Tamoxifen has been widely used for adjuvant treatment of breast cancer, but several gynecological side effects have been noted, including endometrial hyperplasia, polyp and carcinoma. Polypoid endometriosis is one of the extremely rare benign complications associated with tamoxifen therapy. A 66-year-old postmenopausal woman, who had received left partial mastectomy due to breast cancer (about 4 years ago) and was taking tamoxifen treatment, had an ovarian cyst on ultrasonography. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging suggested tamoxifen-associated endometrial and ovarian changes, especially a 4.1×3.4-cm-sized, well-defined, multicystic mass in the right ovary. She received hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Microscopically, the right paratubal mass showed endometrial glands and stroma, and immunohistochemical staining for CD10 confirmed the endometrial nature of the stroma. Three cases of polypoid endometriosis have been reported in the Korean literature, but in none of the cases, polypoid endometriosis was associated with tamoxifen use. Herein, we report the first case of polypoid endometriosis associated with tamoxifen treatment in Korea.
Endometriosis; Polyps; Tamoxifen
Cancer registries play a fundamental role in cancer control and multicenter collaborative research. Recently, the need for reassessment of cancer registry criteria has arisen due to the newly released 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Accordingly, development of new coding guidelines for cancer is necessary to improve the quality of cancer registries, as well as to prevent conflicts that may arise when seeking medical insurance compensation.
With funding from the Management Center for Health Promotion, 35 members of the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group and the Cancer Registration Committee of the Korean Society of Pathologists (KSP) participated in a second workshop for gastrointestinal tumor registration in Korea.
The topics of gastric epithelial tumor, colonic intramucosal carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumor (NET), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and appendiceal mucinous tumor were discussed for new coding guidelines. A survey was then conducted among 208 members of the KSP for a consensus of the guidelines proposed in the workshop.
Although a few issues were set aside for further discussion, such as coding for non-gastric GIST and some types of NET, the members agreed upon most of the proposed guidelines. Therefore, we suggest using the newly revised International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd edition (ICD-O-3) coding guidelines for registering gastrointestinal tumors in Korea.
Cancer registries; International classification of diseases; Gastrointestinal neoplasms
AIM: To determine whether magnified observation of short-segment Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is useful for the detection of specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM).
METHODS: Thirty patients with suspected short-segment BE underwent magnifying endoscopy up to × 80. The magnified images were analyzed with respect to their pit-patterns, which were simultaneously classified into five epithelial types [I (small round), II (straight), III (long oval), IV (tubular), V (villous)] by Endo’s classification. Then, a 0.5% solution of methylene blue (MB) was sprayed over columnar mucosa. The patterns of the magnified image and MB staining were analyzed. Biopsies were obtained from the regions previously observed by magnifying endoscopy and MB chromoendoscopy.
RESULTS: Three of five patients with a type V (villous) epithelial pattern had SIM, whereas 21 patients with a non-type V epithelial patterns did not have SIM. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of pit-patterns in detecting SIM were 100%, 91.3%, 92.3%, 60% and 100%, respectively (P = 0.004). Three of the 12 patients with positive MB staining had SIM, whereas 14 patients with negative MB staining did not have SIM. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MB staining in detecting SIM were 100%, 60.9%, 65.4%, 25% and 100%, respectively (P = 0.085). The specificity and accuracy of pit-pattern evaluation were significantly superior compared with MB staining for detecting SIM by comparison with the exact McNemar’s test (P = 0.0391).
CONCLUSION: The magnified observation of a short-segment BE according to the mucosal pattern and its classification can be predictive of SIM.
Short-segment; Barrett’s esophagus; Magnifying endoscopy; Methylene blue chromoendoscopy; Specialized intestinal metaplasia; Dysplasia; Esophageal adenocarcinoma; Diagnosis
The incidence of early colorectal epithelial neoplasm (ECEN) is increasing, and its pathologic diagnosis is important for patient care. We investigated the incidence of ECEN and the current status of its pathologic diagnosis.
We collected datasheets from 25 institutes in Korea for the incidence of colorectal adenoma with high grade dysplasia (HGD) and low grade dysplasia in years 2005, 2007, and 2009; and early colorectal carcinoma in the year 2009. We also surveyed the diagnostic terminology of ECEN currently used by the participating pathologists.
The average percentage of diagnoses of adenoma HGD was 7.0%, 5.0%, and 3.4% in years 2005, 2007, and 2009, respectively. The range of incidence rates of adenoma HGD across the participating institutes has gradually narrowed over the years 2005 to 2009. The incidence rate of early colorectal carcinoma in the year 2009 was 21.2%. The participants did not share a single criterion or terminology for the diagnosis of adenoma HGD. The majority accepted the diagnostic terms that distinguished noninvasive, mucosal confined, and submucosal invasive carcinoma.
Further research requirements suggested are a diagnostic consensus for the histopathologic diagnosis of ECEN; and standardization of diagnostic terminology critical for determining the disease code.
Colorectal neoplasms; Pathology, surgical; Multicenter study; Incidence; Diagnosis
Background and Objectives
The Gaps-In-Noise (GIN) test is a measure to assess auditory temporal resolution, which is the ability to follow rapid changes in the envelope of a sound stimulus over time. We investigated whether unilateral tinnitus affects temporal resolution by the GIN performance.
Subjects and Methods
Hearing tests including the GIN test were performed in 120 ears of 60 patients with unilateral tinnitus who showed symmetric hearing within 20 dB HL difference up to 8 kHz (tinnitus-affected ears, 14.6±11.2 dB HL; non-tinnitus ears 15.1±11.5 dB HL) and 60 ears of 30 subjects with normal hearing. Comparisons were made between tinnitus and non-tinnitus side of patients and normal ears of controls.
There was no significant difference of the mean GIN thresholds among tinnitus-affected ears (5.18±0.6 ms), non-tinnitus ears (4.98±0.6 ms) and normal ears (4.97±0.8 ms). The mean percentage of correct answers in tinnitus side (67.3±5.5%) was slightly less than that in non-tinnitus side (70.0±5.5%) but it was not significantly different from that in normal ears (69.4±7.5%). Neither the GIN threshold nor the GIN perception level in tinnitus ears has relation to sex, frequency and loudness of tinnitus, and audiometric data. Age only showed a significant correlation with the GIN performance.
We found no evidence which supported the influence of unilateral tinnitus on auditory temporal resolution. These results imply that tinnitus may not simply fill in the silent gaps in the background noise.
Tinnitus; Unilateral; Gaps-In-Noise test; Temporal resolution
AIM: To evaluate clinicopathologic parameters and the clinical significance related lymphovascular invasion (LVI) by immunohistochemical staining (IHCS) in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD).
METHODS: Between May 2005 and May 2010, a total of 348 lesions from 321 patients (mean age 63 ± 10 years, men 74.6%) with early gastric cancer (EGC) who met indication criteria after ESD were analyzed retrospectively. The 348 lesions were divided into the absolute (n = 100, differentiated mucosal cancer without ulcer ≤ 20 mm) and expanded (n = 248) indication groups after ESD. The 248 lesions were divided into four subgroups according to the expanded ESD indication. The presence of LVI was determined by factor VIII-related antigen and D2-40 assessment. We compared LVI IHCS-negative group with LVI IHCS-positive in each group.
RESULTS: LVI by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HES) and IHCS were all negative in the absolute group, while was observed in only the expanded groups. The positive rate of LVI by IHCS was higher than that of LVI by HES (n = 1, 0.4% vs n = 11, 4.4%, P = 0.044). LVI IHCS-positivity was observed when the cancer invaded to the mucosa 3 (M3) or submucosa 1 (SM1) levels, with a predominance of 63.6% in the subgroup that included only SM1 cancer (P < 0.01). In a univariate analysis, M3 or SM1 invasion by the tumor was significantly associated with a higher rate of LVI by IHCS, but no factor was significant in a multivariate analysis. There were no cases of tumor recurrence or metastasis during the median 26 mo follow-up.
CONCLUSION: EGCs of the absolute group are immunohistochemically stable. The presence of LVI may be carefully examined by IHCS in an ESD expanded indication group with an invasion depth of M3 or greater.
Gastric cancer; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Immunohistochemical staining; Lymphovascular invasion; Depth
AIM: To evaluated the value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scan in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and extrahepatic metastases.
METHODS: A total of 138 patients with HCC who had both conventional imaging modalities and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan done between November 2006 and March 2011 were enrolled. Diagnostic value of each imaging modality for detection of extrahepatic metastases was evaluated. Clinical factors and tumor characteristics including PET imaging were analyzed as indicative factors for metastases by univariate and multivariate methods.
RESULTS: The accuracy of chest CT was significantly superior compared with the accuracy of PET imaging for detecting lung metastases. The detection rate of metastatic pulmonary nodule ≥ 1 cm was 12/13 (92.3%), when < 1 cm was 2/10 (20%) in PET imaging. The accuracy of PET imaging was significantly superior compared with the accuracy of bone scan for detecting bone metastases. In multivariate analysis, increased tumor size (≥ 5 cm) (P = 0.042) and increased average standardized uptake value (SUV) uptake (P = 0.028) were predictive factors for extrahepatic metastases. Isometabolic HCC in PET imaging was inversely correlated in multivariate analysis (P = 0.035). According to the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal cutoff of average SUV to predict extrahepatic metastases was 3.4.
CONCLUSION: 18F-FDG PET/CT scan is invaluable for detection of lung metastases larger than 1 cm and bone metastases. Primary HCC having larger than 5 cm and increased average SUV uptake more than 3.4 should be considered for extrahepatic metastases.
18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan; Diagnosis; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Extrahepatic metastases
[18F]FDG (fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose) positron emission tomography (PET) is used worldwide for oncologic and neurologic applications. To date, the potential harm caused by [18F]FDG has focused on its radiation exposure effects rather than on its pharmacological effects. While an allergic response in the form of a skin manifestation has been reported after exposure to [18F]FDG, this report describes the first case of hypotension following exposure to this tracer. Here, the development of anaphylaxis after [18F]FDG injection is described.
FDG; Anaphylaxis; Allergic
Liver; Neoplasm; Carcinoma; Hepatocellular
The histopathological diagnosis of gastric mucosal biopsy and endoscopic mucosal resection/endoscopic submucosal dissection specimens is important, but the diagnostic criteria, terminology, and grading system are not the same in the East and West. A structurally invasive focus is necessary to diagnose carcinoma for most Western pathologists, but Japanese pathologists make a diagnosis of cancer based on severe dysplastic cytologic atypia irrespective of the presence of invasion. Although the Vienna classification was introduced to reduce diagnostic discrepancies, it has been difficult to adopt due to different concepts for gastric epithelial neoplastic lesions. Korean pathologists experience much difficulty making a diagnosis because we are influenced by Japanese pathologists as well as Western medicine. Japan is geographically close to Korea, and academic exchanges are active. Additionally, Korean doctors are familiar with Western style medical terminology. As a result, the terminology, definitions, and diagnostic criteria for gastric intraepithelial neoplasia are very heterogeneous in Korea. To solve this problem, the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has made an effort and has suggested guidelines for differential diagnosis: (1) a diagnosis of carcinoma is based on invasion; (2) the most important characteristic of low grade dysplasia is the architectural pattern such as regular distribution of crypts without severe branching, budding, or marked glandular crowding; (3) if nuclear pseudostratification occupies more than the basal half of the cryptal cells in three or more adjacent crypts, the lesion is considered high grade dysplasia; (4) if severe cytologic atypia is present, careful inspection for invasive foci is necessary, because the risk for invasion is very high; and (5) other structural or nuclear atypia should be evaluated to make a final decision such as cribriform pattern, papillae, ridges, vesicular nuclei, high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, loss of nuclear polarity, thick and irregular nuclear membrane, and nucleoli.
Intraepithelial neoplasia; Stomach; Dysplasia; Adenoma; Carcinoma; Japanese; Western; Consensus; Vienna
von Meyenburg complexes; Cholangiocarcinoma; Liver
Liver; Hemangioma; Sclerosed variant
AIM: To investigate the usefulness of magnified observations of iodine-unstained esophageal lesions in the histological diagnosis of esophageal mucosa abnormalities, in high-risk esophageal cancer groups.
METHODS: The subjects included 38 patients who had at least one of the four criteria known to be high-risk factors for esophageal cancer. Following endoscopic observation, magnified observations were performed on iodine-unstained lesions of the esophagus. The total number of lesions was 43. These lesions were classified as type A (clear papilla), type B (fused papilla), and type C (non-visible papilla) according to the findings. Tissue biopsy was then carried out. Finally the histological findings were graded in terms of histological factors, and their relationships were compared.
RESULTS: Of the 43 lesions, 11 were type A, 17 were type B, and 15 were type C under magnifying endoscopy. Histological findings such as inflammatory cell infiltration and basal cell hyperplasia were significantly increased in type B and type C lesions compared with type A lesions (P < 0.05). Low-grade esophageal dysplasia was apparent in 1 (9%) of 11 type A lesions, in 3 (18%) of 17 type B lesions, and in 6 (40%) of 15 type C lesions, with the highest rate in type C.
CONCLUSION: Magnified observations of the esophagus, classified by papillary aspects using magnifying endoscopy of iodine-unstained lesions in high-risk esophageal cancer groups, are considered useful in estimating dysplasia and inflammation of esophageal mucosa.
Esophageal cancer; Iodine; Magnifying endoscopy
We report colonoscopic features of an intussuscepted Meckel’s diverticulum, presenting with hematochezia. A 35-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with acute onset, transient, sharp, severe epigastric pain that began 6 h earlier. Colonoscopy revealed a reddish, soft, fist-sized polypoid lesion in the terminal ileum. The lesion was misinterpreted as a hematoma by an inexperienced endoscopist. The patient began to complain of intermittent, severe periumbilical pain following the colonoscopic examination. Subsequent computed tomography showed an enteric intussusception. An exploratory laparotomy revealed an intussuscepted Meckel’s diverticulum, with transmural infarction. Colonoscopy was of little use in assessing the intussusception. However, colonoscopic examination may be performed initially, especially in an intussuscepted Meckel’s diverticulum presenting with hematochezia. Endoscopists should note the endoscopic features of an intussuscepted Meckel’s diverticulum.
Colonoscopy; Intussusception; Meckel’s diverticulum
Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a biomarker useful for detecting early tubular damage and has been recently reported as a useful marker for evaluating kidney injury in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). We therefore investigated whether treatment decreases urinary KIM-1 excretion in IgAN.
We prospectively enrolled 37 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN. Urinary KIM-1 was assessed before and after treatment, which included low salt diet, blood pressure control, pharmacotherapy with angiotensin receptor blockers and/or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and immunosuppressive agents as necessary. The median treatment duration was 24 months.
Urinary KIM-1/creatinine (Cr) was significantly decreased in patients with IgAN after treatment compared to baseline (P < 0.0001, 1.16 [0.51-1.83] vs 0.26 [0.12-0.65] ng/mg). There was a decrease in the amount of proteinuria after treatment, but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.052, 748.1 [405-1569.7] vs 569.2 [252.2-1114] g/d). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) did not change with treatment (P = 0.599, 79.28 ± 30.56 vs 80.98 ± 32.37 ml/min/1.73 m2). Urinary KIM-1 was not correlated with proteinuria baseline or follow up (pre-: R = - 0.100, P = 0.577, post-: R = 0.001, P = 0.993). In patients with higher baseline urinary KIM-1, both urinary KIM-1 level and proteinuria were significantly decreased following treatment.
Treatment decreases urinary KIM-1/Cr in patients with IgAN. It also reduces proteinuria in patients with higher baseline urinary KIM-1. These results suggest a potential role for urinary KIM-1 as a biomarker for predicting treatment response in IgAN, however, further study is needed to verify this.
Biomarker; IgA nephropathy; KIM-1; Treatment in IgA nephropathy reduced the urinary KIM-1 excretion
There is confusion in the diagnosis and biological behaviors of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), because of independently proposed nomenclatures and classifications. A standardized form of pathology report is required for the proper management of patients.
We discussed the proper pathological evaluation of GEP-NET at the consensus conference of the subcommittee meeting for the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists. We then verified the prognostic significance of pathological parameters from our previous nationwide collection of pathological data from 28 hospitals in Korea to determine the essential data set for a pathology report.
Histological classification, grading (mitosis and/or Ki-67 labeling index), T staging (extent, size), lymph node metastasis, and lymphovascular and perineural invasion were significant prognostic factors and essential for the pathology report of GEP-NET, while immunostaining such as synaptophysin and chromogranin may be optional. Furthermore, the staging system, either that of the 2010 American Joint Cancer Committee (AJCC) or the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS), should be specified, especially for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms.
A standardized pathology report is crucial for the proper management and prediction of prognosis of patients with GEP-NET.
Neuroendocrine tumors; Digestive system; Pathology; Staging; Grading; Prognosis
Hypopharyngeal cancers are often diagnosed at an advanced stage and have a poor prognosis. Even when they are diagnosed at an operable stage, surgery often results in substantial morbidity and decreased patients' quality of life. Although the endoscopic diagnosis of early hypopharyngeal cancer is difficult, recent developments in advanced imaging endoscopy have enabled easier diagnosis of these lesions. Endoscopic resection of early hypopharyngeal cancer is a potential minimally invasive treatment that can preserve the function and quality of life of patients. Reports of this procedure are limited, however. We report a case of hypopharygeal cancer treated with endoscopic resection.
Hypopharyngeal neoplasms; Carcinoma, squamous cell; Endoscopic mucosal resection
Renal cell carcinoma is an uncommon source of bladder metastases. Here we report a case of renal cell carcinoma that metastasized to the bladder. A 73-year-old woman complained of gross hematuria. Abdominopelvic computerized tomography showed a bladder mass and a heterogenous enhancing mass in the lower pole of the left kidney with left vein thrombosis. The pathological analysis of the resected bladder specimen revealed metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the clear cell type.
Neoplasm metastasis; Renal cell carcinoma
Intra-abdominal tuberculous lymphadenitis can mimic a variety of other abdominal disorders such as pancreatic cancer, metastatic lymph nodes, or lymphoma, which can make a proper diagnosis difficult. A correct diagnosis of intra-abdominal tuberculous lymphadenitis can lead to appropriate management. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided needle biopsy may be the procedure of choice for tissue acquisition when onsite cytopathology examination is unavailable because it is essential to obtain sufficient material suitable for the examination using an ancillary method, such as flow cytometry, molecular diagnosis, cytogenetics, or microbiological culture. We report a case of intra-abdominal tuberculous lymphadenitis diagnosed using an EUS-guided, 22-gauge histology new needle biopsy without an onsite cytopathology examination.
Endosonography; Fine needle biopsy; Tuberculosis
The recently published Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) proposed a split system for histological grading, based on prognostic pathological features. This new classification system must be validated in a variety of cohorts. We investigated whether these pathological features were applicable to an adult Korean population.
In total, 69 adult Korean patients with IgAN were analyzed using the Oxford classification system at Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea. All cases were categorized according to Lee's classification. Renal biopsies from all patients were scored by a pathologist who was blinded to the clinical data for pathological variables. Inclusion criteria were age greater than 18 years and at least 36 months of follow-up. We excluded cases with secondary IgAN, diabetic nephropathy combined other glomerulopathies, less than 36 months of follow-up, and those that progressed rapidly.
The median age of the patients was 34 years (range, 27 to 45). Mean arterial blood pressure was 97 ± 10 mmHg at the time of biopsy. The median follow-up period was 85 months (range, 60 to 114). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significant prognostic predictions for M, E, and T lesions. A Cox proportional hazard regression analysis also revealed prognostic predictions for E and T lesions.
Using the Oxford classification in IgAN, E, and T lesions predicted renal outcome in Korean adults after taking clinical variables into account.
Histology; Prognosis; Glomerulonephritis; IgA
As a result of various independently proposed nomenclatures and classifications, there is confusion in the diagnosis and prediction of biological behavior of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). A comprehensive nationwide study is needed in order to understand the biological characteristics of GEP-NETs in Korea.
Materials and Methods
We collected 4,951 pathology reports from 29 hospitals in Korea between 2000 and 2009. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to determine the prognostic significance of clinicopathological parameters.
Although the GEP-NET is a relatively rare tumor in Korea, its incidence has increased during the last decade, with the most significant increase found in the rectum. The 10-year survival rate for well-differentiated endocrine tumor was 92.89%, in contrast to 85.74% in well differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma and 34.59% in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. Disease related death was most common in the biliary tract (62.2%) and very rare in the rectum (5.2%). In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, tumor location, histological classification, extent, size, mitosis, Ki-67 labeling index, synaptophysin expression, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and lymph node metastasis showed prognostic significance (p<0.05), however, chromogranin expression did not (p=0.148). The 2000 and 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) classification proposals were useful for prediction of the prognosis of GEP-NET.
The incidence of GEP-NET in Korea has shown a remarkable increase during the last decade, however, the distribution of tumors in the digestive system differs from that of western reports. Assessment of pathological parameters, including immunostaining, is crucial in understanding biological behavior of the tumor as well as predicting prognosis of patients with GEP-NET.
Gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor; Incidence; Prognosis; Pathology
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To investigate the levels of COX-2 and VEGF expression in chronic hepatitis (CH), cirrhosis, and HCC.
The immunohistochemical expressions of COX-2 and VEGF were evaluated in tissues from patients with CH (n=95), cirrhosis (n=38), low-grade HCC (LG-HCC; n=6), and high-grade HCC (HG-HCC; n=29).
The COX-2 expression scores in CH, cirrhosis, LG-HCC, and HG-HCC were 3.3±1.9 (mean±SD), 4.2±1.7, 5.5±1.0, and 3.4±2.4, respectively (CH vs. cirrhosis, P=0.016; CH vs. LG-HCC, P=0.008; LG-HCC vs. HG-HCC, P=0.004), and the corresponding VEGF expression scores were 0.9±0.8, 1.5±0.7, 1.8±0.9, and 1.6±1.1 (CH vs. cirrhosis, P<0.001; CH vs. LG-HCC, P=0.011; LG-HCC vs. HG-HCC, P=0.075). Both factors were correlated with the fibrosis stage in CH and cirrhosis (COX-2: r=0.427, P<0.001; VEGF: r=0.491, P<0.001). There was a significant correlation between COX-2 and VEGF in all of the tissue samples (r=0.648, P<0.001), and between high COX-2 and VEGF expression scores and survival (COX-2: P=0.001; VEGF: P<0.001).
The expressions of both COX-2 and VEGF are significantly higher in cirrhosis and LG-HCC than in CH. High COX-2 and high VEGF expressions are associated with a high survival rate.
Cyclooxygenase-2; Vascular endothelial growth factor; Chronic hepatitis; Liver cirrhosis; Hepatocellular carcinoma
The Bosniak renal cyst classification has been accepted by urologists and radiologists as a way of diagnosing cystic renal masses and determining the management approach. We report two cases of a renal cystic mass that showed a category change from category II on the basis of enhanced computed tomography to category IV after further gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. In both cases, the cysts were later confirmed as kidney cancer by pathology.
Cysts; Kidney; Magnetic resonance imaging
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was developed for the en bloc resection of large early gastrointestinal neoplasms. A disadvantage of ESD is its technical difficulty, which requires advanced skills and is associated with a higher rate of complications. Endoscopic variceal obturation (EVO) using cyanoacrylate has emerged as the initial treatment of choice for acute gastric variceal bleeding. This procedure achieves hemostasis in 90% of cases. A 52-year-old patient with Child A alcoholic liver cirrhosis presented with early gastric cancer in the cardia and type 1 isolated gastric varices in the fundus. The two lesions were so close together that treatment was not easy. The lesions were managed successfully with a combination of ESD and EVO using cyanoacrylate.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Endoscopic variceal obturation; Early gastric cancer; Esophageal and gastric varices