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1.  AUF1 contributes to Cryptochrome1 mRNA degradation and rhythmic translation 
Nucleic Acids Research  2014;42(6):3590-3606.
In the present study, we investigated the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the mouse core clock gene cryptochrome 1 (Cry1) at the post-transcriptional level, particularly its translational regulation. Interestingly, the 3′UTR of Cry1 mRNA decreased its mRNA levels but increased protein amounts. The 3′UTR is widely known to function as a cis-acting element of mRNA degradation. The 3′UTR also provides a binding site for microRNA and mainly suppresses translation of target mRNAs. We found that AU-rich element RNA binding protein 1 (AUF1) directly binds to the Cry1 3′UTR and regulates translation of Cry1 mRNA. AUF1 interacted with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit B and also directly associated with ribosomal protein S3 or ribosomal protein S14, resulting in translation of Cry1 mRNA in a 3′UTR-dependent manner. Expression of cytoplasmic AUF1 and binding of AUF1 to the Cry1 3′UTR were parallel to the circadian CRY1 protein profile. Our results suggest that the 3′UTR of Cry1 is important for its rhythmic translation, and AUF1 bound to the 3′UTR facilitates interaction with the 5′ end of mRNA by interacting with translation initiation factors and recruiting the 40S ribosomal subunit to initiate translation of Cry1 mRNA.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1379
PMCID: PMC3973335  PMID: 24423872
2.  Poly(A) RNA and Paip2 act as allosteric regulators of poly(A)-binding protein 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;42(4):2697-2707.
When bound to the 3′ poly(A) tail of mRNA, poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) modulates mRNA translation and stability through its association with various proteins. By visualizing individual PABP molecules in real time, we found that PABP, containing four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), adopts a conformation on poly(A) binding in which RRM1 is in proximity to RRM4. This conformational change is due to the bending of the region between RRM2 and RRM3. PABP-interacting protein 2 actively disrupts the bent structure of PABP to the extended structure, resulting in the inhibition of PABP-poly(A) binding. These results suggest that the changes in the configuration of PABP induced by interactions with various effector molecules, such as poly(A) and PABP-interacting protein 2, play pivotal roles in its function.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1170
PMCID: PMC3936760  PMID: 24293655
3.  Evolutionary history of human disease genes reveals phenotypic connections and comorbidity among genetic diseases 
Scientific Reports  2012;2:757.
The extent to which evolutionary changes have impacted the phenotypic relationships among human diseases remains unclear. In this work, we report that phenotypically similar diseases are connected by the evolutionary constraints on human disease genes. Human disease groups can be classified into slowly or rapidly evolving classes, where the diseases in the slowly evolving class are enriched with morphological phenotypes and those in the rapidly evolving class are enriched with physiological phenotypes. Our findings establish a clear evolutionary connection between disease classes and disease phenotypes for the first time. Furthermore, the high comorbidity found between diseases connected by similar evolutionary constraints enables us to improve the predictability of the relative risk of human diseases. We find the evolutionary constraints on disease genes are a new layer of molecular connection in the network-based exploration of human diseases.
doi:10.1038/srep00757
PMCID: PMC3477654  PMID: 23091697
4.  Rhythmic Interaction between Period1 mRNA and hnRNP Q Leads to Circadian Time-Dependent Translation 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2012;32(3):717-728.
The mouse PERIOD1 (mPER1) protein, along with other clock proteins, plays a crucial role in the maintenance of circadian rhythms. mPER1 also provides an important link between the circadian system and the cell cycle system. Here we show that the circadian expression of mPER1 is regulated by rhythmic translational control of mPer1 mRNA together with transcriptional modulation. This time-dependent translation was controlled by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) element in the 5′ untranslated region (5′-UTR) of mPer1 mRNA along with the trans-acting factor mouse heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein Q (mhnRNP Q). Knockdown of mhnRNP Q caused a decrease in mPER1 levels and a slight delay in mPER1 expression without changing mRNA levels. The rate of IRES-mediated translation exhibits phase-dependent characteristics through rhythmic interactions between mPer1 mRNA and mhnRNP Q. Here, we demonstrate 5′-UTR-mediated rhythmic mPer1 translation and provide evidence for posttranscriptional regulation of the circadian rhythmicity of core clock genes.
doi:10.1128/MCB.06177-11
PMCID: PMC3266596  PMID: 22124155
5.  Cap-dependent translation without base-by-base scanning of an messenger ribonucleic acid 
Nucleic Acids Research  2012;40(15):7541-7551.
