Bipolar disorder; genetics; genome-wide association; copy number variation; whole genome sequencing; exome sequencing; rare variation
5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is a newly discovered modified form of cytosine that has been suspected to be an important epigenetic modification in neurodevelopment. While DNA methylation dynamics have already been implicated during neurodevelopment, little is known about hydroxymethylation in this process. Here, we report DNA hydroxymethylation dynamics during cerebellum development in the human brain. Overall, we find a positive correlation between 5-hmC levels and cerebellum development. Genome-wide profiling reveals that 5-hmC is highly enriched on specific gene regions including exons and especially the untranslated regions (UTRs), but it is depleted on introns and intergenic regions. Furthermore, we have identified fetus-specific and adult-specific differentially hydroxymethylated regions (DhMRs), most of which overlap with genes and CpG island shores. Surprisingly, during development, DhMRs are highly enriched in genes encoding mRNAs that can be regulated by fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), some of which are disrupted in autism, as well as in many known autism genes. Our results suggest that 5-hmC-mediated epigenetic regulation may broadly impact the development of the human brain, and its dysregulation could contribute to the molecular pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders.
Accession number: Sequencing data have been deposited to GEO with accession number GSE40539.
Heterogeneity within pluripotent stem cell (PSC) populations is indicative of dynamic changes that occur when cells drift between different states. Although the role of metastability in PSCs is unclear, it appears to reflect heterogeneity in cell signaling. Using the Fucci cell-cycle indicator system, we show that elevated expression of developmental regulators in G1 is a major determinant of heterogeneity in human embryonic stem cells. Although signaling pathways remain active throughout the cell cycle, their contribution to heterogeneous gene expression is restricted to G1. Surprisingly, we identify dramatic changes in the levels of global 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, an unanticipated source of epigenetic heterogeneity that is tightly linked to cell-cycle progression and the expression of developmental regulators. When we evaluated gene expression in differentiating cells, we found that cell-cycle regulation of developmental regulators was maintained during lineage specification. Cell-cycle regulation of developmentally regulated transcription factors is therefore an inherent feature of the mechanisms underpinning differentiation.
•Embryonic stem cells are lineage primed in G1•Transcription of developmentally regulated genes is cell-cycle regulated•5hmC is cell-cycle regulated•Stem cells initiate differentiation from G1
Pluripotent stem cell heterogeneity has been attributed to stochastic variations in signaling pathways across the population. Using Fucci cell-cycle reporters, Dalton and colleagues show that stem cell “lineage priming” in G1 is associated with cell-cycle-dependent changes in the transcription of developmentally regulated genes. Moreover, these changes are paralleled by levels of the epigenetic mark 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. These findings identify the cell cycle as major source of heterogeneity in human pluripotent stem cells.
Spontaneous 46,XX primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), also known as ‘premature menopause’ or ‘premature ovarian failure’, refers to ovarian dysfunction that results in a range of abnormalities, from infertility to early menopause as the end stage. The most common known genetic cause of POI is the expansion of a CGG repeat to 55–199 copies (premutation) in the 5′ untranslated region in the X-linked fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. POI associated with the FMR1 premutation is referred to as fragile X-associated POI (FXPOI). Here, we characterize a mouse model carrying the human FMR1 premutation allele and show that FMR1 premutation RNA can cause a reduction in the number of growing follicles in ovaries and is sufficient to impair female fertility. Alterations in selective serum hormone levels, including FSH, LH and 17β-estradiol, are seen in this mouse model, which mimics findings in humans. In addition, we also find that LH-induced ovulation-related gene expression is specifically altered. Finally, we show that the FMR1 premutation allele can lead to reduced phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR proteins. These results together suggest that FMR1 premutation RNA could cause the POI associated with FMR1 premutation carriers, and the Akt/mTOR pathway may serve as a therapeutic target for FXPOI.
Epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation and histone modification, is implicated in the aberrant changes in gene expression that occur during the progression of neurodegeneration. Many epigenetics-based drugs have been developed recently for the treatment of some neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases. Here we review recent studies that highlight the role of epigenetic modifications in neurodegeneration, among them DNA methylation and demethylation and histone acetylation and deacetylation; we also explore the possibility of using epigenetics-based therapeutics to treat neurodegenerative disorders.
DNA methylation; DNA demethylation; Neurodegeneration; Therapeutics; DNMT inhibitors; HDAC inhibitors; Histone acetylation; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; Huntington’s disease; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of the cystoscopic extraction and external drainage techniques for unsuccessful antegrade stenting in transplanted severe ureteral obstruction.
Materials and Methods
A total of 26 patients with severe transplanted ureteral obstruction in whom the cystoscopic extraction technique and/or external drainage technique was performed were retrospectively evaluated. After the severe obstruction was successfully traversed, balloon dilatation followed by double-J stent insertion was performed.
Of the 26 patients (male:female, 9:4; mean age, 38.1 years) who underwent failed ureteral stenting with the conventional procedure, 16 patients underwent successful stenting with the cystoscopic extraction technique, and 10 patients underwent successful stenting following external drainage. The mean serum creatinine of the 26 patients before stenting was 42.9 mg/dL (range, 32.7 to 54.1 mg/dL), which decreased to 10.3 mg/dL (range, 8.7 to 11.8 mg/dL) after stenting. The complications of the procedure were lower abdominal pain in 22 patients and gross hematuria in 9 patients. All complications were relieved with medical care within 3 to 5 days after the procedure. No major complications occurred.
The cystoscopic extraction technique and external drainage technique are safe and useful for traversing a severe transplanted ureteral obstruction after a failed conventional procedure.
Cystoscopes; Drainage; Stents; Transplantation; Ureteral obstruction
It remains unclear how cancer cells coordinate glycolysis and biosynthesis to support rapidly growing tumors. We found that glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1), commonly upregulated in human cancers due to loss of TP53, contributes to biosynthesis regulation in part by controlling intracellular levels of its substrate 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) and product 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PG). 3-PG binds to and inhibits 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), while 2-PG activates 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase to provide feedback control of 3-PG levels. Inhibition of PGAM1 by shRNA or a small molecule inhibitor PGMI-004A results in increased 3-PG and decreased 2-PG levels in cancer cells, leading to significantly decreased glycolysis, PPP flux and biosynthesis, as well as attenuated cell proliferation and tumor growth.
Novel activated boron nitride (BN) as an effective adsorbent for pollutants in water and air has been reported in the present work. The activated BN was synthesized by a simple structure-directed method that enabled us to control the surface area, pore volume, crystal defects and surface groups. The obtained BN exhibits an super high surface area of 2078 m2/g, a large pore volume of 1.66 cm3/g and a special multimodal microporous/mesoporous structure located at ~ 1.3, ~ 2.7, and ~ 3.9 nm, respectively. More importantly, the novel activated BN exhibits an excellent adsorption performance for various metal ions (Cr3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Ce3+, Pb2+) and organic pollutants (tetracycline, methyl orange and congo red) in water, as well as volatile organic compounds (benzene) in air. The excellent reusability of the activated BN has also been confirmed. All the features render the activated BN a promising material suitable for environmental remediation.
Gene expression is modulated by epigenetic factors that come in varying forms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, and long noncoding RNAs. Recent studies reveal that these epigenetic marks are important regulatory factors in brain function. In particular, DNA methylation dynamics are found to be essential components of epigenetic regulation in the mammalian central nervous system. In this review, we provide an overview of the literature on DNA methylation in neurodegenerative diseases, with a special focus on methylation of 5-position of cytosine base (5mC) and hydroxymethylation of 5-position of cytosine base (5hmC) in the context of neurodegeneration associated with aging and Alzheimer's disease.
