Period1 (Per1) and Period2 (Per2) are members of the circadian genes. Mounting evidence suggests that the deregulation of the circadian clock plays an important role in the development of mammalian cancer. However, the expression and clinical significance of Per1 and Per2 in gastric cancer is still unexplored. Here, we evaluated the expression pattern of Per1 and Per2 in 246 gastric cancer specimens and their adjacent, non-tumorous tissues using immunohistochemical assays. Per1 expression was significantly associated with clinical stage (p < 0.001), depth invasion (p < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001) and pathologic differentiation (p < 0.001). On the other hand, Per2 was associated with clinical stage (p = 0.021) and depth invasion (p = 0.007). Per1 expression was positively correlated with Per2 expression in the 246 gastric cancer patients (r = 0.378, p < 0.001), and the expression levels of Per1 and Per2 were down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues when compared with adjacent, non-tumorous tissues in 45 gastric cancer samples (p < 0.001, p = 0.003). Patients with lower Per1 and Per2 tumor expression had a shorter survival time than those with higher expression. Univariate and Multivariate analyses indicated that Per2 expression is an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.023). Our results demonstrate that Per1 and Per2 may play important roles in tumor development, invasion and prognosis, and Per2 may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker of human gastric cancer.
Circadian clock gene; Per1; Per2; gastric cancer; expression; prognostic
The objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) in the post-diethylstilbestrol (DES) era and to evaluate the feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment. The records of 32 patients with CCAs who were treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from August 1986 to June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Three of the patients had undergone fertility-preserving treatment. The incidence of CCA among cervical adenocarcinomas was 15.2%. The median age was 38 years: 11 patients (34.4%) were diagnosed before 30 years of age and two (6.3%) after 70 years of age. Ten patients (31.2%) were nulliparous. No patient had been exposed to DES. Twenty-nine patients (90.6%) presented with obvious symptoms, and the cervix appeared abnormal in 26 patients (81.3%). Cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) tests were abnormal in all four patients in whom they were performed (three had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and one had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance). The distribution by stage was 56.3% stage I, 34.4% stage II, 6.3% stage III, and 3.1% stage IV. Treatments mainly included surgery for patients with stage I to IIA CCA and radiochemotherapy for patients with advanced CCA. The overall 5-year progression-free survival was 72.2%. Patients with stage I to IIA CCA had better 5-year progression-free survival than did patients with stage IIB to IV CCA (81.5% versus 40.0%, P=0.003). The three patients who had undergone fertility-preserving treatment had no recurrences. CCA may also affect adolescents and children without prior DES exposure, who are often misdiagnosed as having functional uterine bleeding. Radiotherapy appears to be effective for local control but to have no effect on distant recurrences. In our study, the prognosis of patients with early-stage CCA, including those who had undergone fertility-preserving treatment, was not inferior to that of patients with other types of cervical adenocarcinoma.
clear cell carcinoma; cervix; diagnosis; prognosis; fertility-preserving
AIM: To investigate adjuvant chemotherapy, p53 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) expression and prognosis after D2 gastrectomy for stage II/III gastric adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: A total of 286 patients with stage II or III gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent D2 radical gastrectomy between May 2007 and December 2010 were enrolled into this study. One hundred and sixty-nine of these patients received surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy, and 117 patients received surgery alone. Tumor expression of p53 and CEA proteins in all patients was evaluated immunohistochemically and correlated with clinicopathological parameters. The Kaplan-Meier curves for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) with log-rank testing were used to compare the survival difference. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used for multivariate analysis.
RESULTS: Patients with adjuvant chemotherapy had a significantly better median OS (50.87 mo vs 30.73 mo, P = 0.000) and median DFS (36.30 mo vs 25.60 mo, P = 0.001) than patients with surgery alone in the entire cohort. Consistent results with the entire cohort were found in stage II (P = 0.006 and P = 0.047), stage III (P = 0.005 and P = 0.030), and stage IIIB/IIIC patients (P = 0.000 and P = 0.001). The median OS and DFS advantages were confirmed by multivariate analysis (P = 0.000 and P = 0.008) and maintained when the analyses were restricted to fluoropyrimidine monotherapy (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001) and fluoropyrimidine plus platinum regimen (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007), however, not the fluoropyrimidine plus taxane (P = 0.198 and P = 0.777) or platinum plus taxane (P = 0.666 and P = 0.687) regimens. Median OS and median DFS did not differ significantly between the patients with p53(+) and p53(-) tumors (P = 0.608 and P = 0.064), or between patients with CEA(+) and CEA(-) tumors (P = 0.052 and P = 0.989), which were maintained when the analyses were restricted to surgery alone (p53: P = 0.864 and P = 0.431; CEA: P = 0.142 and P = 0.948), adjuvant chemotherapy (p53: P = 0.802 and P = 0.091; CEA: P = 0.223 and P = 0.946) and even different chemotherapy regimens (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Patients after D2 gastrectomy for stage II/III gastric adenocarcinoma had significantly better survival after fluoropyrimidine monotherapy and fluoropyrimidine plus platinum. p53 and CEA were not prognostic.
