Gene expression is modulated by epigenetic factors that come in varying forms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, and long noncoding RNAs. Recent studies reveal that these epigenetic marks are important regulatory factors in brain function. In particular, DNA methylation dynamics are found to be essential components of epigenetic regulation in the mammalian central nervous system. In this review, we provide an overview of the literature on DNA methylation in neurodegenerative diseases, with a special focus on methylation of 5-position of cytosine base (5mC) and hydroxymethylation of 5-position of cytosine base (5hmC) in the context of neurodegeneration associated with aging and Alzheimer's disease.
Drosophila melanogaster is a common animal model for genetics studies, and quantitative proteomics studies of the fly are emerging. Here we present in detail the development of a procedure to incorporate stable isotope labeled amino acids into the fly proteome. In the method of Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acids in Drosophila melanogaster (SILAC fly), flies were fed with SILAC labeled yeast grown with modified media, enabling near complete labeling in a single generation. Biological variation in proteome among individual flies was evaluated in a series of null experiments. We further applied the SILAC fly method to profile proteins from a model of fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited mental retardation in human. The analysis identified a number of altered proteins in the disease model, including actin-binding protein profilin and microtubulin-associated protein futsch. The change of both proteins was validated by immunoblotting analysis. Moreover, we extended the SILAC fly strategy to study the dynamics of protein ubiquitination during the fly life span (from day 1 to day 30), by measuring the level of ubiquitin along with two major polyubiquitin chains (K48 and K63 linkages). The results show that the abundance of protein ubiquitination and the two major linkages do not change significantly within the measured age range. Together, the data demonstrate the application of the SILAC principle in Drosophila melanogaster, facilitating the integration of powerful fly genomics with emerging proteomics.
SILAC; Drosophila melanogaster; proteomics; mass spectrometry; fragile X syndrome; ubiquitin
The heavy metal cadmium is a non-degradable pollutant. By screening the effects of a panel of metal ions on the phosphatase activity, we unexpectedly identified cadmium as a potent inhibitor of PPM1A and PPM1G. In contrast, low micromolar concentrations of cadmium did not inhibit PP1 or tyrosine phosphatases. Kinetic studies revealed that cadmium inhibits PPM phosphatases through the M1 metal ion binding site. In particular, the negative charged D441 in PPM1G specific recognized cadmium. Our results suggest that cadmium is likely a potent inhibitor of most PPM family members except for PHLPPs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that cadmium inhibits PPM1A-regulated MAPK signaling and PPM1G-regulated AKT signaling potently in vivo. Cadmium reversed PPM1A-induced cell cycle arrest and cadmium insensitive PPM1A mutant rescued cadmium induced cell death. Taken together, these findings provide a better understanding of the effects of the toxicity of cadmium in the contexts of human physiology and pathology.
How oncogenic signalling coordinates glycolysis and anabolic biosynthesis in cancer cells remains unclear. We recently reported that the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) regulates anabolic biosynthesis by controlling intracellular levels of its substrate 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) and product 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PG). Here we report a novel mechanism in which Y26 phosphorylation enhances PGAM1 activation through release of inhibitory E19 that blocks the active site, stabilising cofactor 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate binding and H11 phosphorylation. We also report the crystal structure of H11-phosphorylated PGAM1 and find that phospho-H11 activates PGAM1 at least in part by promoting substrate 3-PG binding. Moreover, Y26-phosphorylation of PGAM1 is common in human cancer cells and contributes to regulation of 3-PG and 2-PG levels, promoting cancer cell proliferation and tumour growth. Since PGAM1 as a negative transcription target of TP53 is commonly upregulated in human cancers, these findings suggest that Y26 phosphorylation represents an additional acute mechanism underlying PGAM1 upregulation.