Drosophila melanogaster is a common animal model for genetics studies, and quantitative proteomics studies of the fly are emerging. Here we present in detail the development of a procedure to incorporate stable isotope labeled amino acids into the fly proteome. In the method of Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acids in Drosophila melanogaster (SILAC fly), flies were fed with SILAC labeled yeast grown with modified media, enabling near complete labeling in a single generation. Biological variation in proteome among individual flies was evaluated in a series of null experiments. We further applied the SILAC fly method to profile proteins from a model of fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited mental retardation in human. The analysis identified a number of altered proteins in the disease model, including actin-binding protein profilin and microtubulin-associated protein futsch. The change of both proteins was validated by immunoblotting analysis. Moreover, we extended the SILAC fly strategy to study the dynamics of protein ubiquitination during the fly life span (from day 1 to day 30), by measuring the level of ubiquitin along with two major polyubiquitin chains (K48 and K63 linkages). The results show that the abundance of protein ubiquitination and the two major linkages do not change significantly within the measured age range. Together, the data demonstrate the application of the SILAC principle in Drosophila melanogaster, facilitating the integration of powerful fly genomics with emerging proteomics.
SILAC; Drosophila melanogaster; proteomics; mass spectrometry; fragile X syndrome; ubiquitin
The heavy metal cadmium is a non-degradable pollutant. By screening the effects of a panel of metal ions on the phosphatase activity, we unexpectedly identified cadmium as a potent inhibitor of PPM1A and PPM1G. In contrast, low micromolar concentrations of cadmium did not inhibit PP1 or tyrosine phosphatases. Kinetic studies revealed that cadmium inhibits PPM phosphatases through the M1 metal ion binding site. In particular, the negative charged D441 in PPM1G specific recognized cadmium. Our results suggest that cadmium is likely a potent inhibitor of most PPM family members except for PHLPPs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that cadmium inhibits PPM1A-regulated MAPK signaling and PPM1G-regulated AKT signaling potently in vivo. Cadmium reversed PPM1A-induced cell cycle arrest and cadmium insensitive PPM1A mutant rescued cadmium induced cell death. Taken together, these findings provide a better understanding of the effects of the toxicity of cadmium in the contexts of human physiology and pathology.
How oncogenic signalling coordinates glycolysis and anabolic biosynthesis in cancer cells remains unclear. We recently reported that the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) regulates anabolic biosynthesis by controlling intracellular levels of its substrate 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) and product 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PG). Here we report a novel mechanism in which Y26 phosphorylation enhances PGAM1 activation through release of inhibitory E19 that blocks the active site, stabilising cofactor 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate binding and H11 phosphorylation. We also report the crystal structure of H11-phosphorylated PGAM1 and find that phospho-H11 activates PGAM1 at least in part by promoting substrate 3-PG binding. Moreover, Y26-phosphorylation of PGAM1 is common in human cancer cells and contributes to regulation of 3-PG and 2-PG levels, promoting cancer cell proliferation and tumour growth. Since PGAM1 as a negative transcription target of TP53 is commonly upregulated in human cancers, these findings suggest that Y26 phosphorylation represents an additional acute mechanism underlying PGAM1 upregulation.
