Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death and disability in the world. Genome-wide association studies have implicated the importance of the genetic contribution of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) function in CAD susceptibility. The aberrant phenotypic modulation of VSMC is responsible for the pathological vascular intima hyperplasia that is the hallmark for atherosclerotic morphology. NEXN is a muscle-specific F-actin binding protein and is regulated by inflammatory cytokines in VSMCs. Whether NEXN contributes to human vascular disorders is still unknown. In this study, we genotyped 5 SNPs, tagging all of the 17 common SNPs within 54 kilobases (kb) covering NEXN gene and its flanking region, in 1883 patients with CAD and 1973 healthy individuals from Han Chinese, and identified one SNP, rs1780050, which was strongly associated with CAD trait. The Bonferroni corrected P-value was 7.65×10−5. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 1.23 (1.12–1.36) with statistical power of 0.994. Functional analysis showed that NEXN promotes VSMC to a contractile phenotype in vitro and inhibits balloon-injury induced neointima formation in vivo. Further eQTL analysis demonstrated that the risk allele T of rs1780050 is associated with decreased expression of NEXN, thus contributing to a higher risk of CAD susceptibility in the population. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to identify NEXN as a novel CAD susceptibility gene with both genetic and functional evidence.
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are important regulatory molecules involving in various physiological cellular processes. Alterations of ncRNAs, particularly microRNAs, play crucial roles in tumorigenesis. Accumulating evidence indicates that small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), another large class of ncRNAs, are gaining prominence and more actively involved in carcinogenesis than previously thought. Some snoRNAs exhibit differential expression patterns in a variety of human cancers and demonstrate capability to affect cell transformation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. We are beginning to comprehend the functional repercussions of snoRNAs in the development and progression of malignancy. In this review, we will describe current studies that have shed new light on the functions of snoRNAs in carcinogenesis and the potential applications for cancer diagnosis and diagnosis.
Cancer; non-coding RNAs; small nucleolar RNAs; diagnosis; therapy
BMP4 is one of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, which can participate in adipogenesis. Gene encoding BMP4 is acknowledged as a convincing candidate that may contribute to both glucose and lipid metabolism. In this paper, we aimed to test the impacts of BMP4 variants on type 2 diabetes in a large sample of Chinese population. We genotyped 10 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms within the BMP4 region in 6822 participants and acquired detailed clinical investigations and biochemistry measurements. We found that BMP4 rs8014363 showed nominal association towards type 2 diabetes, with the T allele conferring a high risk of type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.108, 95%CI 0.999–1.229, P = 0.051
for allele; OR = 1.110, 95%CI 1.000–1.231, P = 0.050 for genotype), but it was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for multiple testing (empirical P = 0.3689
for allele based on 10,000 permutations). Moreover, we observed a significant association of rs8014363 with triglyceride level and a trend towards association with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol after adjusting for age, gender, and BMI (P = 0.035 and 0.068, resp.). Our data suggested that the genetic variants of BMP4 may not play a dominant role in glucose metabolism in Chinese Han population, but a minor effect cannot be ignored.
Analysis of plasma microRNAs (miRNAs) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) provides a potential approach for cancer diagnosis. However, absolutely quantifying low abundant plasma miRNAs is challenging with qPCR. Digital PCR offers a unique means for assessment of nucleic acids presenting at low levels in plasma. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of digital PCR for quantification of plasma miRNAs and the potential utility of this technique for cancer diagnosis. We used digital PCR to quantify the copy number of plasma microRNA-21-5p (miR-21–5p) and microRNA-335–3p (miR-335–3p) in 36 lung cancer patients and 38 controls. Digital PCR showed a high degree of linearity and quantitative correlation with miRNAs in a dynamic range from 1 to 10,000 copies/μL of input, with high reproducibility. qPCR exhibited a dynamic range from 100 to 1×107 copies/μL of input. Digital PCR had a higher sensitivity to detect copy number of the miRNAs compared with qPCR. In plasma, digital PCR could detect copy number of both miR-21–5p and miR-335–3p, whereas qPCR was only able to assess miR-21–5p. Quantification of the plasma miRNAs by digital PCR provided 71.8% sensitivity and 80.6% specificity in distinguishing lung cancer patients from cancer-free subjects.