Carriers of fragile X syndrome (FXS) have FMR1 alleles, called premutations, with a number of 5’-untranslated CGG repeats somewhere between patients, who have over 200 repeats, and normal individuals, with fewer than 60 repeats. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder, has been recognized in older male fragile X premutation carriers, and FXTAS is uncoupled from the neurodevelopmental disorder, FXS. Several lines of evidence have led to the proposal of an RNA (fragile X premutation rCGG repeat)-mediated gain-of-function toxicity model for FXTAS, in which rCGG repeat-binding proteins (RBPs) could become functionally limited by their sequestration to lengthy rCGG repeats. In this review, we will discuss the recent progress towards understanding the molecular basis of RNA-mediated neurodegeneration in FXTAS.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with a three-tier fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in the Chinese population. The study was performed between 1987 and 2008 at the Beijing Military General Hospital, in a cohort of army service males and females aged >50 years. Between 1987 and 2005, a three-tier screening program, comprising guaiac-based FOBTs (gFOBTs), followed by immunochemical FOBTs for positive guaiac test samples and then colonoscopy for positive immunochemical test subjects, was performed annually. The cohort was followed up until 2008. The cohort included 5,104 subjects, of which, 3,863 subjects participated in screening (screening group) and 1,241 did not (non-screening group). The two groups did not differ in age, gender or other major risk factors for colon cancer. Overall, 36 CRCs occurred in the screening group and 21 in the non-screening group. Compared with the non-screening group, the relative risk for the incidence and mortality of CRC was 0.51 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.30–0.87] and 0.36 (95% CI, 0.18–0.71), respectively, in the screening group. The general sensitivity of this three-tier FOBT was 80.6% (95% CI, 65.3–91.1). Thus, annual screening using the three-tier FOBT program may reduce the CRC incidence and mortality rate.
colorectal cancer; screening; fecal occult blood test
5-methylcytosine is an epigenetic mark that affects a broad range of biological functions in mammals. The chemically inert methyl group prevents direct labelling for subsequent affinity purification and detection. Therefore, most current approaches for the analysis of 5- methylcytosine still have limitations of being either density-biased, lacking in robustness and consistency, or incapable of analysing 5-methylcytosine specifically. Here we present an approach, TAmC-Seq, which selectively tags 5-methylcytosine with an azide functionality that can be further labelled with a biotin for affinity purification, detection and genome-wide mapping. Using this covalent labelling approach, we demonstrate high sensitivity and specificity for known methylated loci, as well as increased CpG dinucleotide coverage at lower sequencing depth as compared with antibody-based enrichment, providing an improved efficiency in the 5-methylcytosine enrichment and genome-wide profiling.
The study of 5-hydroxylmethylcytosines (5hmC) has been hampered by the lack of a method to map it at single-base resolution on a genome-wide scale. Affinity purification-based methods cannot precisely locate 5hmC nor accurately determine its relative abundance at each modified site. We here present a genome-wide approach, Tet-assisted Bisulfite Sequencing (TAB-Seq), for mapping 5hmC at base resolution and quantifying the relative abundance of 5hmC as well as 5mC when combined with traditional bisulfite sequencing. Application of this method to embryonic stem cells not only confirms widespread distribution of 5hmC in the mammalian genome, but also reveals sequence bias and strand asymmetry at 5hmC sites. We observe high levels of 5hmC and reciprocally low levels of 5mC near but not on transcription factor binding sites. Additionally, the relative abundance of 5hmC varies significantly among distinct functional sequence elements, suggesting different mechanisms for 5hmC deposition and maintenance.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control gene expression by promoting degradation or repressing translation of target mRNAs. The components of the miRNA pathway are subject to diverse modifications that can modulate the abundance and function of miRNAs. Iron is essential for fundamental metabolic processes, and its homeostasis is tightly regulated. Here we identified iron chelators as a class of activator of the miRNA pathway that could promote the processing of miRNA precursors. We show that cytosolic iron could regulate the activity of the miRNA pathway through poly(C)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2). PCBP2 is associated with Dicer and promotes the processing of miRNA precursors. Cytosolic iron could modulate the association between PCBP2 and Dicer, as well as the multimerization of PCBP2 and its ability to bind to miRNA precursors, which can alter the processing of miRNA precursors. Our findings reveal a role of iron homeostasis in the regulation of miRNA biogenesis.