Gastric adenocarcinoma; Adjuvant chemotherapy; p53; Carcinoembryonic antigen; Immunohistochemistry
Although general agreement exists on palliative surgery with intent of symptom palliation in advanced gastric cancer (AGC), the role of non-curative surgery for incurable, asymptomatic AGC is hotly debated. We aim to clarify the role of non-curative surgery in patients with incurable, asymptomatic AGC under the first-line chemotherapy.
A total of 737 patients with incurable, asymptomatic advanced gastric adenocarcinoma between January 2008 and May 2012 at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were retrospectively analyzed, comprising 414 patients with non-curative surgery plus first-line chemotherapy, and 323 patients with first-line chemotherapy only. The clinicopathologic data, survival, and prognosis were evaluated, with propensity score adjustment for selection bias.
The median overall survival (OS) outcomes significantly favored non-curative surgery group over first-line chemotherapy only group in entire population (28.00 versus 10.37 months, P = 0.000), stage 4 patients (23.87 versus 10.37 months, P = 0.000), young patients (28.70 versus 10.37 months, P = 0.000) and elderly patients (23.07 versus 10.27 months, P = 0.031). The median OS advantages of non-curative surgery over first-line chemotherapy only were also maintained when the analyses were restricted to single organ metastasis (P = 0.001), distant lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002), peritoneal metastasis (P = 0.000), and multi-organ metastasis (P = 0.010). Significant OS advantages of non-curative surgery over chemotherapy only were confirmed solid by multivariate analyses before and after adjustment on propensity score (P = 0.000). Small subsets of patients with surgery of single metastatic lesion after previous curative gastrectomy, and with surgery of both primary and single metastatic sites showed sound median OS.
There is a role for non-curative surgery plus first-line chemotherapy for incurable, asymptomatic AGC, in terms of survival. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to fill a gap in knowledge about the value of metastectomy and patient selection strategies.
Generalized vitiligo (GV) is characterized by autoimmune destruction of melanocytes by skin-homing cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs) that target melanocyte autoantigens. Two recent genomewide association studies (GWAS) of GV in European-derived whites (EUR) have demonstrated genetic association with GZMB, encoding granzyme B, a marker of activated CTLs that mediates target-cell apoptosis, as well as autoantigen activation and consequent initiation and propagation of autoimmunity. Here, we describe detailed genetic analyses of the GZMB region of chromosome 14q12 to identify genetic variation potentially causal for GV, implicating two non-synonymous SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium that comprise part of a common multi-variant high-risk haplotype, rs8192917-C— rs11539752-C (55R-94A). To identify possible uncommon deleterious variants that might “hitchhike” on the high-risk haplotype, we then carried out “next-generation” DNA re-sequencing of GZMB in 114 EUR GV patients. Overall, our findings support a direct causal role for the GZMB rs8192917-C—rs11539752-C haplotype (55R-94A) in the pathogenesis of GV.
