AIM: To determine whether magnified observation of short-segment Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is useful for the detection of specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM).
METHODS: Thirty patients with suspected short-segment BE underwent magnifying endoscopy up to × 80. The magnified images were analyzed with respect to their pit-patterns, which were simultaneously classified into five epithelial types [I (small round), II (straight), III (long oval), IV (tubular), V (villous)] by Endo’s classification. Then, a 0.5% solution of methylene blue (MB) was sprayed over columnar mucosa. The patterns of the magnified image and MB staining were analyzed. Biopsies were obtained from the regions previously observed by magnifying endoscopy and MB chromoendoscopy.
RESULTS: Three of five patients with a type V (villous) epithelial pattern had SIM, whereas 21 patients with a non-type V epithelial patterns did not have SIM. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of pit-patterns in detecting SIM were 100%, 91.3%, 92.3%, 60% and 100%, respectively (P = 0.004). Three of the 12 patients with positive MB staining had SIM, whereas 14 patients with negative MB staining did not have SIM. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MB staining in detecting SIM were 100%, 60.9%, 65.4%, 25% and 100%, respectively (P = 0.085). The specificity and accuracy of pit-pattern evaluation were significantly superior compared with MB staining for detecting SIM by comparison with the exact McNemar’s test (P = 0.0391).
CONCLUSION: The magnified observation of a short-segment BE according to the mucosal pattern and its classification can be predictive of SIM.
Short-segment; Barrett’s esophagus; Magnifying endoscopy; Methylene blue chromoendoscopy; Specialized intestinal metaplasia; Dysplasia; Esophageal adenocarcinoma; Diagnosis
There is confusion in the diagnosis and biological behaviors of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), because of independently proposed nomenclatures and classifications. A standardized form of pathology report is required for the proper management of patients.
We discussed the proper pathological evaluation of GEP-NET at the consensus conference of the subcommittee meeting for the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists. We then verified the prognostic significance of pathological parameters from our previous nationwide collection of pathological data from 28 hospitals in Korea to determine the essential data set for a pathology report.
Histological classification, grading (mitosis and/or Ki-67 labeling index), T staging (extent, size), lymph node metastasis, and lymphovascular and perineural invasion were significant prognostic factors and essential for the pathology report of GEP-NET, while immunostaining such as synaptophysin and chromogranin may be optional. Furthermore, the staging system, either that of the 2010 American Joint Cancer Committee (AJCC) or the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS), should be specified, especially for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms.
A standardized pathology report is crucial for the proper management and prediction of prognosis of patients with GEP-NET.
Neuroendocrine tumors; Digestive system; Pathology; Staging; Grading; Prognosis
The incidence of early colorectal epithelial neoplasm (ECEN) is increasing, and its pathologic diagnosis is important for patient care. We investigated the incidence of ECEN and the current status of its pathologic diagnosis.
We collected datasheets from 25 institutes in Korea for the incidence of colorectal adenoma with high grade dysplasia (HGD) and low grade dysplasia in years 2005, 2007, and 2009; and early colorectal carcinoma in the year 2009. We also surveyed the diagnostic terminology of ECEN currently used by the participating pathologists.
The average percentage of diagnoses of adenoma HGD was 7.0%, 5.0%, and 3.4% in years 2005, 2007, and 2009, respectively. The range of incidence rates of adenoma HGD across the participating institutes has gradually narrowed over the years 2005 to 2009. The incidence rate of early colorectal carcinoma in the year 2009 was 21.2%. The participants did not share a single criterion or terminology for the diagnosis of adenoma HGD. The majority accepted the diagnostic terms that distinguished noninvasive, mucosal confined, and submucosal invasive carcinoma.
Further research requirements suggested are a diagnostic consensus for the histopathologic diagnosis of ECEN; and standardization of diagnostic terminology critical for determining the disease code.