Increasingly complex networks of noncoding RNAs are being found to play important and diverse roles in the regulation of gene expression throughout the genome. Many lines of evidence are linking mutations and dysregulations of noncoding RNAs to a host of human diseases, and noncoding RNAs have been implicated in the molecular pathogenesis of some neurodegenerative disorders. The expansion of trinucleotide repeats is now recognized as a major cause of neurological disorders. Here we will review our current knowledge of the proposed mechanisms behind the involvement of noncoding RNAs in the molecular pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, particularly the sequestration of specific RNA-binding proteins, the regulation of antisense transcripts, and the role of the microRNA pathway in the context of known neurodegenerative disorders caused by the expansion of trinucleotide repeats.
Serine-arginine protein kinases 2 (SRPK2) is a cell cycle-regulated kinase that phosphorylates serine/arginine domain-containing proteins and mediates pre-mRNA splicing with unclear function in neurons. Here, we show that SRPK2 phosphorylates tau on S214, suppresses tau-dependent microtubule polymerization and inhibits axonal elongation in neurons. Depletion of SRPK2 in dentate gyrus inhibits tau phosphorylation in APP/PS1 mouse and alleviates the impaired cognitive behaviors. The defective LTP in APP/PS1 mice is also improved after SRPK2 depletion. Moreover, active SRPK2 is increased in the cortex of APP/PS1 mice and the pathological structures of human Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain. Therefore, our study suggests SRPK2 may contribute to the formation of hyperphosphorylated tau and the pathogenesis of AD.
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder recognized in fragile X premutation carriers. Using Drosophila, we previously identified elongated non-coding CGG repeats in FMR1 allele as the pathogenic cause of FXTAS. Here, we use this same FXTAS Drosophila model to conduct a chemical screen that reveals small molecules that can ameliorate the toxic effects of fragile X premutation ribo-CGG (rCGG) repeats, among them several known phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitors. We show that specific inhibition of PLA2 activity could mitigate the neuronal deficits caused by fragile X premutation rCGG repeats, including lethality and locomotion deficits. Furthermore, through a genetic screen, we identified a PLA2
Drosophila ortholog that specifically modulates rCGG repeat-mediated neuronal toxicity. Our results demonstrate the utility of Drosophila models for unbiased small molecule screens and point to PLA2 as a possible therapeutic target to treat FXTAS.
Cell-cell fusion is critical for the conception, development and physiology of multicellular organisms. Although cellular fusogenic proteins and the actin cytoskeleton are implicated in cell-cell fusion, whether and how they coordinate to promote plasma membrane fusion remain unclear. Here, we reconstituted a high-efficiency, inducible cell-fusion culture system in the normally non-fusing Drosophila S2R+ cells. Both fusogenic proteins and actin cytoskeletal rearrangements were necessary for cell fusion, and, in combination, were sufficient to impart fusion competence. Localized actin polymerization triggered by specific cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion molecules propelled invasive cell membrane protrusions, which, in turn, promoted fusogenic protein engagement and plasma membrane fusion. This de novo cell-fusion culture system reveals a general role for actin-propelled invasive membrane protrusions in driving fusogenic protein engagement during cell-cell fusion.
Group I p21-activated kinases organize actin filaments in myoblasts into dense foci, which promote podosome invasion and subsequent myoblast fusion.