Vitiligo; Autoimmune disease; granzyme B; T-cells
In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the mechanisms of neuronal loss remain largely unknown. While tau pathology is closely correlated with neuronal loss, how its accumulation may lead to activation of neurotoxic pathways is unclear. Here we show that tau increased the levels of ubiquitinated proteins in the brain and that this triggered activation of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). This suggested that tau was interfering with protein quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Consistent with this, ubiquitin was found to associate with the ER in human AD brains and rTg4510 tau transgenic mouse brains, but this was not always co-localized with tau. The increased levels of ubiquitinated protein were accompanied by increased levels of phosphorylated PERK, a marker that indicates UPR activation. Importantly, depleting soluble tau levels in cells and brain could reverse UPR activation. Tau accumulation facilitated its deleterious interaction with ER membrane and associated proteins that are essential for ER-associated degradation (ERAD), including VCP and Hrd1. Based on this, the effects of tau accumulation on ERAD efficiency were evaluated using the CD3∂ reporter, an ERAD substrate. Indeed, CD3∂ accumulated in both in vitro and in vivo models of tau over-expression and AD brains. These data suggest that soluble tau impairs ERAD, and the result is activation of the UPR. The reversibility of this process, however, suggests that tau-based therapeutics could significantly delay this type of cell death and consequently disease progression.
Transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) is a promising therapeutic strategy in CNS injury. However, the adult CNS lacks instructive signals present during development and, depending on the region and type of transplant, may be inhibitory for neuron generation and axonal growth. We examined the effects of the white matter in different regions of the adult CNS on the properties of NPC transplants with respect to cell survival, differentiation, migration, and axonal growth. NPCs were prepared from day 13.5 embryonic spinal cord of transgenic rats that express the human placental alkaline phosphatase (AP) reporter. These NPCs were injected unilaterally into the cervical spinal cord white matter and into the corpus callosum of adult rats and were analyzed immunohistochemically 2 weeks later. NPCs survived in both regions and differentiated into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons, with no apparent differences in survival or phenotypic composition. However, in the spinal cord white matter, graft-derived cells, identified as precursors and glial cells, migrated from the injection site rostrally and caudally, while in the corpus callosum, graft-derived cells did not migrate and remained at the injection site. Importantly, graft-derived neurons extended axons from the grafting site along the corpus callosum past the midline, entering into the contralateral side of the corpus callosum. These results demonstrate dramatic differences between white matter regions in the spinal cord and brain with respect to cell migration and axonal growth and underscore the importance of considering the effects of the local CNS environment in the design of effective transplantation strategies.
axonal growth; cell migration; corpus callosum; spinal cord; white matter
It has been proved that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection alters the metastatic pattern and affects survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), while the influence of HBV infection on metastatic pattern and survival in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) has not been investigated yet.
We conducted an investigation to evaluate the impact of HBV infection on metastatic pattern and overall survival in PC. We collected the data of 460 PC patients treated in our hospital from 1999 to 2010. Serum HBV markers were tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The impact of HBV infection on metastatic pattern and overall survival was analyzed.
We found that the incidence of synchronous liver metastasis was significantly higher in patients with HBsAg positive than those with HBsAg negative (46.0% vs 32.0%, P < 0.05), and higher in chronic HBV infection (CHB) group than both non HBV infection and resolved HBV infection group (61.1% vs 33.9%, P < 0.05, and 61.1% vs 28.7%, P < 0.05, respectively). What’s more, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that CHB, resolved HBV infection and non HBV infection group had significant longer overall survival (OS) compared with inactive HBsAg carriers (IC) group (P=0.037, P=0.009, and P=0.019 respectively). But, in the multivariate analysis, only the CHB and non HBV infection group had significant better overall survival compared with IC group (P=0.010 and P=0.018 respectively).
Our study found that HBV infection increased synchronous liver metastasis rate, and HBV infection status was an independent prognostic factor in PC patients.
Hepatitis B virus; Pancreatic cancer; Liver metastasis; Survival
Recent success in the derivation of haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) from mouse via parthenogenesis and androgenesis has enabled genetic screening in mammalian cells and generation of gene-modified animals. However, whether haESCs can be derived from primates remains unknown. Here, we report the derivation of haESCs from parthenogenetic blastocysts of Macaca fascicularis monkeys. These cells, termed as PG-haESCs, are pluripotent and can differentiate to cells of three embryonic germ layers in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, the haploidy of one monkey PG-haESC line (MPH1) is more stable compared with that of the other one (MPH2), as shown by the existence of haploid cells for more than 140 days without fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) enrichment of haploid cells. Importantly, transgenic monkey PG-haESC lines can be generated by lentivirus- and piggyBac transposon-mediated gene transfer. Moreover, genetic screening is feasible in monkey PG-haESCs. Our results demonstrate that PG-haESCs can be generated from monkeys, providing an ideal tool for genetic analyses in primates.