Colorectal neoplasms; Pathology, surgical; Multicenter study; Incidence; Diagnosis
Liver; Neoplasm; Carcinoma; Hepatocellular
von Meyenburg complexes; Cholangiocarcinoma; Liver
Liver; Hemangioma; Sclerosed variant
Hypopharyngeal cancers are often diagnosed at an advanced stage and have a poor prognosis. Even when they are diagnosed at an operable stage, surgery often results in substantial morbidity and decreased patients' quality of life. Although the endoscopic diagnosis of early hypopharyngeal cancer is difficult, recent developments in advanced imaging endoscopy have enabled easier diagnosis of these lesions. Endoscopic resection of early hypopharyngeal cancer is a potential minimally invasive treatment that can preserve the function and quality of life of patients. Reports of this procedure are limited, however. We report a case of hypopharygeal cancer treated with endoscopic resection.
Hypopharyngeal neoplasms; Carcinoma, squamous cell; Endoscopic mucosal resection
Renal cell carcinoma is an uncommon source of bladder metastases. Here we report a case of renal cell carcinoma that metastasized to the bladder. A 73-year-old woman complained of gross hematuria. Abdominopelvic computerized tomography showed a bladder mass and a heterogenous enhancing mass in the lower pole of the left kidney with left vein thrombosis. The pathological analysis of the resected bladder specimen revealed metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the clear cell type.
Neoplasm metastasis; Renal cell carcinoma
Intra-abdominal tuberculous lymphadenitis can mimic a variety of other abdominal disorders such as pancreatic cancer, metastatic lymph nodes, or lymphoma, which can make a proper diagnosis difficult. A correct diagnosis of intra-abdominal tuberculous lymphadenitis can lead to appropriate management. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided needle biopsy may be the procedure of choice for tissue acquisition when onsite cytopathology examination is unavailable because it is essential to obtain sufficient material suitable for the examination using an ancillary method, such as flow cytometry, molecular diagnosis, cytogenetics, or microbiological culture. We report a case of intra-abdominal tuberculous lymphadenitis diagnosed using an EUS-guided, 22-gauge histology new needle biopsy without an onsite cytopathology examination.
Endosonography; Fine needle biopsy; Tuberculosis
Cancer registries play a fundamental role in cancer control and multicenter collaborative research. Recently, the need for reassessment of cancer registry criteria has arisen due to the newly released 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Accordingly, development of new coding guidelines for cancer is necessary to improve the quality of cancer registries, as well as to prevent conflicts that may arise when seeking medical insurance compensation.
With funding from the Management Center for Health Promotion, 35 members of the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group and the Cancer Registration Committee of the Korean Society of Pathologists (KSP) participated in a second workshop for gastrointestinal tumor registration in Korea.
The topics of gastric epithelial tumor, colonic intramucosal carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumor (NET), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and appendiceal mucinous tumor were discussed for new coding guidelines. A survey was then conducted among 208 members of the KSP for a consensus of the guidelines proposed in the workshop.
Although a few issues were set aside for further discussion, such as coding for non-gastric GIST and some types of NET, the members agreed upon most of the proposed guidelines. Therefore, we suggest using the newly revised International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd edition (ICD-O-3) coding guidelines for registering gastrointestinal tumors in Korea.
Cancer registries; International classification of diseases; Gastrointestinal neoplasms
AIM: To evaluate clinicopathologic parameters and the clinical significance related lymphovascular invasion (LVI) by immunohistochemical staining (IHCS) in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD).
METHODS: Between May 2005 and May 2010, a total of 348 lesions from 321 patients (mean age 63 ± 10 years, men 74.6%) with early gastric cancer (EGC) who met indication criteria after ESD were analyzed retrospectively. The 348 lesions were divided into the absolute (n = 100, differentiated mucosal cancer without ulcer ≤ 20 mm) and expanded (n = 248) indication groups after ESD. The 248 lesions were divided into four subgroups according to the expanded ESD indication. The presence of LVI was determined by factor VIII-related antigen and D2-40 assessment. We compared LVI IHCS-negative group with LVI IHCS-positive in each group.
RESULTS: LVI by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HES) and IHCS were all negative in the absolute group, while was observed in only the expanded groups. The positive rate of LVI by IHCS was higher than that of LVI by HES (n = 1, 0.4% vs n = 11, 4.4%, P = 0.044). LVI IHCS-positivity was observed when the cancer invaded to the mucosa 3 (M3) or submucosa 1 (SM1) levels, with a predominance of 63.6% in the subgroup that included only SM1 cancer (P < 0.01). In a univariate analysis, M3 or SM1 invasion by the tumor was significantly associated with a higher rate of LVI by IHCS, but no factor was significant in a multivariate analysis. There were no cases of tumor recurrence or metastasis during the median 26 mo follow-up.
