Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with end-stage renal disease and chronic kidney disease, but the association of LVH with mild impairment in kidney function is not known. We hypothesized that mild and moderate reductions in kidney function, reflected in higher serum cystatin C concentrations, would be linearly associated with a higher prevalence of LVH.
Cross-sectional observational study.
Settings and Participants:
4,971 participants participating in baseline examinations in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population-based study with several sites in the U.S.
Cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcysC)
LVH and left ventricular (LV) mass index.
Serum cystatin C and creatinine, LV mass obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). LVH cutoffs for males and females were defined by the upper 95th percentile of LV mass index of all MESA participants without hypertension.
LVH was distinctly more prevalent (>12%) only in the lowest two deciles of eGFRcysC (<75 ml/min/1.73 m2). When participants with stage III or higher chronic kidney disease (creatinine eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2) were excluded, the odds for LVH increased for each lower category of eGFRcysC below 75 ml/min/1.73 m2: 1.6 the odds for LVH with an eGFRcysC between 60-75 ml/min/1.73 m2 (95% confidence interval 1.20-2.07, P = 0.001), and 2.0 the odds for an eGFRcysC <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (1.03-3.75, P = 0.04), after adjustment for demographic factors, study site, diabetes, and smoking. The association of the a lower eGFRcysC with LVH was attenuated after further adjustment for hypertension.
Cross-sectional, rather than longitudinal design, lack of participants with more advanced kidney disease, lack of a direct measurement of glomerular filtration rate.
Among subjects without CKD, eGFRcysC ≤ 75 ml/min/1.73 m2 was associated with a higher odds of LVH.