embryonic stem cell; haploid cells; monkey
In HIV patients, antiretroviral medications trigger metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance. In addition, the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which is elevated in human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis (HIVE), also induces insulin resistance and inflicts neuronal damage in vitro. In differentiated PC12 cells and rat cortical neurons, high glucose (HG; 25 mM) triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, contributing to the retraction of neuronal processes, with only a minimal involvement of neuronal apoptosis. In the presence of TNFα, HG-treated neurons undergo massive apoptosis. Because mammalian homolog of the Forkhead family of transcription factors, Forkhead box O transcription factor 3a (FOXO3a), controls ROS metabolism, we asked whether FOXO3a could affect the fate of differentiated neurons in the paradigm of HIVE. We observed FOXO3a nuclear translocation in HG-treated neuronal cultures, accompanied by partial loss of mitochondrial potential and gradual retraction of neuronal processes. Addition of TNFα to HG-treated neurons increased expression of the FOXO-dependent proapoptotic gene Bim, which resulted in extensive apoptotic death. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) significantly lowered intracellular ROS, which was accompanied by IGF-I-mediated FOXO3a nuclear export and decrease in its transcriptional activity. The clinical relevance of these findings is supported by detection of nuclear FOXO3a in TUNEL-positive cortical neurons from HIVE, especially in brain areas characterized by elevated TNFα.
IGF-I; FOXO3a; ROS; neuronal apoptosis; HIV encephalitis
MiRNA primarily acts to repress gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through imperfect complementarity of its 5′ region to the “seed site” in the 3′ untranslated region of target mRNAs, with its “3′–supplementary site” and “center site” also playing important roles under certain circumstances. The aim of this study was to test if artificial miRNA mimics (miR-Mimics) that are designed to target the “centered sites” without “seed sites” complementarity are able to repress gene expression as natural miRNAs.
We designed miR-Mimics carrying centered-site matches (CS–miR-Mimics) or seed-site matches (SS–miR-Mimics) and siRNA to two antiapoptotic genes BCL2 and AKT1. We tested the gene targeting of these constructs using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot to quantify mRNA and protein levels of BCL2 and AKT1, respectively, luciferase reporter gene assay to investigate the interaction between miR-Mimics and their target sites, and cell survival assay to study the functional outcomes of the miR-Mimics.
We found that CS-miR-Mimic, SS-miR-Mimic and siRNA, all down regulated the mRNA and protein levels of their cognate target BCL2 or AKT1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Luciferase reporter gene assay further confirmed the functional interactions of CS–miR-Mimic, SS-miR-Mimic and siRNA with their target sites. We then observed that the miR-Mimics and siRNAs were all able to induce cell death, as indicated by the reduced survival rate of cells.
We have provided evidence for the feasibility of CS–miR-Mimics for post-transcriptional repression of genes, which can be designed to have reduced numbers of seed type off-target sites compared to the number of target sites from an average endogenous seed–site miRNA. CS–miR-Mimics may be a novel approach for miRNA research requiring miRNA gain-of-function.
Tau aggregation and amyloidogenesis are common hallmarks for neurodegenerative disorders called tauopathies. The molecular chaperone network constitutes the cellular defense against insults such as tau aggregation. However, chaperone effects on tau are dichotomous. Loss of tau’s microtubule-binding activity facilitates an inappropriate chaperone interaction that promotes an amyloidogenic tau conformation. Conversely, other chaperones are capable of promoting tau clearance. Here, we demonstrate that a critical contributor to tau triage is the DnaJ-binding domain of Hsp70 proteins. In particular, over-expression of the constitutive DnaJ, DnaJA1, mediated tau clearance, while knockdown facilitated tau accumulation. This clearance was not specific to distinct pathogenic tau species. The activity of DnaJA1 was attenuated by concomitant increases in Hsp70. Tau reductions facilitated by DnaJA1 were dependent on the integrity of lysines known to be poly-ubiquitinated in human Alzheimer’s brain. In vivo, DnaJA1 and tau levels were inversely correlated. The effects of DnaJA1 were partially specific: DnaJA1 reduced the levels of a polyQ protein but had no significant effect on α-synuclein levels.