CONCLUSION: EGCs of the absolute group are immunohistochemically stable. The presence of LVI may be carefully examined by IHCS in an ESD expanded indication group with an invasion depth of M3 or greater.
Gastric cancer; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Immunohistochemical staining; Lymphovascular invasion; Depth
The recently published Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) proposed a split system for histological grading, based on prognostic pathological features. This new classification system must be validated in a variety of cohorts. We investigated whether these pathological features were applicable to an adult Korean population.
In total, 69 adult Korean patients with IgAN were analyzed using the Oxford classification system at Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea. All cases were categorized according to Lee's classification. Renal biopsies from all patients were scored by a pathologist who was blinded to the clinical data for pathological variables. Inclusion criteria were age greater than 18 years and at least 36 months of follow-up. We excluded cases with secondary IgAN, diabetic nephropathy combined other glomerulopathies, less than 36 months of follow-up, and those that progressed rapidly.
The median age of the patients was 34 years (range, 27 to 45). Mean arterial blood pressure was 97 ± 10 mmHg at the time of biopsy. The median follow-up period was 85 months (range, 60 to 114). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significant prognostic predictions for M, E, and T lesions. A Cox proportional hazard regression analysis also revealed prognostic predictions for E and T lesions.
Using the Oxford classification in IgAN, E, and T lesions predicted renal outcome in Korean adults after taking clinical variables into account.
Histology; Prognosis; Glomerulonephritis; IgA
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To investigate the levels of COX-2 and VEGF expression in chronic hepatitis (CH), cirrhosis, and HCC.
The immunohistochemical expressions of COX-2 and VEGF were evaluated in tissues from patients with CH (n=95), cirrhosis (n=38), low-grade HCC (LG-HCC; n=6), and high-grade HCC (HG-HCC; n=29).
The COX-2 expression scores in CH, cirrhosis, LG-HCC, and HG-HCC were 3.3±1.9 (mean±SD), 4.2±1.7, 5.5±1.0, and 3.4±2.4, respectively (CH vs. cirrhosis, P=0.016; CH vs. LG-HCC, P=0.008; LG-HCC vs. HG-HCC, P=0.004), and the corresponding VEGF expression scores were 0.9±0.8, 1.5±0.7, 1.8±0.9, and 1.6±1.1 (CH vs. cirrhosis, P<0.001; CH vs. LG-HCC, P=0.011; LG-HCC vs. HG-HCC, P=0.075). Both factors were correlated with the fibrosis stage in CH and cirrhosis (COX-2: r=0.427, P<0.001; VEGF: r=0.491, P<0.001). There was a significant correlation between COX-2 and VEGF in all of the tissue samples (r=0.648, P<0.001), and between high COX-2 and VEGF expression scores and survival (COX-2: P=0.001; VEGF: P<0.001).
The expressions of both COX-2 and VEGF are significantly higher in cirrhosis and LG-HCC than in CH. High COX-2 and high VEGF expressions are associated with a high survival rate.
Cyclooxygenase-2; Vascular endothelial growth factor; Chronic hepatitis; Liver cirrhosis; Hepatocellular carcinoma
The Bosniak renal cyst classification has been accepted by urologists and radiologists as a way of diagnosing cystic renal masses and determining the management approach. We report two cases of a renal cystic mass that showed a category change from category II on the basis of enhanced computed tomography to category IV after further gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. In both cases, the cysts were later confirmed as kidney cancer by pathology.
Cysts; Kidney; Magnetic resonance imaging
AIM: To evaluated the value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scan in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and extrahepatic metastases.
METHODS: A total of 138 patients with HCC who had both conventional imaging modalities and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan done between November 2006 and March 2011 were enrolled. Diagnostic value of each imaging modality for detection of extrahepatic metastases was evaluated. Clinical factors and tumor characteristics including PET imaging were analyzed as indicative factors for metastases by univariate and multivariate methods.