‘Ribosome scanning’ is the generally accepted mechanism for explaining how a ribosome finds an initiation codon located far removed from the ribosome recruiting site (cap structure). However, the molecular characteristics of ribosome scanning along 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) remain obscure. Herein, using a rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) system and artificial ribonucleic acid (RNA) constructs composed of a capped leader RNA and an uncapped reporter RNA annealed through a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) bridge, we show that the ribosome can efficiently bypass a stable, dsRNA region without melting the structure. The insertion of an upstream open reading frame in the capped leader RNA impaired the translation of reporter RNA, indicating that a ribosome associated with the 5′-end explores the regions upstream of the dsRNA bridge in search of the initiation codon. These data indicate that a ribosome may skip part(s) of an messenger RNA 5′UTR without thoroughly scanning it.
doi:10.1093/nar/gks471
PMCID: PMC3424581  PMID: 22638585
6.  Hepatitis C Virus Infection Is Blocked by HMGB1 Released from Virus-Infected Cells ▿ 
Journal of Virology  2011;85(18):9359-9368.
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), an abundant nuclear protein that triggers host immune responses, is an endogenous danger signal involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious agents. However, its role in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is not known. Here, we show that HMGB1 protein is translocated from the nucleus to cytoplasm and subsequently is released into the extracellular milieu by HCV infection. Secreted HMGB1 triggers antiviral responses and blocks HCV infection, a mechanism that may limit HCV propagation in HCV patients. Secreted HMGB1 also may have a role in liver cirrhosis, which is a common comorbidity in HCV patients. Further investigations into the roles of HMGB1 in the diseases caused by HCV infection will shed light on and potentially help prevent these serious and prevalent HCV-related diseases.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00682-11
PMCID: PMC3165778  PMID: 21752923
7.  twenty-four defines a critical translational step in the Drosophila clock 
Nature  2011;470(7334):399-403.
Daily oscillations of gene expression underlie circadian behaviours in multicellular organisms1. While attention has been focused on transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms1–3, other posttranscriptional modes have been less clearly delineated. Here we report mutants of a novel Drosophila gene twenty-four (tyf) that display weak behavioural rhythms. Weak rhythms are accompanied by dramatic reductions in the levels of the clock protein PERIOD (PER) as well as more modest effects on TIMELESS (TIM). Nonetheless, PER induction in pacemaker neurons can rescue tyf mutant rhythms. TYF associates with a 5′-cap binding complex, poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) as well as per and tim transcripts. Furthermore, TYF activates reporter expression when tethered to reporter mRNA even in vitro. Taken together, these data suggest that TYF potently activates PER translation in pacemaker neurons to sustain robust rhythms, revealing a novel and important role for translational control in the Drosophila circadian clock.
doi:10.1038/nature09728
PMCID: PMC3073513  PMID: 21331043
8.  Generation of a Cell Culture-Adapted Hepatitis C Virus with Longer Half Life at Physiological Temperature 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(8):e22808.
Background
We previously reported infectious HCV clones that contain the convenient reporters, green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Renilla luciferase (Rluc), in the NS5a-coding sequence. Although these viruses were useful in monitoring viral proliferation and screening of anti-HCV drugs, the infectivity and yield of the viruses were low.
Methodology/Principal Findings
In order to obtain a highly efficient HCV cultivation system, we transfected Huh7.5.1 cells [1] with JFH 5a-GFP RNA and then cultivated cells for 20 days. We found a highly infectious HCV clone containing two cell culture-adapted mutations. Two cell culture-adapted mutations which were responsible for the increased viral infectivity were located in E2 and p7 protein coding regions. The viral titer of the variant was ∼100-fold higher than that of the parental virus. The mutation in the E2 protein increased the viability of virus at 37°C by acquiring prolonged interaction capability with a HCV receptor CD81. The wild-type and p7-mutated virus had a half-life of ∼2.5 to 3 hours at 37°C. In contrast, the half-life of viruses, which contained E2 mutation singly and combination with the p7 mutation, was 5 to 6 hours at 37°C. The mutation in the p7 protein, either singly or in combination with the E2 mutation, enhanced infectious virus production about 10–50-fold by facilitating an early step of virion production.