digital PCR; miRNAs; plasma; diagnosis; lung cancer
N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene, which plays an important role in controlling tumor growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of NDRG2 gene in bladder cancer (BC) tissues and several bladder cancer cell lines, and to seek its clinical and pathological significance. Ninety-seven bladder carcinoma and 15 normal bladder tissue sections were analyzed retrospectively with immunohistochemistry. The human bladder cancer cell line T24 was infected with LEN-NDRG2 or LEN-LacZ. The effects of NDRG2 overexpression on T24 cells and T24 nude mouse xenografts were measured via cell growth curves, tumor growth curves, flow cytometric analysis, western blot and Transwell assay. NDRG2 was highly expressed in normal bladder tissue, but absent or rarely expressed in cacinomatous tissues (χ2=8.761, p < 0.01). The NDRG2 level was negatively correlated with tumor grade and pathologic stage(r=-0.248, p < 0.05), as well as increased c-myc level (r=-0.454, p< 0.001). The expression of NDRG2 was low in the three BC cell lines. T24 cells infected with LEN-NDRG2 showed inhibition of proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, and NDRG2 overexpression can inhibit tumor growth and invasion in vitro.
A lot of studies have investigated the correlation between x-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) Thr241Met polymorphism and clinical outcomes in non-small cell cancer (NSCLC), while the conclusion is still conflicting.
Materials and Methods
We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the predictive value of XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism on response and overall survival of patients with NSCLC. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to estimate the association strength.
A total of 14 eligible studies with 2828 patients were identified according to our inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis results showed that carriers of the variant 241Met allele were significantly associated with good response, compared with those harboring the wild 241Thr allele (Met vs. Thr, OR = 1.453, 95% CI: 1.116–1.892, Pheterogeneity = 0.968 and ThrMet+MetMet vs. ThrThr, OR = 1.476, 95% CI: 1.087–2.004, Pheterogeneity = 0.696). This significant association was observed in Caucasian population but not in Asian population. On the other hand, there was no significant association of XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism with survival (ThrMet+MetMet vs. ThrThr, HR = 1.082, 95% CI: 0.929–1.261, Pheterogeneity = 0.564), and there was no difference between Asian and Caucasian population.
These findings suggest a predictive role of XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism on response to platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC. Additionally, we first report that the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism is associated with response to platinum-based chemotherapy and highlights the prognostic value of the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism.
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is known to regulate cell proliferation and growth by controlling protein translation. Recently, it has been shown that mTOR signaling pathway is involved in long-term synaptic plasticity. However, the role of mTOR under different pain conditions is less clear. In this study, the spatiotemporal activation of mTOR that contributes to pain-related behaviors was investigated using a novel animal inflammatory pain model induced by BmK I, a sodium channel-specific modulator purified from scorpion venom. In this study, intraplantar injections of BmK I were found to induce the activation of mTOR, p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase (p70 S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) in rat L5-L6 spinal neurons. In the spinal cord, mTOR, p70 S6K and 4E-BP1 were observed to be activated in the ipsilateral and contralateral regions, peaking at 1–2 h and recovery at 24 h post-intraplantar (i.pl.) BmK I administration. In addition, intrathecal (i.t.) injection of rapamycin – a specific inhibitor of mTOR – was observed to result in the reduction of spontaneous pain responses and the attenuation of unilateral thermal and bilateral mechanical hypersensitivity elicited by BmK I. Thus, these results indicate that the mTOR signaling pathway is mobilized in the induction and maintenance of pain-activated hypersensitivity.
BmK I; mTOR; p70S6K; 4E-BP1; Rapamycin; Pain; Mirror-image mechanical hypersensitivity
Published studies investigating the association between genetic polymorphism -884C/T (rs763110) of the FAS ligand (FASL) promoter and cancer risk reported inconclusive results. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, we performed an updated meta-analysis of all eligible studies.