RESULTS: The accuracy of chest CT was significantly superior compared with the accuracy of PET imaging for detecting lung metastases. The detection rate of metastatic pulmonary nodule ≥ 1 cm was 12/13 (92.3%), when < 1 cm was 2/10 (20%) in PET imaging. The accuracy of PET imaging was significantly superior compared with the accuracy of bone scan for detecting bone metastases. In multivariate analysis, increased tumor size (≥ 5 cm) (P = 0.042) and increased average standardized uptake value (SUV) uptake (P = 0.028) were predictive factors for extrahepatic metastases. Isometabolic HCC in PET imaging was inversely correlated in multivariate analysis (P = 0.035). According to the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal cutoff of average SUV to predict extrahepatic metastases was 3.4.
CONCLUSION: 18F-FDG PET/CT scan is invaluable for detection of lung metastases larger than 1 cm and bone metastases. Primary HCC having larger than 5 cm and increased average SUV uptake more than 3.4 should be considered for extrahepatic metastases.
18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan; Diagnosis; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Extrahepatic metastases
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was developed for the en bloc resection of large early gastrointestinal neoplasms. A disadvantage of ESD is its technical difficulty, which requires advanced skills and is associated with a higher rate of complications. Endoscopic variceal obturation (EVO) using cyanoacrylate has emerged as the initial treatment of choice for acute gastric variceal bleeding. This procedure achieves hemostasis in 90% of cases. A 52-year-old patient with Child A alcoholic liver cirrhosis presented with early gastric cancer in the cardia and type 1 isolated gastric varices in the fundus. The two lesions were so close together that treatment was not easy. The lesions were managed successfully with a combination of ESD and EVO using cyanoacrylate.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Endoscopic variceal obturation; Early gastric cancer; Esophageal and gastric varices
Accurate diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is difficult without considering the possibility of underlying diseases, especially autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We investigated the clinical patterns in patients with a history of medication, liver-function abnormalities, and in whom liver biopsy was conducted, focusing on accompaniment by AIH.
The clinical, serologic, and histologic findings of 29 patients were compared and analyzed. The patients were aged 46.2±12.8 years (mean±SD), and 72.4% of patient were female. The most common symptom and causal drug were jaundice (58.6%) and herbal medications (55.2%), respectively.
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels were 662.2±574.8 U/L, 905.4±794.9 U/L, 12.9±10.8 mg/dL, 195.8±123.3 U/L, and 255.3±280.8 U/L, respectively. According to serologic and histologic findings, 21 cases were diagnosed with DILI and 8 with AIH. The AIH group exhibited significantly higher AST levels (537.1±519.1 vs. 1043.3±600.5 U/L), globulin levels (2.7±0.4 vs. 3.3±0.5 g/dL), and prothrombin time (12.9±2.4 vs. 15.2±3.9 s; P<0.05). Antinuclear antibody was positive in 7 of 21 cases of DILI and all 8 cases of AIH (P=0.002). The simplified AIH score was 3.7±0.9 in the DILI group and 6.5±0.9 in the AIH group (P<0.001).
Accurate diagnosis is necessary for patients with a history of medication and visits for liver-function abnormalities; in particular, the possibility of AIH should be considered.
Drug-induced liver injury; Autoimmune hepatitis; Diagnosis
To determine the diagnostic utility of a frozen section biopsy in patients undergoing endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric neoplasms with obscure margins even with chromoendoscopy using acetic acid and indigo carmine (AI chromoendoscopy).
Materials and Methods
The lateral spread of early gastric neoplasms was unclear even following AI chromoendoscopy in 38 patients who underwent ESD between June 2007 and May 2011. Frozen section biopsies were obtained by agreement of the degree of lateral spread between two endoscopists. Thus, frozen section biopsies were obtained from 23 patients (FBx group) and not in the other 15 patients (AI group).
No significant differences were observed for size, histology, invasive depth, and location of lesions between the AI and FBx groups. No false positive or false negative results were observed in the frozen section diagnoses. Adenocarcinoma was revealed in three patients and tubular adenoma in one, thereby changing the delineation of lesion extent and achieving free lateral margins. The rates of free lateral resection margins and curative resection were significantly higher in the FBx group than those in the AI group.