Carriers of fragile X syndrome (FXS) have FMR1 alleles, called premutations, with a number of 5’-untranslated CGG repeats somewhere between patients, who have over 200 repeats, and normal individuals, with fewer than 60 repeats. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder, has been recognized in older male fragile X premutation carriers, and FXTAS is uncoupled from the neurodevelopmental disorder, FXS. Several lines of evidence have led to the proposal of an RNA (fragile X premutation rCGG repeat)-mediated gain-of-function toxicity model for FXTAS, in which rCGG repeat-binding proteins (RBPs) could become functionally limited by their sequestration to lengthy rCGG repeats. In this review, we will discuss the recent progress towards understanding the molecular basis of RNA-mediated neurodegeneration in FXTAS.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with a three-tier fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in the Chinese population. The study was performed between 1987 and 2008 at the Beijing Military General Hospital, in a cohort of army service males and females aged >50 years. Between 1987 and 2005, a three-tier screening program, comprising guaiac-based FOBTs (gFOBTs), followed by immunochemical FOBTs for positive guaiac test samples and then colonoscopy for positive immunochemical test subjects, was performed annually. The cohort was followed up until 2008. The cohort included 5,104 subjects, of which, 3,863 subjects participated in screening (screening group) and 1,241 did not (non-screening group). The two groups did not differ in age, gender or other major risk factors for colon cancer. Overall, 36 CRCs occurred in the screening group and 21 in the non-screening group. Compared with the non-screening group, the relative risk for the incidence and mortality of CRC was 0.51 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.30–0.87] and 0.36 (95% CI, 0.18–0.71), respectively, in the screening group. The general sensitivity of this three-tier FOBT was 80.6% (95% CI, 65.3–91.1). Thus, annual screening using the three-tier FOBT program may reduce the CRC incidence and mortality rate.
colorectal cancer; screening; fecal occult blood test
5-methylcytosine is an epigenetic mark that affects a broad range of biological functions in mammals. The chemically inert methyl group prevents direct labelling for subsequent affinity purification and detection. Therefore, most current approaches for the analysis of 5- methylcytosine still have limitations of being either density-biased, lacking in robustness and consistency, or incapable of analysing 5-methylcytosine specifically. Here we present an approach, TAmC-Seq, which selectively tags 5-methylcytosine with an azide functionality that can be further labelled with a biotin for affinity purification, detection and genome-wide mapping. Using this covalent labelling approach, we demonstrate high sensitivity and specificity for known methylated loci, as well as increased CpG dinucleotide coverage at lower sequencing depth as compared with antibody-based enrichment, providing an improved efficiency in the 5-methylcytosine enrichment and genome-wide profiling.
The study of 5-hydroxylmethylcytosines (5hmC) has been hampered by the lack of a method to map it at single-base resolution on a genome-wide scale. Affinity purification-based methods cannot precisely locate 5hmC nor accurately determine its relative abundance at each modified site. We here present a genome-wide approach, Tet-assisted Bisulfite Sequencing (TAB-Seq), for mapping 5hmC at base resolution and quantifying the relative abundance of 5hmC as well as 5mC when combined with traditional bisulfite sequencing. Application of this method to embryonic stem cells not only confirms widespread distribution of 5hmC in the mammalian genome, but also reveals sequence bias and strand asymmetry at 5hmC sites. We observe high levels of 5hmC and reciprocally low levels of 5mC near but not on transcription factor binding sites. Additionally, the relative abundance of 5hmC varies significantly among distinct functional sequence elements, suggesting different mechanisms for 5hmC deposition and maintenance.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control gene expression by promoting degradation or repressing translation of target mRNAs. The components of the miRNA pathway are subject to diverse modifications that can modulate the abundance and function of miRNAs. Iron is essential for fundamental metabolic processes, and its homeostasis is tightly regulated. Here we identified iron chelators as a class of activator of the miRNA pathway that could promote the processing of miRNA precursors. We show that cytosolic iron could regulate the activity of the miRNA pathway through poly(C)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2). PCBP2 is associated with Dicer and promotes the processing of miRNA precursors. Cytosolic iron could modulate the association between PCBP2 and Dicer, as well as the multimerization of PCBP2 and its ability to bind to miRNA precursors, which can alter the processing of miRNA precursors. Our findings reveal a role of iron homeostasis in the regulation of miRNA biogenesis.
Increasingly complex networks of noncoding RNAs are being found to play important and diverse roles in the regulation of gene expression throughout the genome. Many lines of evidence are linking mutations and dysregulations of noncoding RNAs to a host of human diseases, and noncoding RNAs have been implicated in the molecular pathogenesis of some neurodegenerative disorders. The expansion of trinucleotide repeats is now recognized as a major cause of neurological disorders. Here we will review our current knowledge of the proposed mechanisms behind the involvement of noncoding RNAs in the molecular pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, particularly the sequestration of specific RNA-binding proteins, the regulation of antisense transcripts, and the role of the microRNA pathway in the context of known neurodegenerative disorders caused by the expansion of trinucleotide repeats.