Conclusion/Significance
The mutation in the E2 protein generated by the culture system increases virion viability at 37°C. The adaptive mutation in the p7 protein facilitates an earlier stage of virus production, such as virus assembly and/or morphogenesis. These reporter-containing HCV viruses harboring adaptive mutations are useful in investigations of the viral life cycle and for developing anti-viral agents against HCV.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022808
PMCID: PMC3150383  PMID: 21829654
9.  Translation-competent 48S complex formation on HCV IRES requires the RNA-binding protein NSAP1 
Nucleic Acids Research  2011;39(17):7791-7802.
Translation of many cellular and viral mRNAs is directed by internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs). Several proteins that enhance IRES activity through interactions with IRES elements have been discovered. However, the molecular basis for the IRES-activating function of the IRES-binding proteins remains unknown. Here, we report that NS1-associated protein 1 (NSAP1), which augments several cellular and viral IRES activities, enhances hepatitis C viral (HCV) IRES function by facilitating the formation of translation-competent 48S ribosome–mRNA complex. NSAP1, which is associated with the solvent side of the 40S ribosomal subunit, enhances 80S complex formation through correct positioning of HCV mRNA on the 40S ribosomal subunit. NSAP1 seems to accomplish this positioning function by directly binding to both a specific site in the mRNA downstream of the initiation codon and a 40S ribosomal protein (or proteins).
doi:10.1093/nar/gkr509
PMCID: PMC3177222  PMID: 21715376
10.  Protein localization as a principal feature of the etiology and comorbidity of genetic diseases 
Proteins localized within the same subcellular compartment tend to be functionally associated. This study shows that subcellular localization and network distance between disease-associated proteins provide complementary information explaining patterns of disease comorbidity.
A positive correlation was found between subcellular localization of disease-associated protein pairs and measures of comorbidity.A higher comorbidity tendency was found for disease-associated protein pairs that are positioned within a shorter distance in the protein interaction network.The integration of subcellular localization information with protein interaction network sheds light onto the potential molecular connections underlying comorbidity patterns and will help to understand the mechanisms of human disease.
It was shown that the emergence of phenotypically similar diseases are triggered as a result of molecular connections between disease-causing genes (Oti and Brunner, 2007; Zaghloul and Katsanis, 2010). From a genetics, perspective diseases are associated with certain genes (Goh et al, 2007; Feldman et al, 2008), whereas from a proteomics perspective phenotypically similar diseases are connected via biological modules such as protein–protein interactions (PPIs) or molecular pathways (Lage et al, 2007; Jiang et al, 2008; Wu et al, 2008; Linghu et al, 2009; Suthram et al, 2010). These molecular connections between diseases were observed on the population level as well: diseases connected through molecular connections such as shared genes, PPIs, and metabolic pathways tend to show elevated comorbidity (Rzhetsky et al, 2007; Lee et al, 2008; Zhernakova et al, 2009; Park et al, 2009a, 2009b). While these findings constitute a step toward improving our understanding of the mechanism of disease progression, there are still many more molecule-level connections between disease pairs that need to be explored in order to establish a firmer comorbidity association.
Subcellular localization provides spatial information of proteins in the cell; proteins target subcellular localizations to interact with appropriate partners and form functional complexes in signaling pathways and metabolic processes (Au et al, 2007). Abnormal protein localizations are known to lead to the loss of functional effects in diseases (Luheshi et al, 2008; Laurila and Vihinen, 2009). For example, mis-localizations of nuclear/cytoplasmic transport have been detected in many types of carcinoma cells (Kau et al, 2004). A proper identification of protein subcellular localization can hence be useful in discovering disease-associated proteins (Giallourakis et al, 2005; Calvo and Mootha, 2010). With this understanding, we postulate that disease-associated proteins connected by subcellular localizations could also explain the phenotypic similarities between diseases. Furthermore, such connections may also couple to disease progressions that contribute to multiple disease manifestation, that is, comorbidity.