The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) play essential roles in diverse cellular processes and are required for cell proliferation, apoptosis, polarity establishment, migration, and cell shape changes. Here, we have identified a novel function for the group I PAKs in cell–cell fusion. We show that the two Drosophila group I PAKs, DPak3 and DPak1, have partially redundant functions in myoblast fusion in vivo, with DPak3 playing a major role. DPak3 is enriched at the site of fusion colocalizing with the F-actin focus within a podosome-like structure (PLS), and promotes actin filament assembly during PLS invasion. Although the small GTPase Rac is involved in DPak3 activation and recruitment to the PLS, the kinase activity of DPak3 is required for effective PLS invasion. We propose a model whereby group I PAKs act downstream of Rac to organize the actin filaments within the PLS into a dense focus, which in turn promotes PLS invasion and fusion pore initiation during myoblast fusion.
Saururus chinensis is a core member of Saururaceae, a perianthless (lacking petals or sepals) family. Due to its basal phylogenetic position and unusual floral composition, study of this plant family is important for understanding the origin and evolution of perianthless flowers and petaloid bracts among angiosperm species. To isolate genes involved in S. chinensis flower development, subtracted floral cDNA libraries were constructed by using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) on transcripts isolated from developing inflorescences and seedling leaves. The subtracted cDNA libraries contained a total of 1,141 ESTs and were used to create cDNA microarrays to analyze transcript profiles of developing inflorescence tissues. Subsequently, qRT-PCR analyses of eight MADS-box transcription factors and in situ hybridizations of two B-class MADS-box transcription factors were performed to verify and extend the cDNA microarray results. Finally, putative phylogenetic relationships within the B-class MADS-box gene family were determined using the discovered S. chinensis B-class genes to compare K-domain sequences with B genes from other basal angiosperms. Two hundred seventy-seven of the 1,141 genes were found to be expressed differentially between S. chinensis inflorescence tissues and seedling leaves, 176 of which were grouped into at least one functional category, including transcription (14.75%), energy (12.59%), metabolism (9.12%), protein-related function (8.99%), and cellular transport (5.76%). qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization of selected MADS-box genes supported our microarray data. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that a total of six B-class MADS-box genes were isolated from S. chinensis. The differential regulation of S. chinensis B-class MADS-box transcription factors likely plays a role during the development of subtending bracts and perianthless flowers. This study contributes to our understanding of inflorescence development in Saururus, and represents an initial step toward understanding the formation of petaloid bracts in this species.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by excessive accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) fibrils within the brain and activation of astrocytes and microglial cells. In this study, we examined anti-inflammatory and anti-amyloidogenic effects of 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal (HPB242), an anti-inflammatory compound produced by the tyrosine-fructose Maillard reaction.
12-month-old Tg2576 mice were treated with HPB242 (5 mg/kg) for 1 month and then cognitive function was assessed by the Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. In addition, western blot analysis, Gel electromobility shift assay, immunostaining, immunofluorescence staining, ELISA and enzyme activity assays were used to examine the degree of Aβ deposition in the brains of Tg2576 mice. The Morris water maze task was analyzed using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Otherwise were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s post hoc test.
Treatment of HPB242 (5 mg/kg for 1 month) significantly attenuated cognitive impairments in Tg2576 transgenic mice. HPB242 also prevented amyloidogenesis in Tg2576 transgenic mice brains. This can be evidenced by Aβ accumulation, BACE1, APP and C99 expression and β-secretase activity. In addition, HPB242 suppresses the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as well as activation of astrocytes and microglial cells. Furthermore, activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1/3 (STAT1/3) in the brain was potently inhibited by HPB242.
Thus, these results suggest that HPB242 might be useful to intervene in development or progression of neurodegeneration in AD through its anti-inflammatory and anti-amyloidogenic effects.