We carried out a meta-analysis, including 47 studies with 19,810 cases and 23,485 controls, to confirm a more conclusive association between the FASL rs763110 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility. Overall, significantly reduced cancer risk was associated with the variant -884T when all studies were pooled (TC vs. CC: OR = 0.83, 95%CI = 0.75–0.92; Pheterogeneity<0.001; TT+TC vs. CC: OR = 0.85, 95%CI = 0.77–0.94; Pheterogeneity<0.001). Stratified analysis revealed that there was a statistically reduced cancer risk in Asians (TC vs. CC: OR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.67–0.87; Pheterogeneity<0.001; TT+TC vs. CC: OR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.70–0.90; Pheterogeneity<0.001) and in patients with cancers of head and neck (TC vs. CC: OR = 0.87, 95%CI = 0.77–0.99; Pheterogeneity = 0.118; TT+TC vs. CC: OR = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.78–0.99; Pheterogeneity = 0.168) and ovarian cancer (TC vs. CC: OR = 0.67, 95%CI = 0.49–0.90; Pheterogeneity = 0.187; TT+TC vs. CC: OR = 0.64, 95%CI = 0.48–0.86; Pheterogeneity = 0.199). Meta-regression showed that ethnicity (p = 0.029) and genotyping method (p = 0.043) but not cancer types (p = 0.772), sample size (p = 0.518), or source of controls (p = 0.826) were the source of heterogeneity in heterozygote comparison.
Our results suggest that the FASL polymorphism rs763110 is associated with a significantly reduced risk of cancer, especially in Asian populations.
Molecular analysis of sputum provides a promising approach for lung cancer diagnosis, yet is limited by the difficulty in collecting the specimens from individuals who can’t spontaneously expectorate sputum. Lung Flute is a small self-powered audio device that can induce sputum by generating sound waves and vibrating in the airways of the lungs. Here we propose to evaluate the usefulness of Lung Flute for sputum sampling to assist diagnosis of lung cancer.
Forty-three stage I lung cancer patients and 47 cancer-free individuals who couldn’t spontaneously cough sputum were instructed to use Lung Flute for sputum sampling. Expressions of two microRNAs, miRs-31 and 210, were determined in the specimens by qRT-PCR. The results were compared with sputum cytology.
Sputum was easily collected from 39 of 43 (90.7%) lung cancer patients and 42 of 47 (89.4%) controls with volume ranges from 1 to 5 ml (median, 2.6 ml). The specimens had less than 4% oral squamous cells, indicating that sputum was obtained from low respiratory tract. Expressions of miRs-31 and 210 in sputum were considerably higher in cancer patients than cancer-free individuals (8.990 vs. 4.514; 0.6847 vs. 0.3317; all P <0.001). Combined use of the two miRNAs produced a significantly higher sensitivity (61.5% vs. 35.9%, P = 0.002) and a slightly lower specificity (90.5% vs. 95.2%, p = 0.03) compared with cytology for lung cancer diagnosis.
Lung Flute could potentially be useful in convenient and efficient collection of sputum for molecular diagnosis of lung cancer.
Lung flute; Sputum; microRNAs; Lung cancer; Diagnosis
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of paclitaxel-nedaplatin combination as a front-line regimen in Chinese patients with metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
METHODS: A two-center, open-label, single-arm phase II study was designed. Thirty-nine patients were enrolled and included in the intention-to-treat analysis of efficacy and adverse events. Patients received 175 mg/m2 of paclitaxel over a 3 h infusion on 1 d, followed by nedaplatin 80 mg/m2 in a 1 h infusion on 2 d every 3 wk until the documented disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or patient’s refusal.
RESULTS: Of the 36 patients assessable for efficacy, there were 2 patients (5.1%) with complete response and 16 patients (41.0%) with partial response, giving an overall response rate of 46.1%. The median progression-free survival and median overall survival for all patients were 7.1 mo (95%CI: 4.6-9.7) and 12.4 mo (95%CI: 9.5-15.3), respectively. Toxicities were moderate and manageable. Grade 3/4 toxicities included neutropenia (15.4%), nausea (10.3%), anemia (7.7%), thrombocytopenia (5.1%), vomiting (5.1%) and neutropenia fever (2.6%).