Protein subcellular localization has been extensively studied through various methods to determine a variety of protein functions. To the best of our knowledge, the connection between diseases and subcellular localizations are yet to be studied systematically. To resolve this we constructed, for the first time, a human Disease-associated Protein and subcellular Localization (DPL) matrix (top panel in Box 1). Our DPL matrix provides the ‘cellular localization map of diseases' that represents the spatial index of diseases in the cell. We found that each disease shows unique characteristics of subcellular localization profile in the DPL matrix. We were interested in determining whether subsets of 1284 human diseases exhibit distinct enrichment profiles across subcellular localizations. We calculated pairwise correlations and performed a hierarchical clustering of the enrichments of the 1284 diseases across 10 different subcellular localizations.
Our DPL matrix revealed that 778 diseases (∼62%, P=1.40 × 10−3) are enriched in a single localization and 273 diseases (∼21%, P=3.45 × 10−3) are enriched in dual localizations. In the DPL matrix, certain disease-associated proteins are likely to be found in membrane-bounded organelles such as mitochondria, lysosome, and peroxisome, indicating that the mutations of proteins localized to these compartments are connected to the pathophysiological conditions of those organelles. Meanwhile, certain disease-associated proteins in the DPL matrix are enriched in dual localizations, such as extracellular/plasma membrane or endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi. Although these two pairs of subcellular localizations appear to be distinct compartments at first, they are functionally related compartments in close proximity during protein translocation process in the cell, and thus are likely to share interacting protein partners (Gandhi et al, 2006).
Comorbidity represents the co-occurrence of multiple diseases in the same individual (Lee et al, 2008; Hidalgo et al, 2009; Park et al, 2009a). Many comorbid disease pairs have been shown to share common genes in the human disease network. For example, Diabetes and Alzheimer's disease share a risk factor in angiotensin I converting enzyme, and frequently occur together in an individual. In such instances, comorbidity can be partially attributed to the disease connections on the molecular level. To explore the impact of protein subcellular localization on comorbidity, we hypothesized that certain disease pairs could also be connected via subcellular localization by the molecular connections between the disease-associated proteins (bottom panel in Box 1).
We found a positive correlation between subcellular localization similarity and relative risk (Figure 3B, Pearson's correlation coefficient between relative risk and subcellular localization similarity=0.81, P=2.96 × 10−5). The subcellular localization similarity represents the correlation of subcellular localization profiles between disease pairs. To our surprise, when we compared the relative risk of disease pairs linked via various molecular connections, we found that disease pairs connected by subcellular localization showed a near three-fold higher comorbidity tendency (with link distances equal to 2 or 3) when compared with random pairs (Figure 3E).
We then assessed quantitatively the impact of network distances and subcellular localizations on the comorbidity tendency of disease pairs. We expected the proteins associated with comorbid disease pairs to be located closely in the protein interaction network via fewer links compared with random disease pairs. Indeed, a higher comorbidity tendency was found when two disease-associated proteins were positioned within a shorter distance (gray plots in Figure 3F). Moreover, when subcellular localization information was combined with small network distances, the comorbidity tendency increased dramatically (orange plots in Figure 3F). It suggests that subcellular localization and close network distances, two conceptually distinct molecular connections, contributed synergistically to the comorbidity tendency.
Disease progression is not restricted to the mutation of disease-causing genes, but also affected by molecular connections in ‘disease modules,' resulting in comorbidity (Fraser, 2006; Lee et al, 2008). In this study, for the first time we applied subcellular localization information to elucidate the molecular connections between comorbid diseases. We believe that, based on our finding, our approach helps to define the boundaries of ‘disease modules.' Taken together, integration of diverse molecular connections should improve the molecular level understanding of hitherto unexplained comorbid disease pairs and help us in expanding the scope of our knowledge of the mechanism of human disease progression.