Serine-arginine protein kinases 2 (SRPK2) is a cell cycle-regulated kinase that phosphorylates serine/arginine domain-containing proteins and mediates pre-mRNA splicing with unclear function in neurons. Here, we show that SRPK2 phosphorylates tau on S214, suppresses tau-dependent microtubule polymerization and inhibits axonal elongation in neurons. Depletion of SRPK2 in dentate gyrus inhibits tau phosphorylation in APP/PS1 mouse and alleviates the impaired cognitive behaviors. The defective LTP in APP/PS1 mice is also improved after SRPK2 depletion. Moreover, active SRPK2 is increased in the cortex of APP/PS1 mice and the pathological structures of human Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain. Therefore, our study suggests SRPK2 may contribute to the formation of hyperphosphorylated tau and the pathogenesis of AD.
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder recognized in fragile X premutation carriers. Using Drosophila, we previously identified elongated non-coding CGG repeats in FMR1 allele as the pathogenic cause of FXTAS. Here, we use this same FXTAS Drosophila model to conduct a chemical screen that reveals small molecules that can ameliorate the toxic effects of fragile X premutation ribo-CGG (rCGG) repeats, among them several known phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitors. We show that specific inhibition of PLA2 activity could mitigate the neuronal deficits caused by fragile X premutation rCGG repeats, including lethality and locomotion deficits. Furthermore, through a genetic screen, we identified a PLA2
Drosophila ortholog that specifically modulates rCGG repeat-mediated neuronal toxicity. Our results demonstrate the utility of Drosophila models for unbiased small molecule screens and point to PLA2 as a possible therapeutic target to treat FXTAS.
: Pelvic reconstruction after tumor resection is challenging.
A retrospective study had been preformed to compare the outcomes among patients who received pelvic reconstructive surgery with allogeneic bone graft after en bloc resection of pelvic tumors and patients who received en bloc resection only.
Patients without reconstruction had significantly lower functional scores at 3 months (10 vs. 15, P = 0.001) and 6 months after surgery (18.5 vs. 22, P = 0.0024), a shorter duration of hospitalization (16 day vs. 40 days, P < 0.001), and lower hospitalization costs (97,500 vs. 193,000 RMB, P < 0.001) than those who received pelvic reconstruction. Functional scores were similar at 12 months after surgery (21.5 vs. 23, P = 0.365) with no difference in the rate of complications between the two groups (P > 0.05).
: Pelvic reconstruction with allogeneic bone graft after surgical management of pelvic tumors is associated with satisfactory surgical and functional outcomes. Further clinical studies are required to explore how to select the best reconstruction method. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series.
Pelvic neoplasms; Reconstruction; Transplantation, homologous; Retrospective studies
Cell-cell fusion is critical for the conception, development and physiology of multicellular organisms. Although cellular fusogenic proteins and the actin cytoskeleton are implicated in cell-cell fusion, whether and how they coordinate to promote plasma membrane fusion remain unclear. Here, we reconstituted a high-efficiency, inducible cell-fusion culture system in the normally non-fusing Drosophila S2R+ cells. Both fusogenic proteins and actin cytoskeletal rearrangements were necessary for cell fusion, and, in combination, were sufficient to impart fusion competence. Localized actin polymerization triggered by specific cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion molecules propelled invasive cell membrane protrusions, which, in turn, promoted fusogenic protein engagement and plasma membrane fusion. This de novo cell-fusion culture system reveals a general role for actin-propelled invasive membrane protrusions in driving fusogenic protein engagement during cell-cell fusion.
Group I p21-activated kinases organize actin filaments in myoblasts into dense foci, which promote podosome invasion and subsequent myoblast fusion.