These data suggest that DnaJA1 triages all tau species for ubiquitin-dependent clearance mechanisms. Moreover, the levels of DnaJA1 and Hsp70 seem to play against each other with regard to tau: as DnaJA1 levels increase, tau levels are reduced, but this can be prevented if Hsp70 levels are simultaneously induced. Thus, the DnaJ repertoire possibly represents a powerful set of genetic modifiers for tau pathogenesis. Further investigations, could provide new insights about triage decisions that facilitate or prevent amyloidogenesis of tau and other proteins associated with neurodegenerative disease.
High shear force critically regulates platelet adhesion and thrombus formation during ischemic vascular events. To identify genetic factors that influence platelet thrombus formation under high shear stress, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and confirmatory experiments in human and animal platelets.
Methods and Results
Closure times in the shear-dependent Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100® were measured on healthy, non-diabetic European Americans (n=125) and African Americans (n=116). A GWAS significant association (p<5X10−8) was identified with 2 SNPs within the SVIL gene (chr 10p11.23) in African-Americans but not European Americans. Microarray analyses of human platelet RNA demonstrated the presence of SVIL isoform 1 (supervillin) but not muscle-specific isoforms 2 and 3 (archvillin, SmAV). SVIL mRNA levels were associated with SVIL genotypes (p≤0.02) and were inversely correlated with PFA-100 closure times (p<0.04) and platelet volume (p<0.02). Leukocyte-depleted platelets contained abundant levels of the ~205 kD supervillin polypeptide. To assess functionality, mice lacking platelet supervillin were generated and back-crossed onto a C57BL/6 background. Compared to controls, murine platelets lacking supervillin were larger by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, and exhibited enhanced platelet thrombus formation under high shear, but not low shear, conditions.
We show for the first time that 1) platelets contain supervillin, 2) platelet thrombus formation in the PFA-100® is associated with human SVIL variants and low SVIL expression, and 3) murine platelets lacking supervillin exhibit enhanced platelet thrombus formation at high shear stress. These data are consistent with an inhibitory role for supervillin in platelet adhesion and arterial thrombosis.
genetics; genome-wide association study; murine model; platelets; thrombosis
Existence of inert biomass and its impact on biomass accumulation patterns and biofilter performance were investigated. Four biofilters were set up in parallel to treat gaseous toluene. Each biofilter operated under different inlet toluene loadings for 100 days. Two microbial growth models, one with an inert biomass assumption and the other without, were established and compared. Results from the model with the inert biomass assumption showed better agreement with the experimental data than those based on the model without the inert biomass assumption thus verifying that inert biomass accumulation cannot be ignored in the long-term operation of biofilters. According to the model with an inert biomass assumption, the ratio of active biomass to total biomass will decrease and the inert biomass will become dominant in total biomass after a period of time. Filter bed structure simulation results showed that the void fraction is more sensitive to biomass accumulation than the specific surface area. The final void fraction of the biofilters with the highest inlet toluene loading is only 67% of its initial level while the final specific surface area is 82%. Identification and quantification of inert biomass will give a better understanding of biomass accumulation in biofilters and will result in a more exact simulation of biomass change during long-term operations. Results also indicate that an ideal biomass control technique should be able to remove most inert biomass while simultaneously preserving as much active biomass as possible.
biofilter; microbial growth model; inert biomass; biomass control
Patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer who have undergone complete surgical resection harbor a 30% risk for tumor recurrence. Thus, the identification of factors that are predictive for tumor recurrence is urgently needed. The aim of this study was to test the prognostic value of serum albumin levels on tumor recurrence in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer.
Stage I non-small cell lung cancer patients who underwent complete surgical resection of the primary tumor at Zhejiang Hospital were analyzed in this study. Serum albumin levels were measured before surgery and once again after surgery in 101 histologically diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer patients. Correlations between the pre- and post-operative serum albumin levels and various clinical demographics and recurrence-free survival rates were analyzed.
Patients with pre-operative hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dl) had a significantly worse survival rate than patients with normal pre-operative serum albumin levels (≥3.5 g/dl) (p = 0.008). Patients with post-operative hypoalbuminemia had a worse survival rate when compared with patients with normal post-operative serum albumin levels (p = 0.001). Cox multivariate analysis identified pre-operative hypoalbuminemia, post-operative hypoalbuminemia and tumor size over 3 cm as independent negative prognostic factors for recurrence.
Serum albumin levels appear to be a significant independent prognostic factor for tumor recurrence in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer who have undergone complete resection. Patient pre-treatment and post-treatment serum albumin levels provide an easy and early means of discrimination between patients with a higher risk for recurrence and patients with a low risk of recurrence.