Proteins targeting the same subcellular localization tend to participate in mutual protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and are often functionally associated. Here, we investigated the relationship between disease-associated proteins and their subcellular localizations, based on the assumption that protein pairs associated with phenotypically similar diseases are more likely to be connected via subcellular localization. The spatial constraints from subcellular localization significantly strengthened the disease associations of the proteins connected by subcellular localizations. In particular, certain disease types were more prevalent in specific subcellular localizations. We analyzed the enrichment of disease phenotypes within subcellular localizations, and found that there exists a significant correlation between disease classes and subcellular localizations. Furthermore, we found that two diseases displayed high comorbidity when disease-associated proteins were connected via subcellular localization. We newly explained 7584 disease pairs by using the context of protein subcellular localization, which had not been identified using shared genes or PPIs only. Our result establishes a direct correlation between protein subcellular localization and disease association, and helps to understand the mechanism of human disease progression.
doi:10.1038/msb.2011.29
PMCID: PMC3130560  PMID: 21613983
cellular networks; comorbidity; human disease; subcellular localization
11.  Cyclic AMP Controls mTOR through Regulation of the Dynamic Interaction between Rheb and Phosphodiesterase 4D ▿  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2010;30(22):5406-5420.
The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a molecular hub that regulates protein synthesis in response to a number of extracellular stimuli. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is considered to be an important second messenger that controls mTOR; however, the signaling components of this pathway have not yet been elucidated. Here, we identify cAMP phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) as a binding partner of Rheb that acts as a cAMP-specific negative regulator of mTORC1. Under basal conditions, PDE4D binds Rheb in a noncatalytic manner that does not require its cAMP-hydrolyzing activity and thereby inhibits the ability of Rheb to activate mTORC1. However, elevated cAMP levels disrupt the interaction of PDE4D with Rheb and increase the interaction between Rheb and mTOR. This enhanced Rheb-mTOR interaction induces the activation of mTORC1 and cap-dependent translation, a cellular function of mTORC1. Taken together, our results suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for mTORC1 in which the cAMP-determined dynamic interaction between Rheb and PDE4D provides a key, unique regulatory event. We also propose a new role for PDE4 as a molecular transducer for cAMP signaling.
doi:10.1128/MCB.00217-10
PMCID: PMC2976372  PMID: 20837708
12.  Investigating a New Generation of Ribozymes in Order to Target HCV 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(3):e9627.
For a long time nucleic acid-based approaches directed towards controlling the propagation of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) have been considered to possess high potential. Towards this end, ribozymes (i.e. RNA enzymes) that specifically recognize and subsequently catalyze the cleavage of their RNA substrate present an attractive molecular tool. Here, the unique properties of a new generation of ribozymes are taken advantage of in order to develop an efficient and durable ribozyme-based technology with which to target HCV (+) RNA strands. These ribozymes resulted from the coupling of a specific on/off adaptor (SOFA) to the ribozyme domain derived from the Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV). The former switches cleavage activity “on” solely in the presence of the desired RNA substrate, while the latter was the first catalytic RNA reported to function naturally in human cells, specifically in hepatocytes. In order to maximize the chances for success, a step-by-step approach was used for both the design and the selection of the ribozymes. This approach included the use of both bioinformatics and biochemical methods for the identification of the sites possessing the greatest potential for targeting, and the subsequent in vitro testing of the cleavage activities of the corresponding SOFA-HDV ribozymes. These efforts led to a significant improvement in the ribozymes' designs. The ability of the resulting SOFA-HDV ribozymes to inhibit HCV replication was further examined using a luciferase-based replicon. Although some of the ribozymes exhibited high levels of cleavage activity in vitro, none appears to be a potential long term inhibitor in cellulo. Analysis of recent discoveries in the cellular biology of HCV might explain this failure, as well as provide some ideas on the potential limits of using nucleic acid-based drugs to control the propagation of HCV. Finally, the above conclusions received support from experiments performed using a collection of SOFA-HDV ribozymes directed against HCV (−) strands.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009627
PMCID: PMC2835756  PMID: 20224783
13.  RNA-Binding Protein hnRNP D Modulates Internal Ribosome Entry Site-Dependent Translation of Hepatitis C Virus RNA▿  
Journal of Virology  2008;82(24):12082-12093.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causative agents of virus-related hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. Translation of the HCV polyprotein is mediated by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in the 5′ nontranslated region of the genome. Here, we report that a cellular protein, hnRNP D, interacts with the 5′ border of HCV IRES (stem-loop II) and promotes translation of HCV mRNA. Overexpression of hnRNP D in mammalian cells enhances HCV IRES-dependent translation, whereas knockdown of hnRNP D with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) inhibits translation. In addition, sequestration of hnRNP D with an interacting DNA oligomer inhibits the translation of HCV mRNA in an in vitro system. Ribosome profiling experiments reveal that HCV RNA is redistributed from heavy to light polysome fractions upon suppression of the hnRNP D level using specific siRNA. These results collectively suggest that hnRNP D plays an important role in the translation of HCV mRNA through interactions with the IRES. Moreover, knockdown of hnRNP D with siRNA significantly hampers infection by HCV. A potential role of hnRNP D in HCV proliferation is discussed.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01405-08
PMCID: PMC2593365  PMID: 18842733
14.  Proline-Rich Transcript in Brain Protein Induces Stress Granule Formation▿ † 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2007;28(2):803-813.