CONCLUSION: The combination of paclitaxel and nedaplatin is active and well tolerated as a first-line therapy for patients with metastatic ESCC.
Esophageal squamous cell cancer; Front-line chemotherapy; Paclitaxel; Nedaplatin
Evidence suggest that IL-18 gene polymorphisms may be risk factors for several cancers. Increasing studies investigating the association between IL-18 gene promoter polymorphisms (−607 C>A and −137G>C) and cancer risk have yielded conflicting results.
We performed a meta-analysis of 26 studies including 4096 cases and 5222 controls. We assessed the strength of the association of IL-18 gene promoter −607 C>A and −137G>C polymorphisms with cancer risk and performed sub-group analyses by cancer types, ethnicities, source of controls and sample size. The pooled results revealed a significant increased risk of cancer susceptibility for −607 C>A (CA vs. CC: OR = 1.19, 95%CI: 1.04, 1.37, Pheterogeneity = 0.033; CA/AA vs. CC: OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.34, Pheterogeneity = 0.007), but no significant association for −137 G>C was observed with overall cancer risk. Sub-group analyses revealed that an increased risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was both found for −607 C>A (CA/AA vs. CC: OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.69, Pheterogeneity = 0.823) and −137G>C (GC/CC vs. GG: OR = 1.57, 95%CI: 1.26, 1.96, Pheterogeneity = 0.373). Consistent with the results of the genotyping analyses, the −607A/−137C and −607C/−137C haplotypes were associated with a significantly increased risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma as compared with the −607C/−137G haplotype (−607A/−137C vs. −607C/−137G: OR = 1.26, 95%CI: 1.13, 1.40; Pheterogeneity = 0.569; −607C/−137C vs. −607C/−137G: OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.27; Pheterogeneity = 0.775). As for gastrointestinal cancer, we also found that −607 C>A polymorphism was significantly associated with increased cancer risk (CA/AA vs. CC: OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.50, Pheterogeneity = 0.458). Further sub-group analysis revealed that −137G>C polymorphism contributed to cancer risk in Asians but not in Caucasians (GC/CC vs. GG: OR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.05, 1.64, Pheterogeneity<0.001).
The meta-analysis results suggest that IL-18 gene promoter −607 C>A polymorphism is significantly associated with overall cancer risk, especially in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and gastrointestinal cancer; and the −137 G>C polymorphism is associated with increased overall cancer risk in Asian populations and also significantly increases the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
DNA methylation disturbance is associated with defective human sperm. However, oligozoospermia (OZ) and asthenozoospermia (AZ) usually present together, and the relationship between the single-phenotype defects in human sperm and DNA methylation is poorly understood. In this study, 20 infertile OZ patients and 20 infertile AZ patients were compared with 20 fertile normozoospermic men. Bisulfate-specific PCR was used to analyze DNA methylation of the H19-DMR and the DAZL promoter in these subjects. A similar DNA methylation pattern of the H19-DMR was detected in AZ and NZ(control), with only complete methylation and mild hypomethylation(<50% unmethylated CpGs) identified, and there was no significant difference in the occurrence of these two methylation patterns between AZ and NZ (P>0.05). However, the methylation pattern of severe hypomethylation (>50% unmethylated CpGs ) and complete unmethylation was only detected in 5 OZ patients, and the occurrence of these two methylation patterns was 8.54±10.86% and 9±6.06%, respectively. Loss of DNA methylation of the H19-DMR in the OZ patients was found to mainly occur in CTCF-binding site 6, with occurrence of 18.15±14.71%, which was much higher than that in patients with NZ (0.84±2.05%) and AZ (0.58±1.77%) (P<0.001).Additional, our data indicated the occurrence of >20% methylated clones in the DAZL promoter only in infertile patients, there was no significant difference between the AZ and OZ patients in the proportion of moderately-to-severely hypermethylated clones (p>0.05). In all cases, global sperm genome methylation analyses, using LINE1 transposon as the indicator, showed that dysregulation of DNA methylation is specifically associated with the H19-DMR and DAZL promoter. Therefore, abnormal DNA methylation status of H19-DMR, especially at the CTCF-binding site 6, is closely associated with OZ. Abnormal DNA methylation of the DAZL promoter might represent an epigenetic marker of male infertility.
