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1.  Diabetes services in the UK: third national survey confirms continuing deficiencies 
Aims: To determine the current level of diabetes services and to compare the results with previous national surveys.
Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to all paediatricians in the UK identified as providing care for children with diabetes aged under 16 years. Information was sought on staffing, personnel, clinic size, facilities, and patterns of care. Responses were compared with results of two previous national surveys.
Results: Replies were received from 244 consultant paediatricians caring for an estimated 17 192 children. A further 2234 children were identified as being cared for by other consultants who did not contribute to the survey. Of 244 consultants, 78% expressed a special interest in diabetes and 91% saw children in a designated diabetic clinic. In 93% of the clinics there was a specialist nurse (44% were not trained to care for children; 47% had nurse:patient ratio >1:100), 65% a paediatric dietitian, and in 25% some form of specialist psychology or counselling available. Glycated haemoglobin was measured routinely at clinics in 88%, retinopathy screening was performed in 87%, and microalbuminuria measured in 66%. Only 34% consultants used a computer database. There were significant differences between the services provided by paediatricians expressing a special interest in diabetes compared with "non-specialists", the latter describing less frequent clinic attendance of dietitians or psychologists, less usage of glycated haemoglobin measurements, and less screening for vascular complications. Non-specialist clinics met significantly fewer of the recommendations of good practice described by Diabetes UK.
Conclusions: The survey shows improvements in services provided for children with diabetes, but serious deficiencies remain. There is a shortage of diabetes specialist nurses trained to care for children and paediatric dietitians, and a major shortfall in the provision of psychology/counselling services. The services described confirm the need for more consultant paediatricians to receive specialist training and to develop expertise and experience in childhood diabetes.
doi:10.1136/adc.88.1.53
PMCID: PMC1719265  PMID: 12495963
3.  Audit of diabetes care by caseload 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1997;77(2):102-108.
Accepted 17 March 1997

OBJECTIVE—To investigate the relationship between clinic provision, consultant and nursing caseload, and processes and outcomes of diabetes care in children.
DESIGN—Retrospective audit in the South Western region of England of 801 children and young people with diabetes; 701 were seen in a designated clinic. Seven of 21 consultants fulfilled the British Paediatric Association (BPA) criteria for a specialist in childhood diabetes. Seventeen nurses provided specialist care.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Glycated haemoglobin, admissions to hospital clinic attendance rates, contacts with a dietitian, measurements of height and weight, and screening rates for hypertension, microalbuminuria, and retinopathy.
RESULTS—Children under the care of `non-specialists' had higher admission rates to hospital with all diabetes related problems and for hypoglycaemia and lower screening rates for microalbuminuria than those under `specialists'. Children under the care of the two tertiary hospital consultants had lowest glycated haemoglobin results, spent least time in hospital at diagnosis, were most likely to have their heights and weights plotted, and to be screened for microalbuminuria and retinopathy, had higher admission rates, lower clinic attendance rates, and fewer dietitian consultations. Higher nursing caseloads were associated with longer periods of admission at diagnosis, better clinic attendance rates, reduced rates of admission after diagnosis, and less likelihood of having blood pressure measured and being screened for microalbuminuria. Children attending general paediatric clinics were less likely to be seen by a dietitian and to have their height and weight plotted.
CONCLUSIONS—The results are consistent with the recommendation of a BPA working party in 1990 that children with diabetes should be cared for by specialist paediatricians with a caseload of more than 40 children, and that children should be seen in a designated diabetic clinic.


PMCID: PMC1717293  PMID: 9301346
5.  Interval between insulin injection and breakfast in diabetes. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1994;71(3):248-250.
The relationship between the insulin-breakfast interval, postprandial increase in blood glucose, and glycaemic control was studied in 58 children with diabetes. Patients recorded insulin-breakfast intervals in a home diary over a seven day period, and during a 24 hour period at the weekend provided eight serial capillary dried blood spots for glucose analysis. The highest mean blood glucose value occurred two hours after breakfast and showed a significant correlation with fructosamine concentrations. Weekend insulin-breakfast intervals ranged from 2-30 minutes, with 70% reporting intervals of less than 15 minutes. There was a significant correlation between the weekend insulin-breakfast interval and the after breakfast increase in blood glucose with a mean increment of 0.4 mmol/l in the 30 minute group and 7.2 mmol/l in the 2 minute group. Over the whole study period, children with mean insulin-breakfast intervals of two to 12 minutes had a mean fructosamine concentration of 376 mumol/l compared with 341 mumol/l in those with intervals of 15-35 minutes. This study has shown that the interval between insulin injection and breakfast significantly influences the morning postprandial rise in blood glucose and consequently short term glycaemic control. It is therefore important that patients are encouraged to leave an interval of about 30 minutes between insulin injection and breakfast.
PMCID: PMC1029981  PMID: 7979500
6.  Insulin dependent diabetes in under 5 year olds. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1985;60(12):1144-1148.
Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus presenting in children under five years old exhibits several clinical and management features that differ from diabetes presenting in older children. In this review of the current population of the Oxford children's diabetes clinic, children with diabetes diagnosed aged 0- less than 5 years are compared with those diagnosed aged 5- less than 10 years to illustrate these differences. The mean annual age specific incidence of diabetes for children aged 0- less than 5 is 9.9/100 000 compared with 13.8/100 000 for the children diagnosed aged 5- less than 10. Although children with diabetes currently aged less than 5 comprise only 8% of the clinic population, such children ultimately make up 41% of the total number of children with diabetes aged under 15 attending the clinic. Diabetes diagnosed in children under the age of 5 seems to have increased in incidence over the past 10 years, exhibits a male preponderence (1.5:1), and shows an unusual seasonal variation in incidence with an autumn/early winter trough, late winter/early spring peak, and the absence of mid-summer trough seen in other age groups. First degree family history was positive in 16% of children diagnosed under the age of 5 compared with 10% of the group diagnosed aged 5- less than 10. In none of these children was the mother the affected relative.
PMCID: PMC1777669  PMID: 3911910
7.  Urine albumin to creatinine ratio-response to exercise in diabetes. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1985;60(4):305-310.
Albuminuria was studied in 40 diabetic children before and after a standardised exercise test, and also in 21 normal children; the results are expressed as geometric mean (95% range) of urine albumin:urine creatinine ratio (mg/mg). There was no significant difference between the mean resting albumin:creatinine ratio in the two groups, or between these ratios before and after exercise in the normal children. In the diabetic children, however, the mean urine albumin:creatinine ratio after exercise was significantly higher than both the value before exercise and the postexercise value of the normal children, with 10 of 40 diabetic children showing a value after exercise greater than the 95% range of the geometric mean of the control group. The diabetic children were also studied by random urine albumin:creatinine ratios and split (erect:supine) 24 hour urine collection; none was abnormal.
PMCID: PMC1777246  PMID: 4039920

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