The repression of translation in environmentally stressed eukaryotic cells causes the sequestration of translation initiation factors and the 40S ribosomal subunit into discrete cytoplasmic foci called stress granules (SGs). Most components of the preinitiation complex, such as eIF3, eIF4A, eIF4E, eIF4G, and poly(A)-binding protein, congregate into SGs under stress conditions. However, the molecular basis of translation factor sequestration into SGs has not been clearly elucidated. Here, we report that proline-rich transcript in brain (PRTB) protein interacts with eIF4G and participates in SG formation. PRTB was recruited to SG under sodium arsenite and heat stress conditions. When overexpressed, PRTB inhibited global translation and formed SGs containing TIA-1, eIF4G, and eIF3. Knockdown of PRTB reduced the SG formation induced by sodium arsenite. These results suggest that PRTB not only is a component of SG formed by cellular stresses but also plays an important role in SG formation via an interaction with the scaffold protein eIF4G, which is associated with many translation factors and mRNAs.
doi:10.1128/MCB.01226-07
PMCID: PMC2223406  PMID: 17984221
15.  Monitoring the Antiviral Effect of Alpha Interferon on Individual Cells▿  
Journal of Virology  2007;81(16):8814-8820.
An infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) cDNA clone (JFH1) was generated recently. However, quantitative analysis of HCV infection and observation of infected cells have proved to be difficult because the yield of HCV in cell cultures is fairly low. We generated infectious HCV clones containing the convenient reporters green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Renilla luciferase in the NS5a-coding sequence. The new viruses responded to antiviral agents in a dose-dependent manner. Responses of individual cells containing HCV to alpha interferon (IFN-α) were monitored using GFP-tagged HCV and time-lapse confocal microscopy. Marked variations in the response to IFN-α were observed among HCV-containing cells.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02824-06
PMCID: PMC1951346  PMID: 17537862
16.  An RNA-Binding Protein, hnRNP A1, and a Scaffold Protein, Septin 6, Facilitate Hepatitis C Virus Replication▿  
Journal of Virology  2007;81(8):3852-3865.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. NS5b is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that polymerizes the newly synthesized RNA. HCV likely uses host proteins for its replication, similar to other RNA viruses. To identify the cellular factors involved in HCV replication, we searched for cellular proteins that interact with the NS5b protein. HnRNP A1 and septin 6 proteins were identified by coimmunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid screening, respectively. Interestingly, septin 6 protein also interacts with hnRNP A1. Moreover, hnRNP A1 interacts with the 5′-nontranslated region (5′ NTR) and the 3′ NTR of HCV RNA containing the cis-acting elements required for replication. Knockdown of hnRNP A1 and overexpression of C-terminally truncated hnRNP A1 reduced HCV replication. In addition, knockdown of septin 6 and overexpression of N-terminally truncated septin 6 inhibited HCV replication. These results indicate that the host proteins hnRNP A1 and septin 6 play important roles in the replication of HCV through RNA-protein and protein-protein interactions.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01311-06
PMCID: PMC1866118  PMID: 17229681
17.  BiP Internal Ribosomal Entry Site Activity Is Controlled by Heat-Induced Interaction of NSAP1† ▿  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2007;27(1):368-383.