The correlation between xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) polymorphisms (Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn) and clinical outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, who received platinum-based chemotherapy (Pt-chemotherapy), is still inconclusive. This meta-analysis was aimed to systematically review published evidence and ascertain the exact role of XPD polymorphisms.
Databases of MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to April 2013 to identify eligible studies. A rigorous quality assessment of eligible studies was conducted according the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scales. The relationship between XPD polymorphisms and response to Pt-chemotherapy and survival was analyzed.
A total of 22 eligible studies were included and analyzed in this meta-analysis. The overall analysis suggested that the XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism was not associated with response to Pt-chemotherapy or survival. However, the XPD 312Asn allele was significantly associated with poor response to Pt-chemotherapy compared with the Asp312 allele (Asn vs. Asp: OR = 0.435, 95% CI: 0.261–0.726). Additionally, the variant genotype of XPD Asp312Asn polymorphism was associated with favorable survival in Caucasian (AspAsn vs. AspAsp: HR = 0.781, 95% CI: 0.619–0.986) but unfavorable survival in Asian (AspAsn+AsnAsn vs. AspAsp: HR = 1.550, 95% CI: 1.038–2.315).
These results suggest that XPD Asp312Asn polymorphism may function as a predictive biomarker on platinum-based chemotherapy in NSCLC and further studies are warranted.
Golgi protein 73 (GP73) is a resident Golgi type II transmembrane protein that has been reported to markedly increase in chronic liver disease, particularly in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it remains unclear as to whether serum GP73 represents a reliable serum marker for the diagnosis of HCC. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum GP73 in patients with HCC and to determine the diagnostic accuracy of measuring serum GP73 in combination with α-fetoprotein (AFP) and γ-glutamyl transferase isoenzyme II (GGT-II) in HCC. Serum GP73 was detected using a time-resolved fluorescence immunological assay (TRFIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 79 HCC cases, including 16 liver cirrhosis, 30 chronic hepatitis and 28 healthy individuals. The correlation between serum GP73 and tumor size and HCC grading was analyzed and the complementary diagnostic value of serum GP73, AFP and GGT-II was evaluated. TRFIA was established for the detection of serum GP73 and was sensitive and reproducible. The expression levels of serum GP73 were markedly higher in the patients with HCC when compared with those of the individuals with liver cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis or the healthy individuals. According to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for HCC with a cut-off value of 78.1 ng/l were 73.4 and 79.0%, respectively. However, no correlation was identified among serum GP73 and tumor size or grading, and no correlations were identified among serum GP73, AFP and GGT-II. The diagnostic sensitivities for HCC, as detected by TRFIA of GP73, AFP and GGT-II, were 73.4, 55.6 and 68.4%, respectively, and the specificities were 80.0, 86.7 and 97.1%, respectively. The combined determination of these markers increased the diagnostic sensitivity to 96.3% for HCC. TRFIA functions as a sensitive and replicable assay for the detection of serum GP73. The levels of serum GP73 were significantly higher in the HCC group when compared with the individuals with benign liver diseases. Serum GP73 may serve as a potential independent diagnostic candidate for HCC and the combined determination of serum GP73, AFP and GGT-II may increase the diagnostic efficiency of HCC.
time-resolved fluorescence immunological assay; golgi protein 73; hepatocellular carcinoma
Adult Hirschsprung’s disease (HD) is a rare motor disorder of the gut that is frequently misdiagnosed as refractory constipation. The primary pathogenic defect in adult HD is identical to that seen in infancy or childhood, and is characterized by the total absence of intramural ganglion cells of the submucosal (Meissner) and myenteric (Auerbach) neural plexuses in the affected segment of the bowel. Ninety-four percent of HD cases are diagnosed before the patient reaches 5 years of age, however, on rare occasion, mild cases of HD may go undiagnosed until he or she reaches adulthood. In this study, we describe four cases of adult HD with a history of longstanding recurrent constipation, relieved by laxatives, and presenting to the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery with progressive abdominal distention, colicky pain or acute intestinal obstruction. Barium enema or computed tomography revealed a grossly distended proximal large colon with fecal retention. Intraoperative frozen section biopsy was performed in all cases and showed aganglionosis of the stenotic segment and a normal distal rectum. In all cases, patient symptoms were completely resolved and there were no complications arising immediately post-surgery or at one-year follow-up. Adult HD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cases where adult patients present with chronic constipation or even acute intestinal obstruction. The modified one-stage Martin-Duhamel or Rehbein’s procedure is a feasible surgical option for treating cases of adult HD involving a segment or the entire bowel.
Adult; constipation; treatment; Hirschsprung’s disease
In contrast to most animal genomes, mitochondrial genomes in species belonging to the phylum Cnidaria show distinct variations in genome structure, including the mtDNA structure (linear or circular) and the presence or absence of introns in protein-coding genes. Therefore, the analysis of nuclear insertions of mitochondrial sequences (NUMTs) in cnidarians allows us to compare the NUMT content in animals with different mitochondrial genome structures.
NUMT identification in the Hydra magnipapillata, Nematostella vectensis and Acropora digitifera genomes showed that the NUMT density in the H. magnipapillata genome clearly exceeds that in other two cnidarians with circular mitochondrial genomes. We found that H. magnipapillata is an exceptional ancestral metazoan with a high NUMT cumulative percentage but a large genome, and its mitochondrial genome linearisation might be responsible for the NUMT enrichment. We also detected the co-transposition of exonic and intronic fragments within NUMTs in N. vectensis and provided direct evidence that mitochondrial sequences can be transposed into the nuclear genome through DNA-mediated fragment transfer. In addition, NUMT expression analyses showed that NUMTs are co-expressed with adjacent protein-coding genes, suggesting the relevance of their biological function.
Taken together, our results provide valuable information for understanding the impact of mitochondrial genome structure on the interaction of mitochondrial molecules and nuclear genomes.
Cnidaria; Mitochondrial DNA; NUMT; Linear mitochondrial genome
The aim of this study was to ensure a high dose of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was delivered to tumor tissue with a low dose to normal organs. Seldinger interventional techniques were used to inject chemotherapy drugs for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). IMRT was conducted 3 weeks after intervention. Primary tumor volume was reduced by 42.76% after 2 doses of interventional chemotherapy and intracranial tumor volume was reduced by 55.63%. All patients presented grade II and above nasopharyngeal mucositis. In the 2 years following radiotherapy, overall survival (OS) was 83.3% and progression-free survival (PFS) was 75%. In conclusion, T4 NPC patients with intracranial extension received induction chemotherapy followed by IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy, which proved to be efficacious and well tolerated.
nasopharyngeal carcinoma; comprehensive treatment; interventional chemotherapy; intensity modulated radiation therapy
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, due to its late diagnosis and poor outcome. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional levels by either degrading or blocking translation of messenger RNA targets. Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNAs play a pivotal role in the development and progression of human malignancies, including lung cancer.
In this review, the authors focus on 1) application of miRNA-based biomarkers to help classify lung cancer, 2) application of the miRNA biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer, and 3) use of miRNAs as biomarkers to predict outcomes of lung cancer.
MiRNAs provide promising biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancer. The developed miRNA biomarkers should be comprehensively and prospectively validated in clinical trials before being used in laboratory settings.
MiRNAs; biomarker; diagnosis; prognosis; lung cancer
We compared long-term clinical outcomes of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) patients treated by retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy (RNU) or open radical nephroureterectomy (ONU).
Upper urinary tract TCC patients were treated with RNU (n = 86) or ONU (n = 72) and followed-up for more than three years. Demographic and clinical data, including preoperative indexes, intraoperative indexes and long-term clinical outcomes, were retrospectively compared to determine long-term efficacy of the two procedures.
The RNU and ONU groups were statistically similar in age, gender, previous bladder cancer history, tumour location, pathologic tumour stage, pathologic node metastasis or tumour pathologic grade. The original surgery time required for both RNU and ONU was statistically similar, but RNU was associated with a significantly smaller volume of intraoperative estimated blood loss and shorter length of postoperative hospital stay. Follow-up (average: 42.4 months, range: 3–57) revealed that the RNU 3-year recurrence-free survival rate was 62.8% and the 3-year cancer specific survival rate was 80.7%. In the ONU group, the 3-year recurrence-free survival and the three-year cancer-specific survival rates were 59.2% and 80.3%, respectively. Neither of the survival rates were statistically different between the two groups. T stage, grade, lymph node metastasis and bladder tumour history were risk factors for tumour recurrence; the operation mode and the bladder cuff incision mode had no correlation with the recurrence-free survival.
The open surgery strategy and the retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy strategy are equally effective for treating upper urinary tract TCC. However, the RNU procedure is less invasive, and requires a shorter duration of postoperative hospitalized care; thus, RNU is recommended as the preferred strategy.
Genetic variation in glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) may contribute to lung cancer risk. Many studies have investigated the correlation between the Glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) null genotype and lung cancer risk in Asian population but yielded inconclusive results.
We performed a meta-analysis of 23 studies including 4065 cases and 5390 controls. We assessed the strength of the association of GSTT1 with lung cancer risk and performed sub-group analyses by source of controls, smoking status, histological types, and sample size. A statistically significant correlation between GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer in Asian population was observed (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.49; Pheterogeneity<0.001 and I2 = 62.0%). Sub-group analysis revealed there was a statistically increased lung cancer risk in ever-smokers who carried the GSTT1 null genotype (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.27, 2.96; P heterogeneity = 0.02 and I2 = 58.1%). It was also indicated that GSTT1 null genotype could increase lung cancer risk among population-based studies (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.50; Pheterogeneity = 0.003 and I2 = 56.8%). The positive association was also found in studies of sample size (≤500 participants) (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.62; Pheterogeneity<0.001 and I2 = 65.4%).
These meta-analysis results suggest that GSTT1 null genotype is associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer in Asian population.
Type 2 diabetes and its chronic complications have become a worldwide epidemic nowadays. However, its molecular mechanism is still unknown. We have previously identified a novel variant rs12742393 of NOS1AP for type 2 diabetes susceptibility in the Chinese population. In this study, we analyzed the total serum profiling among three genotypes of rs12742393 to discover potential crosstalk under the variant and the disease through proteomic analyses for the first time. We used OFFGEL peptide fractionation, LC-MS/MS analysis, and label-free quantification to profile the fasting human serum samples of the genotypes in rs12742393 (n = 4, for CC, AC, and AA, resp.). Four proteins were identified, including apoA4, alpha1-ACT, HABP2, and keratin 10, with blood levels changed significantly between CC and AA homozygotes of rs12742393. Compared with AA group, the levels of apoA4 increased (P = 0.000265), whereas the concentration of alpha1-ACT, HABP2, and keratin 10 decreased in CC group (P = 0.011116, 0.021175, and 0.015661, resp.). Then we selected additional fasting serum samples for ELISA and western blot validation. However, no significant differences were identified by neither ELISA nor western blot (P > 0.05). The protein profiling changes between the genotypes of rs12742393 indicated that this SNP might play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes.
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM17) is involved in proteolytic ectodomain shedding of several membrane-bound growth factors and cytokines. The expression and activity of ADAM17 increase under some pathological conditions such as stroke and cancer. ADAM17 promotes neural progenitor cell migration and contributes to neurogenesis after stroke and breast cancer growth and invasion. In the present study, we sought to elucidate whether ADAM17 contributes to glioma progression. To this end, we examined the role of ADAM17 in the proliferation, invasion, and tube formation of U87 human glioma cells in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Stable transfection of the U87 cell line with either a plasmid for over-expression of human ADAM17, or a siRNA to ADAM17 was employed in this study to establish high or low ADAM17 expression in glioma cells, respectively. For study of mechanism, the ADAM17 inhibitor TAPI-2 and the PI3K-AKT inhibitor LY294002 were used to counteract high ADAM17 expression and the activated PI3K-AKT pathway, respectively.