Frozen section biopsy can help endoscopists perform more safe and accurate ESD in patients with early gastric neoplasm.
Frozen section biopsy; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Chromoendoscopy; Early gastric neoplasm
We investigated the frequency of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive individuals and the effects of occult HBV infection on the severity of liver disease.
Seventy-one hepatitis B virus surface-antigen (HBsAg)-negative patients were divided according to their HBV serological status into groups A (anti-HBc positive, anti-HBs negative; n=18), B (anti-HBc positive, anti-HBs positive; n=34), and C (anti-HBc negative, anti-HBs positive/negative; n=19), and by anti-HCV positivity (anti-HCV positive; n=32 vs. anti-HCV negative; n=39). Liver biopsy samples were taken, and HBV DNA was quantified by real-time PCR.
Intrahepatic HBV DNA was detected in 32.4% (23/71) of the entire cohort, and HBV DNA levels were invariably low in the different groups. Occult HBV infection was detected more frequently in the anti-HBc-positive patients. Intrahepatic HBV DNA was detected in 28.1% (9/32) of the anti-HCV-positive and 35.9% (14/39) of the anti-HCV-negative subjects. The HCV genotype did not affect the detection rate of intrahepatic HBV DNA. In anti-HCV-positive cases, occult HBV infection did not affect liver disease severity.
Low levels of intrahepatic HBV DNA were detected frequently in both HBsAg-negative and anti-HCV-positive cases. However, the frequency of occult HBV infection was not affected by the presence of hepatitis C, and occult HBV infection did not have a significant effect on the disease severity of hepatitis C.
Occult infection; Hepatitis B virus; Hepatitis C virus; HBV DNA
Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is an overgrowth of the normally encapsulated adipose tissue in the epidural space around the spinal cord in the thoracic and lumbar spine causing compression of the neural components. Idiopathic SEL in non-obese patients is exceptional. Idiopathic SEL can result in thoracic myelopathy and lumbar radiculopathy. A thoracic radiculopathy due to idiopathic SEL has not been reported yet. We report a case of idiopathic SEL with intractable chest pain and paresthesia. We suggest that idiopathic SEL should be considered as a cause of chest pain.
Spinal; Idiopathic; Epidural; Lipomatosis; Thoracic; Chest pain
The histopathological diagnosis of gastric mucosal biopsy and endoscopic mucosal resection/endoscopic submucosal dissection specimens is important, but the diagnostic criteria, terminology, and grading system are not the same in the East and West. A structurally invasive focus is necessary to diagnose carcinoma for most Western pathologists, but Japanese pathologists make a diagnosis of cancer based on severe dysplastic cytologic atypia irrespective of the presence of invasion. Although the Vienna classification was introduced to reduce diagnostic discrepancies, it has been difficult to adopt due to different concepts for gastric epithelial neoplastic lesions. Korean pathologists experience much difficulty making a diagnosis because we are influenced by Japanese pathologists as well as Western medicine. Japan is geographically close to Korea, and academic exchanges are active. Additionally, Korean doctors are familiar with Western style medical terminology. As a result, the terminology, definitions, and diagnostic criteria for gastric intraepithelial neoplasia are very heterogeneous in Korea. To solve this problem, the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has made an effort and has suggested guidelines for differential diagnosis: (1) a diagnosis of carcinoma is based on invasion; (2) the most important characteristic of low grade dysplasia is the architectural pattern such as regular distribution of crypts without severe branching, budding, or marked glandular crowding; (3) if nuclear pseudostratification occupies more than the basal half of the cryptal cells in three or more adjacent crypts, the lesion is considered high grade dysplasia; (4) if severe cytologic atypia is present, careful inspection for invasive foci is necessary, because the risk for invasion is very high; and (5) other structural or nuclear atypia should be evaluated to make a final decision such as cribriform pattern, papillae, ridges, vesicular nuclei, high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, loss of nuclear polarity, thick and irregular nuclear membrane, and nucleoli.
Intraepithelial neoplasia; Stomach; Dysplasia; Adenoma; Carcinoma; Japanese; Western; Consensus; Vienna
To investigate the degree of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis.
