform neurodegenerative disease in rodents. The primary target of PVC-211 MuLV infection in the brain is the brain capillary endothelial cell (BCEC), which is resistant to F-MuLV infection. Previous studies have shown that changes in the envelope gene of PVC-211 MuLV confer BCEC tropism to the virus. However, little is known about how infection of BCECs by PVC-211 MuLV induces neurological disease. Previous results suggest that nitric oxide (NO), which has been implicated as a potential neurotoxin, is involved in PVC-211 MuLV-induced neurodegeneration. In this study, we show that expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which produces NO from l-arginine, is induced in BCECs from PVC-211 MuLV-infected rats. Furthermore, elevated levels of a 32-kDa cellular protein modified by 3-nitrotyrosine, which is a hallmark of NO production, were observed in virus-infected BCECs. BCECs from rats infected with BCEC-tropic but nonneuropathogenic PVF-e5 MuLV, which is a chimeric virus between PVC-211 MuLV and F-MuLV, fail to induce either iNOS expression or elevation of tyrosine nitration of a 32-kDa protein. These results suggest that expression of iNOS and nitration of tyrosine residues of a 32-kDa protein in PVC-211 MuLV-infected BCECs may play an important role in neurological disease induction.
Oral treponemes are considered to be important in the development and progression of periodontal diseases. We investigated the mechanisms of recognition and activation of human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC) with the oral treponemes Treponema denticola, Treponema vincentii, and Treponema medium and their outer membrane extracts (OMEs). T. vincentii and T. medium but not T. denticola produced interleukin 8 (IL-8) in an HGEC culture. Further, all three treponemes induced IL-8 mRNA expression and NF-κB activation in HGEC. Among them, T. denticola especially exhibited trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like protease activities, and the addition of chymostatin, a chymotrypsin protease inhibitor, resulted in detectable IL-8 production by HGEC cultured with T. denticola. Additionally, IL-8 mRNA expression in HGEC cultured with the three treponemes and their OMEs was definitely inhibited by the mouse anti-human Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) monoclonal antibody TL2.1. These findings suggest that oral treponemes and their OMEs activate HGEC through TLR2.