Prognostic Impact; Recurrence-Free Survival; Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Serum Albumin Level
Hyperlipidemia may lead to endothelial injury, due to its effects on homocysteine and vascular endothelial growth factor in the serum, and the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and caspase-3 and -8 in the vascular wall. In order to prevent and mitigate the high-fat state that results from endothelial injury, this study examined the effect of folic acid (FA) and vitamin B12 (VB12) on the expression of PPARγ and caspase-3 and -8 mRNA in the abdominal aortas of rats with hyperlipidemia. Sixty 4-week-old healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (each n=12): the normal control (NC), high-fat diet (HL), FA, VB12 and FA+VB12 groups. Following one week of adaptive feeding, the FA, VB12 and FA+VB12 groups were subject to the intraperitoneal injection of FA (0.5 mg/day), VB12 (0.05 mg/day) and FA+VB12 (0.5 mg/day and 0.05 mg/day), respectively, while fed a high-fat diet. The rats in the NC group were injected intraperitoneally with 0.9% NaCl solution (0.5 ml/day) and fed a normal diet, whereas those in the HL group were fed a high-fat diet only. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay demonstrated that at the end of week 12, the FA treatment had effectively increased the PPARγ mRNA level, while reducing the caspase-3 and -8 mRNA levels, compared with the high-fat diet treatment (P<0.05). The effect of FA on the expression of PPARγ and caspase-3 and -8 was enhanced when used in combination with VB12 (P<0.05). These results revealed that the application of FA, alone or in combination with VB12, improves and mitigates the high-fat state that results from endothelial injury.
hyperlipidemia; PPARγ; caspase-8; caspase-3; folic acid
Tumor formation constitutes a major obstacle to the clinical application of embryonic stem cell–derived (ESC-derived) cells. In an attempt to find major extracellular signaling and intrinsic factors controlling tumorigenicity and therapeutic functionality of transplanted ESC-derived retinal progenitor cells (ESC-RPCs), we evaluated multiple kinds of ESC-RPCs in a mouse retinal degeneration model and conducted genome-wide gene expression profiling. We identified canonical WNT signaling as a critical determinant for the tumorigenicity and therapeutic function of ESC-RPCs. The function of WNT signaling is primarily mediated by TCF7, which directly induces expression of Sox2 and Nestin. Inhibition of WNT signaling, overexpression of dominant-negative Tcf7, and silencing Tcf7, Sox2, or Nestin all resulted in drastically reduced tumor formation and substantially improved retinal integration and visual preservation in mice. These results demonstrate that the WNT signaling cascade plays a critical role in modulating the tumorigenicity and functionality of ESC-derived progenitors.
Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a key basal ganglia output nucleus critical for movement control. Its γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing projection neurons intermingle with nigral dopamine (DA) neuron dendrites. Here we show that SNr GABA neurons co-express dopamine D1 and D5 receptor mRNAs and also mRNA for TRPC3 channels. Dopamine induced an inward current in these neurons and increased their firing frequency. These effects were mimicked by D1-like agonists, blocked by a D1-like antagonist. D1-like receptor blockade reduced SNr GABA neuron firing frequency and increased their firing irregularity. These D1-like effects were absent in D1 or D5 receptor knockout mice and inhibited by intracellularly applied D1 or D5 receptor antibody. These D1-like effects were also inhibited when the tonically active TRPC3 channels were inhibited by intracellularly applied TRPC3 channel antibody. Furthermore, stimulation of DA neurons induced a direct inward current in SNr GABA neurons that was sensitive to D1-like blockade. Manipulation of DA neuron activity and DA release and inhibition of dopamine reuptake affected SNr GABA neuron activity in a D1-like receptor-dependent manner. Taken together, our findings indicate that dendritically released dopamine tonically excites SNr GABA neurons via D1-D5 receptor co-activation that enhances constitutively active TRPC3 channels, forming an ultra-short SNc→SNr dopamine pathway that regulates the firing intensity and pattern of these basal ganglia output neurons.
basal ganglia; dopamine receptor; spontaneous firing; substantia nigra pars reticulata; TRP channel; Parkinson’s disease
Only B lymphocytes can express immunoglobulins according to the traditional immunological theories, and the expression of immunoglobulin G (IgG) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein was found in certain human cancer cells recently. However, the expression pattern of IgG and its possible role in human urothelial carcinoma are still elusive. In this study, we investigated the expression of IgG in two human urothelial carcinoma cell lines, T24 and BIU-87, and in 56 cases of clinical urothelial carcinoma tissues. The mRNA of IgG was positively detected by in situ hybridization and reverse transcription PCR; furthermore, IgG protein was also positively detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Moreover, blockade of tumor-derived IgG by either antihuman IgG antibody or antisense oligonucleotides increased cell apoptosis and inhibited cell growth in bladder cancer cell lines in vitro, and antihuman IgG antibody could suppress the growth of xenotransplant tumor in vivo. In addition, either antihuman IgG antibody or antisense oligonucleotides enhanced the sensitivity to mitomycin C in bladder cancer cell line T24. Furthermore, blockade of IgG in bladder cancer cell T24 resulted in upregulation of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Our results indicated that bladder cancer cells were capable of expressing IgG, and blockade of IgG expression induced cell apoptosis through activation of caspase-dependent pathway. A novel potential targeted therapy for bladder cancer will be possibly developed based on these data.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13277-013-0717-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Immunoglobin G; Antisense oligonucleotides; Urothelial carcinoma; Mitomycin C; Apoptosis
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of highly conserved small non-coding RNA molecules, are known to play essential roles in central nervous system (CNS) by causing post-transcriptional gene silencing. There is much evidence that miRNAs have specific temporal and spatial expression patterns in the mammal brain, but little is known about the role of the region specificity for the gene regulatory networks of the brain. This study represents the first attempt to perform a profiling analysis of the differential expression of miRNAs between hippocampus and the Marginal division (MrD) of the neostriatum in the rat brain.
Microarray was used to detect the expression of 357 miRNAs in hippocampus and the MrD from three rats. A short-list of the most dysregulated 30 miRNAs per rat was generated for data analysis, and the miRNAs that were represented in two or three short-lists were then further analyzed. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed to validate the aberrantly expressed miRNAs obtained from the miRNA microarray analysis. A family of 11 miRNAs demonstrated differential expression between the MrD and hippocampus in more than one rat. Amongst these, miR-383 was differentially expressed in all three rats and up-regulated to the largest degree in rat one, and the ten other miRNAs, let-7d*, miR-181b, miR-187, miR-195, miR-214, miR-382, miR-411, miR-466b, miR-592 and miR-1224 were differentially expressed in at least two rats. Of these ten, besides miR-382 and miR-411 which were up-regulated in one rat and down-regulated in another, the other eight miRNAs retained a uniform direction of regulation (up-regulation or down-regulation) between different specimens. When further examined by RT-PCR, the aberrantly expressed miRNAs, except miR-383 and let-7d*, demonstrated differential expression that significantly correlated with the microarray findings.
This study reported that the miRNA expression patterns in MrD was distinct from that of Hip, suggesting the role of miRNAs in the learning and memory function of the MrD probably different from hippocampus.
mRNA transcript; Oligo-microarray; Gene silence; Synapse formation; Learning and memory
A phase III clinical trial has already shown the survival benefits of postoperative chemotherapy in gastric cancer. However, there are limited published data concerning the elderly. This study aims to investigate the use of adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer after D2 gastrectomy among the elderly and identify its impact on survival.
We retrospectively reviewed 360 patients who had undergone D2 gastrectomy, aged 65 years or older, with non-metastatic gastric cancer in a single institution. We analyzed the predictors and survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy use in the elderly. Further, we analyzed the survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy by dividing the patients into groups according to disease stages and chemotherapeutic regimens.
Among the 360 patients, only 34.7% of patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. Age, tumor location, lymph node involvement and tumor invasion were associated with the receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy improved the overall survival for non-metastatic elderly patients (HR 0.60, 95%CI 0.42–0.83, P = 0.003). Significant survival benefits were found with adjuvant chemotherapy in stage III patients (HR 0.67, 95%CI 0.47–0.97, P = 0.033), but not in stage I patients or in stage II patients (HR 0.52, 95%CI 0.21–1.30 P = 0.161). Compared to adjuvant chemotherapy without platinum, no significant survival benefits were observed with platinum-containing chemotherapy (HR 0.84, 95%CI 0.49–1.45, P = 0.530). Besides adjuvant chemotherapy, other independent prognostic factors of survival included tumor location, tumor size, histologic grade, depth of tumor invasion, and lymph node status.
This study demonstrated the survival benefits of adjuvant fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy among the elderly patients with non-metastatic gastric cancer after D2 gastrectomy. However, due to the limitations of this study, further well-designed prospective studies with large populations are needed to confirm these findings and identify the patients that can tolerate and benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) released in the brain by HIV-activated macrophages/microglia is suspected to compromise neuronal survival. Previously, we have demonstrated that activated receptor for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-IR) protects neurons from TNFαinduced neuronal damage (Wang et al.  J. Neurosci. Res. 83:7–18). Because TNFα triggers phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) on serine residues (pS-IRS-1; Rui et al.  J. Clin. Invest. 107:181–189), and pS-IRS-1 binds integrins (Reiss et al.  Oncogene 20:490–500), we asked how these events affect neuronal processes. We show that β1-integrin and pS-IRS-1 colocalize in PC12 cells and in primary cortical neurons. TNFα treatment elevated membrane-associated pS-IRS-1, enhanced pSIRS-1 interaction with β1-integrin, and attenuated cell attachment to collagen IV. In contrast, IGF-I inhibited pS-IRS-1–β1-integrin complexes and improved cell attachment. The domain of IRS-1 involved in β1-integrin binding mapped between amino acids 426 and 740, and the expression of 426–740/IRS-1 mutant attenuated neuronal outgrowth. Our results indicate that TNFα facilitates the interaction of pS-IRS-1 and β1-integrin and destabilizes neuronal processes. IGF-I counteracts TNFα-mediated accumulation of pS-IRS-1–β1-integrin complexes supporting the stability of neuronal processes.
IRS-1; integrins; TNFα; IGF-I; neuronal damage
The novel compound JRS-15 was obtained through the chemical modification of xylocydine. JRS-15 exhibited much stronger cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activity than its parent compound in various cancer cell lines, with IC50 values in HeLa, HepG2, SK-HEP-1, PC-3M and A549 cells ranging from 12.42 to 28.25 μM. In addition, it is more potent for killing cancer than non-cancerous cells. Mechanistic studies showed that JRS-15 treatment arrested cell cycle at the G1/S phase, which further triggered the translocation of Bax and Bak to the mitochondria, resulting in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization and the subsequent release of cytochrome c and the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac). The sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3/7 and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed following these mitochondrial events. Caspase-8, an initiator caspase that is required to activate the membrane receptor-mediated extrinsic apoptosis pathway was not activated in JRS-15-treated cells. Further analysis showed that the levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and XIAP were significantly reduced upon JRS-15 treatment. Furthermore, the caspase-9 inhibitor z-LEHD-fmk, the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk, and Bcl-xL or XIAP overexpression all effectively prevented JRS-15-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that JRS-15 induces cancer cell apoptosis by regulating multiple apoptosis-related proteins, and this compound may therefore be a good candidate reagent for anticancer therapy.
apoptosis; Bax; Bak; Bcl-xL; cell cycle; cytochrome c; JRS-15; Smac; XIAP
Stroke is a major cause of mortality and the leading cause of permanent disability. In this study, we adopted the classic middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO) stroke model to observe the therapeutic effects of coccomyxa gloeobotrydiformis(CGD) on ischemic stroke, and discuss the underlying mechanisms. Low dose (50 mg/kg.day) and high dose (100 mg/kg.day) concentrations of the drug CGD were intragastrically administrated separately for 8 weeks. Infarct volumes, neurologic deficits and degree of stroke-induced brain edema were measured 24 hours after reperfusion. Furthermore, oxidative stress related factors (SOD and MDA), mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis regulatory factors (mitochondrial Cyt-C, Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3) were all investigated in this research. We found that CGD attenuated cerebral infarction, brain edema and neurologic deficits; CGD maintained the mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased mitochondrial swelling. It also prevented oxidative damage by reducing MDA and increasing SOD. In addition, CGD could effectively attenuate apoptosis by restoring the level of mitochondrial Cyt C and regulating the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase 3. These results revealed that CGD has a therapeutic effect on ischemic stroke, possibly by inducing mitochondrial protection and anti-apoptotic mechanisms.
Coccomyxa gloeobotrydiformis (CGD); ischemic stroke; apoptosis; mitochondrion