The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) play essential roles in diverse cellular processes and are required for cell proliferation, apoptosis, polarity establishment, migration, and cell shape changes. Here, we have identified a novel function for the group I PAKs in cell–cell fusion. We show that the two Drosophila group I PAKs, DPak3 and DPak1, have partially redundant functions in myoblast fusion in vivo, with DPak3 playing a major role. DPak3 is enriched at the site of fusion colocalizing with the F-actin focus within a podosome-like structure (PLS), and promotes actin filament assembly during PLS invasion. Although the small GTPase Rac is involved in DPak3 activation and recruitment to the PLS, the kinase activity of DPak3 is required for effective PLS invasion. We propose a model whereby group I PAKs act downstream of Rac to organize the actin filaments within the PLS into a dense focus, which in turn promotes PLS invasion and fusion pore initiation during myoblast fusion.
Saururus chinensis is a core member of Saururaceae, a perianthless (lacking petals or sepals) family. Due to its basal phylogenetic position and unusual floral composition, study of this plant family is important for understanding the origin and evolution of perianthless flowers and petaloid bracts among angiosperm species. To isolate genes involved in S. chinensis flower development, subtracted floral cDNA libraries were constructed by using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) on transcripts isolated from developing inflorescences and seedling leaves. The subtracted cDNA libraries contained a total of 1,141 ESTs and were used to create cDNA microarrays to analyze transcript profiles of developing inflorescence tissues. Subsequently, qRT-PCR analyses of eight MADS-box transcription factors and in situ hybridizations of two B-class MADS-box transcription factors were performed to verify and extend the cDNA microarray results. Finally, putative phylogenetic relationships within the B-class MADS-box gene family were determined using the discovered S. chinensis B-class genes to compare K-domain sequences with B genes from other basal angiosperms. Two hundred seventy-seven of the 1,141 genes were found to be expressed differentially between S. chinensis inflorescence tissues and seedling leaves, 176 of which were grouped into at least one functional category, including transcription (14.75%), energy (12.59%), metabolism (9.12%), protein-related function (8.99%), and cellular transport (5.76%). qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization of selected MADS-box genes supported our microarray data. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that a total of six B-class MADS-box genes were isolated from S. chinensis. The differential regulation of S. chinensis B-class MADS-box transcription factors likely plays a role during the development of subtending bracts and perianthless flowers. This study contributes to our understanding of inflorescence development in Saururus, and represents an initial step toward understanding the formation of petaloid bracts in this species.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by excessive accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) fibrils within the brain and activation of astrocytes and microglial cells. In this study, we examined anti-inflammatory and anti-amyloidogenic effects of 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal (HPB242), an anti-inflammatory compound produced by the tyrosine-fructose Maillard reaction.
12-month-old Tg2576 mice were treated with HPB242 (5 mg/kg) for 1 month and then cognitive function was assessed by the Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. In addition, western blot analysis, Gel electromobility shift assay, immunostaining, immunofluorescence staining, ELISA and enzyme activity assays were used to examine the degree of Aβ deposition in the brains of Tg2576 mice. The Morris water maze task was analyzed using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Otherwise were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s post hoc test.
Treatment of HPB242 (5 mg/kg for 1 month) significantly attenuated cognitive impairments in Tg2576 transgenic mice. HPB242 also prevented amyloidogenesis in Tg2576 transgenic mice brains. This can be evidenced by Aβ accumulation, BACE1, APP and C99 expression and β-secretase activity. In addition, HPB242 suppresses the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as well as activation of astrocytes and microglial cells. Furthermore, activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1/3 (STAT1/3) in the brain was potently inhibited by HPB242.
Thus, these results suggest that HPB242 might be useful to intervene in development or progression of neurodegeneration in AD through its anti-inflammatory and anti-amyloidogenic effects.
Alzheimer’s disease; Amyloid-beta; NF-κB; STAT1/3; 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal