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BMC Plant Biology (1)
Plant Signaling & Behavior (1)
Jermakow, Angelica M (2)
Bravo, Gema (1)
Cabezas, José A (1)
Carreño, Iván (1)
Carreño, Juan (1)
Dry, Ian B (1)
Feechan, Angela (1)
Ibáñez, Javier (1)
Lijavetzky, Diego (1)
Martinez-Zapater, José M (1)
Rodríguez, Virginia (1)
Ruiz-García, Leonor (1)
Thomas, Mark R (1)
Vélez, Dolores (1)
Year of Publication
A 48 SNP set for grapevine cultivar identification
Cabezas, José A
Thomas, Mark R
Martinez-Zapater, José M
BMC Plant Biology
Rapid and consistent genotyping is an important requirement for cultivar identification in many crop species. Among them grapevine cultivars have been the subject of multiple studies given the large number of synonyms and homonyms generated during many centuries of vegetative multiplication and exchange. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have been preferred until now because of their high level of polymorphism, their codominant nature and their high profile repeatability. However, the rapid application of partial or complete genome sequencing approaches is identifying thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that can be very useful for such purposes. Although SNP markers are bi-allelic, and therefore not as polymorphic as microsatellites, the high number of loci that can be multiplexed and the possibilities of automation as well as their highly repeatable results under any analytical procedure make them the future markers of choice for any type of genetic identification.
We analyzed over 300 SNP in the genome of grapevine using a re-sequencing strategy in a selection of 11 genotypes. Among the identified polymorphisms, we selected 48 SNP spread across all grapevine chromosomes with allele frequencies balanced enough as to provide sufficient information content for genetic identification in grapevine allowing for good genotyping success rate. Marker stability was tested in repeated analyses of a selected group of cultivars obtained worldwide to demonstrate their usefulness in genetic identification.
We have selected a set of 48 stable SNP markers with a high discrimination power and a uniform genome distribution (2-3 markers/chromosome), which is proposed as a standard set for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) genotyping. Any previous problems derived from microsatellite allele confusion between labs or the need to run reference cultivars to identify allele sizes disappear using this type of marker. Furthermore, because SNP markers are bi-allelic, allele identification and genotype naming are extremely simple and genotypes obtained with different equipments and by different laboratories are always fully comparable.
Grapevine MLO candidates required for powdery mildew pathogenicity?
Dry, Ian B
Plant Signaling & Behavior
MLOs belong to the largest family of seven-transmembrane (7TM) domain proteins found in plants. The Arabidopsis and rice genomes contain 15 and 12 MLO family members, respectively. Although the biological function of most MLO family members remains elusive, a select group of MLO proteins have been demonstrated to negatively regulate defence responses to the obligate biotrophic pathogen, powdery mildew, thereby acting as “susceptibility” genes. Recently we identified a family of 17 putative VvMLO genes in the genome of the cultivated winegrape species, Vitis vinifera. Expression analysis indicated that the VvMLO family members respond differently to biotic and abiotic stimuli. Infection of V. vinifera by grape powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) specifically upregulates four VvMLO genes that are orthologous to the Arabidopsis and tomato MLOs previously demonstrated to be required for powdery mildew susceptibility. We postulate that one or more of these E. necator responsive VvMLOs may have a role in the powdery mildew susceptibility of grapevine.
MLO; powdery mildew; resistance; susceptibility; grapevine
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