Proliferation of glioma cells were tested by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay, growth curve, and sulforhodamine B assay. Matrigel invasion assays were used to assess the ability of U87 cells to penetrate the extra-cellular matrix (ECM). A Matrigel tube formation assay was performed to test capillary tube formation ability. EGFR-PI3K-Akt pathway activation in U87 cells under different ADAM17 expression levels were tested by Western blot.
Our data show that ADAM17 promotes the U87 malignant phenotype by increased proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and in vivo tumor growth. Tumor growth in nude mice was significantly inhibited by ADAM17 inhibitor and A17-shRNA in vivo transfection. TGF-α, VEGF secretion and VEGF expression was increased by ADAM17 and counteracted by ADAM17 siRNA, TAPI-2, and LY294002 in U87 cells. ADAM17 activated, whereas ADAM17 siRNA, TAPI-2, and LY294002 deactivated the EGFR-PI3K-AKT signal pathway, which correlated with U87 cell malignant phenotype changes.
This study suggests ADAM17 contributes to glioma progression through activation of the EGFR-PI3K-AKT signal pathway.
ADAM17; TACE; Glioma; EGFR-PI3K-AKT; Proliferation; Invasion; Angiogenesis; Tumor growth; RNA interference
Prostate cancer (PCa) contains small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that contribute to its initiation and progression. Development of specific markers for identification of the CSCs may lead to new diagnostic strategies of PCa. Increased aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) activity has been found in stem cell populations of leukemia and some solid tumors. The goal of the study was to investigate the stem cell-related function and clinical significance of the ALDH1A1 in human PCa. Aldefluor assay was used to isolate ALDH1A1+ cells from PCa cell lines. Stem cell characteristics of the ALDH1A1+ cells were then investigated by in vitro and in vivo approaches. ALDH1A1 expression by immunohistochemestry in 18 normal prostate and 163 PCa tissues was also analyzed. The ALDH1A1+ PCa cells displayed high clonogenic and tumorigenic capacities, and serially reinitiated transplantable tumors that resembled histopathologic characteristics and heterogeneity of the parental PCa cells in mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of human prostate tissues showed that ALDH1A1+ cells were sparse and limited to the basal component in normal prostates. In tumor specimens, however, increased ALDH1A1 immunopositivity was found not only in secretory type cancer epithelial cells, but also in neuroendocrine tumor populations. Furthermore, the high ALDH1A1 expression in PCa was positively correlated with Gleason score (P=0.01) and pathologic stage (P=0.01), and inversely associated with overall survival and cancer-specific survival of the patients (P=0.00093, P=0.00017). ALDH1A1 could be a prostate CSC-related marker. Measuring its expression might provide a potential approach to study tumorigenesis of PCa and predict outcome of the disease.
ALDH1A1; biomarkers; cancer stem cell; prostate cancer; prognosis
Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. Early detection is the key to improve the survival of lung adenocarcinoma patients. We have previously shown that microRNAs were stably present in sputum and could be applied to diagnosis of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to develop a panel of microRNAs that can be used as highly sensitive and specific sputum markers for early detection of lung adenocarcinoma. This study contained three phases: (1) marker discovery using microRNA profiling on paired normal and tumor lung tissues from 20 patients with lung adenocarcinoma; (2) marker optimization by real-time RT-qPCR on sputum of a case-control cohort consisting of 36 cancer patients and 36 health individuals; and (3) validation on an independent set of 64 lung cancer patients and 58 cancer-free subjects. From the surgical tissues, seven microRNAs with significantly altered expression were identified, of which “four” were overexpressed and “three” were underexpressed in all 20 tumors. On the sputum samples of the case-control cohort, four (miR-21, miR-486, miR-375, and miR-200b) of the seven microRNAs were selected, which in combination produced the best prediction in distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma patients from normal subjects with 80.6% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity. Validation of the marker panel in the independent populations confirmed the sensitivity and specificity that provided a significant improvement over any single one alone. The sputum markers demonstrated the potential of translation to laboratory settings for improving the early detection of lung adenocarcinoma.
MicroRNA; sputum; lung adenocarcinoma; real-time RT-qPCR; diagnosis