Alzheimer’s disease; Amyloid-beta; NF-κB; STAT1/3; 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with fragile X premutation carriers. Previous studies have shown that fragile X rCGG repeats are sufficient to cause neurodegeneration and that the rCGG-repeat-binding proteins Pur α and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1 could modulate rCGG-mediated neuronal toxicity. Mobile genetic elements or their remnants populate the genomes, and the activities of these elements are tightly controlled for the fitness of host genomes in different organisms. Here we provide both biochemical and genetic evidence to show that the activation of a specific retrotransposon, gypsy, can modulate rCGG-mediated neurodegeneration in an FXTAS Drosophila model. We find that one of the rCGG-repeat-binding proteins, hnRNP A2/B1, is involved in this process via interaction with heterochromatin protein 1. Knockdown of gypsy RNA by RNAi could suppress the neuronal toxicity caused by rCGG repeats. These data together point to a surprisingly active role for retrotransposition in neurodegeneration.
Estrogen has anti-colorectal cancer effects which are thought to be mediated by mismatch repair gene (MMR) activity. Estrogen receptor (ER) expression is associated with microRNA (miRNA) expression in ER-positive tumors. However, studies of direct link between estrogen (especially estradiol E2), miRNA expression, and MMR in colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been done. In this study, we first evaluated the effects of estradiol (E2) and its antagonist ICI182,780 on the expression of miRNAs (miR-31, miR-155 and miR-135b) using COLO205, SW480 and MCF-7 cell lines, followed by examining the association of tissue miRNA expression and serum E2 levels using samples collected from 18 colorectal cancer patients. E2 inhibited the expressions of miRNAs in COLO205 cells, which could be reversed by E2 antagonist ICI 182.780. The expression of miR-135b was inversely correlated with serum E2 level and ER-β mRNA expression in CRC patients' cancer tissues. There were significant correlations between serum E2 level and expression of ER-β, miR-135b, and MMR in colon cancer tissue. This study suggests that the effects of estrogen on MMR function may be related to regulating miRNA expression via ER-β, which may be the basis for the anti-cancer effect in colorectal cells.
colon neoplasms; DNA mismatch repair; estrogen receptor β; estrogen; microRNAs
The Lymphoid specific tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp) has elicited tremendous research interest due to the high risk of its missense mutation R620W in a wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases. While initially characterized as a gain-of-function mutant, R620W was thought to lead to autoimmune diseases through loss-of-function in T cell signaling by a recent study. Here we investigate the biochemical characters and T cell signaling functions of two uncharacterized Lyp variants S201F and R266W, together with a previously characterized Lyp variant R263Q, which had reduced risk in several autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ulcerative colitis (UC) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our kinetic and functional studies of R263Q polymorphism basically reproduced previous findings that it was a loss-of-function mutant. The other variant S201F reduced Lyp phosphatase activity moderately and decreased Lyp function in T cell slightly, while R266W severely impaired phosphatase activity and was a loss-of-function variant in T cell signaling. A combined kinetic and structure analysis suggests that the R266W variant may decrease its phosphatase activity through perturbing either the Q-loop or the WPD loop of Lyp. As both R266W and R263Q significantly change their phosphatase activity and T cell functions, future work could be considered to evaluate these mutants in a broader spectrum of autoimmune diseases.
Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF). However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke.
Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined.
Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption), affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface), and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover.
The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.
Smoking; Epimedium pubescen flavonoid; Bone mineral density; Bone mineral content; Bone turnover; Bone histomorphometry
To determine the influence of the dialysis time before kidney transplantation on postoperative ophthalmic complications.
One hundred and eighty three patients who were given the follow-up after kidney transplantation were selected, including 124 males and 59 females. The dialysis time before kidney transplantation was (2.9±2.1) years. Among them, there were 93 cases having cadaveric renal transplantation and 90 cases having living relative renal transplantation. The conditions of ophthalmic complications in all the patients after kidney transplantation were investigated and the incidence rate on ophthalmic complications having different dialysis time before kidney transplantation was given Chi-square test and Chi-square linear trend test.