COX-2 protein expression was evaluated in 43 cases of chronic hepatitis and 24 cases of cirrhosis using immunohistochemical techniques. The COX-2 immunohistochemical staining score was assessed using the scoring systems of Pazirandeh et al and Qiu et al. and each scoring system was based on a sum of the parameters of staining intensity and distribution.
The mean COX-2 expression scores in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis were 2.5 ± 1.3 vs. 3.3 ± 1.1 (p = 0.008), and 3.2 ± 2.0 vs. 4.5 ± 1.7 (p = 0.006), respectively, based on the Pazirandeh et al. and Qiu et al. scoring systems. The percentage samples of high COX-2 expression score (4 to 5) in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis were 16.3% vs. 45.8% (p = 0.022), and 23.3% vs. 50% (p = 0.021), respectively, based on the two scoring systems. The mean COX-2 expression scores based on the severity of hepatic fibrosis scored using Ishak's modified staging system (fibrosis score 0 to 3 vs. 4 to 6) were 2.4 ± 1.3 vs. 3.2 ± 1.1 (p = 0.009), and 3.1 ± 2.0 vs. 4.3 ± 1.8 (p = 0.009), respectively, based on the two scoring systems.
COX-2 expression was significantly higher in liver cirrhosis group than in chronic hepatitis. COX-2 expression scores according to Ishak's staging was significantly higher in the advanced fibrosis group. COX-2 may play a role in the progression of hepatic fibrosis.
Cyclooxygenase 2; Immunohistochemistry; Hepatitis, chronic; Liver cirrhosis
AIM: To investigate the usefulness of magnified observations of iodine-unstained esophageal lesions in the histological diagnosis of esophageal mucosa abnormalities, in high-risk esophageal cancer groups.
METHODS: The subjects included 38 patients who had at least one of the four criteria known to be high-risk factors for esophageal cancer. Following endoscopic observation, magnified observations were performed on iodine-unstained lesions of the esophagus. The total number of lesions was 43. These lesions were classified as type A (clear papilla), type B (fused papilla), and type C (non-visible papilla) according to the findings. Tissue biopsy was then carried out. Finally the histological findings were graded in terms of histological factors, and their relationships were compared.
RESULTS: Of the 43 lesions, 11 were type A, 17 were type B, and 15 were type C under magnifying endoscopy. Histological findings such as inflammatory cell infiltration and basal cell hyperplasia were significantly increased in type B and type C lesions compared with type A lesions (P < 0.05). Low-grade esophageal dysplasia was apparent in 1 (9%) of 11 type A lesions, in 3 (18%) of 17 type B lesions, and in 6 (40%) of 15 type C lesions, with the highest rate in type C.
CONCLUSION: Magnified observations of the esophagus, classified by papillary aspects using magnifying endoscopy of iodine-unstained lesions in high-risk esophageal cancer groups, are considered useful in estimating dysplasia and inflammation of esophageal mucosa.
Esophageal cancer; Iodine; Magnifying endoscopy
Despite remarkable progress in understanding and treating gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) during the past two decades, the pathological characteristics of GISTs have not been made clear yet. Furthermore, concrete diagnostic criteria of malignant GISTs are still uncertain. We collected pathology reports of 1,227 GISTs from 38 hospitals in Korea between 2003 and 2004 and evaluated the efficacy of the NIH and AFIP classification schemes as well as the prognostic factors among pathologic findings. The incidence of GISTs in Korea is about 1.6 to 2.2 patients per 100,000. Extra-gastrointestinal GISTs (10.1%) are more common in Korea than in Western countries. In univariate analysis, gender, age, tumor location, size, mitosis, tumor necrosis, vascular and mucosal invasions, histologic type, CD34 and s-100 protein expression, and classifications by the NIH and AFIP criteria were found to be significantly correlated with patient's survival. However, the primary tumor location, stage and classification of the AFIP criteria were prognostically significant in predicting patient's survival in multivariate analysis. The GIST classification based on original tumor location, size, and mitosis is more efficient than the NIH criteria in predicting patient's survival, but the mechanism still needs to be clarified through future studies.
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors; Epidemiology; Pathology; Prognosis