Among 183 patients with kidney transplantation, 95 patients (51.9%) had at least one ophthalmic complication and the rest 88 patients (48.1%) had no significant abnormality at the eye region. The most common ophthalmic complications were pinguecula/conjunctival degeneration (31 cases), the following was caligo lentis (24 cases). The main manifestations were grayish white granule and plaque turbidity occurred in posterior capsule at the posterior pole of crystaline lens. The angulus iridocornealis of 5 patients (5.3%) with cataract and glaucoma were all open-angle through the detection by gonioscope. Through visual field examination, there were 2 patients with paracentral scotoma, 2 patients with arcuate scotoma and one case with nasal step.
The experiments verify that the incidence of glaucomawas relates to the dialysis time before kidney transplantation, and the incidence rate might be higher if the dialysis time is longer.
kidney transplantation; hematodialysis; dialysis time; ophthalmic complications
In adult mammalian brains, neurogenesis persists in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Although evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis in these two regions is subjected to differential regulation, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we show that the RNA-binding protein FXR2 specifically regulates DG neurogenesis by reducing the stability of Noggin mRNA. FXR2 deficiency leads to increased Noggin expression and subsequently reduced BMP signaling, which results in increased proliferation and altered fate specification of neural stem/progenitor cells in DG. In contrast, Noggin is not regulated by FXR2 in the SVZ, because Noggin expression is restricted to the ependymal cells of the lateral ventricles, where FXR2 is not expressed. Differential regulation of SVZ and DG stem cells by FXR2 may be a key component of the mechanism that governs the different neurogenic processes in these two adult germinal zones.
DNA methylation dynamics influence brain function and are altered in neurological disorders. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), a DNA base that is derived from 5-methylcytosine, accounts for ~40% of modified cytosine in the brain and has been implicated in DNA methylation–related plasticity. We mapped 5-hmC genome-wide in mouse hippocampus and cerebellum at three different ages, which allowed us to assess its stability and dynamic regulation during postnatal neurodevelopment through adulthood. We found developmentally programmed acquisition of 5-hmC in neuronal cells. Epigenomic localization of 5-hmC–regulated regions revealed stable and dynamically modified loci during neurodevelopment and aging. By profiling 5-hmC in human cerebellum, we found conserved genomic features of 5-hmC. Finally, we found that 5-hmC levels were inversely correlated with methyl-CpG–binding protein 2 dosage, a protein encoded by a gene in which mutations cause Rett syndrome. These data suggest that 5-hmC–mediated epigenetic modification is critical in neurodevelopment and diseases.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a debilitating, unpredictable and often irreversible side effect resulting from chronic treatment with typical antipsychotic agents such as haloperidol. TD is characterized by repetitive, involuntary, purposeless movements primarily of the orofacial region. In order to investigate genetic susceptibility to TD, we used a validated mouse model for a systems genetics analysis geared toward detecting genetic predictors of TD in human patients. Phenotypic data from 27 inbred strains chronically treated with haloperidol and phenotyped for vacuous chewing movements were subject to a comprehensive genomic analysis involving 426,493 SNPs, 4,047 CNVs, brain gene expression, along with gene network and bioinformatic analysis. Our results identified ~50 genes that we expect to have high prior probabilities for association with haloperidol-induced TD, most of which have never been tested for association with human TD. Among our top candidates were genes regulating the development of brain motor control regions (Zic4, Nkx6-1), glutamate receptors (Grin1, Grin2a), and an indirect target of haloperidol (Drd1a) that has not been as well studied as the direct target, Drd2.
pharmacogenetic; adverse drug reaction; QTL; haloperidol; mouse
Fragile X syndrome is caused by the loss of the FMR1 gene product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). The loss of FMRP leads to altered circadian rhythm behaviors in both mouse and Drosophila; however, the molecular mechanism behind this phenomenon remains elusive. Here we performed a series of gene expression analyses, including of both mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs), and identified a number of mRNAs and miRNAs (miRNA-1 and miRNA-281) with circadian rhythm-dependent altered expression in dfmr1 mutant flies. Identification of these RNAs lays the foundation for future investigations of the molecular pathway(s) underlying the altered circadian rhythms associated with loss of dFmr1.