TheBiP protein, a stress response protein, plays an important role in the proper folding and assembly of nascent protein and in the scavenging of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Translation of BiP is directed by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in the 5′ nontranslated region of the BiP mRNA. BiP IRES activity increases when cells are heat stressed. Here we report that NSAP1 specifically enhances the IRES activity of BiP mRNA by interacting with the IRES element. Overexpression of NSAP1 in 293T cells increased the IRES activity of BiP mRNA, whereas knockdown of NSAP1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced the IRES activity of BiP mRNA. The amount of NSAP1 bound to the BiP IRES increased under heat stress conditions, and the IRES activity of BiP mRNA was increased. Moreover, the increase in BiP IRES activity with heat treatment was not observed in cells lacking NSAP1 after siRNA treatment. BiP mRNAs were redistributed from the heavy polysome to the light polysome in NSAP1 knockdown cells. Together, these data indicate that NSAP1 modulates IRES-dependent translation of BiP mRNA through an RNA-protein interaction under heat stress conditions.
doi:10.1128/MCB.00814-06
PMCID: PMC1800651  PMID: 17074807
18.  Rhythmic Serotonin N-Acetyltransferase mRNA Degradation Is Essential for the Maintenance of Its Circadian Oscillation 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2005;25(8):3232-3246.
Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase [AANAT]) is the key enzyme in melatonin synthesis regulated by circadian rhythm. To date, our understanding of the oscillatory mechanism of melatonin has been limited to autoregulatory transcriptional and posttranslational regulations of AANAT mRNA. In this study, we identify three proteins from pineal glands that associate with cis-acting elements within species-specific AANAT 3′ untranslated regions to mediate mRNA degradation. These proteins include heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein R (hnRNP R), hnRNP Q, and hnRNP L. Their RNA-destabilizing function was determined by RNA interference and overexpression approaches. Expression patterns of these factors in pineal glands display robust circadian rhythm. The enhanced levels detected after midnight correlate with an abrupt decline in AANAT mRNA level. A mathematical model for the AANAT mRNA profile and its experimental evidence with rat pinealocytes indicates that rhythmic AANAT mRNA degradation mediated by hnRNP R, hnRNP Q, and hnRNP L is a key process in the regulation of its circadian oscillation.
doi:10.1128/MCB.25.8.3232-3246.2005
PMCID: PMC1069600  PMID: 15798208
19.  Sequestration of TRAF2 into Stress Granules Interrupts Tumor Necrosis Factor Signaling under Stress Conditions 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2005;25(6):2450-2462.
The cellular stress response (SR) is a phylogenetically conserved protection mechanism that involves inhibition of protein synthesis through recruitment of translation factors such as eIF4G into insoluble stress granules (SGs) and blockade of proinflammatory responses by interruption of the signaling pathway from tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) to nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. However, the link between these two physiological phenomena has not been clearly elucidated. Here we report that eIF4GI, which is a scaffold protein interacting with many translation factors, interacts with TRAF2, a signaling molecule that plays a key role in activation of NF-κB through TNF-α. These two proteins colocalize in SGs during cellular exposure to stress conditions. Moreover, TRAF2 is absent from TNFR1 complexes under stress conditions even after TNF-α treatment. This suggests that stressed cells lower their biological activities by sequestration of translation factors and TRAF2 into SGs through a protein-protein interaction.
doi:10.1128/MCB.25.6.2450-2462.2005
PMCID: PMC1061607  PMID: 15743837
20.  Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein Enhances the Internal Ribosomal Entry Site-Dependent Translation of p27Kip1 mRNA and Modulates Transition from G1 to S Phase 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2005;25(4):1283-1297.
The p27Kip1 protein plays a critical role in the regulation of cell proliferation through the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activity. Translation of p27Kip1 is directed by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in the 5′ nontranslated region of p27Kip1 mRNA. Here, we report that polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) specifically enhances the IRES activity of p27Kip1 mRNA through an interaction with the IRES element. We found that addition of PTB to an in vitro translation system and overexpression of PTB in 293T cells augmented the IRES activity of p27Kip1 mRNA but that knockdown of PTB by introduction of PTB-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) diminished the IRES activity of p27Kip1 mRNA. Moreover, the G1 phase in the cell cycle (which is maintained in part by p27Kip1) was shortened in cells depleted of PTB by siRNA knockdown. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced differentiation in HL60 cells was used to examine PTB-induced modulation of p27Kip1 protein synthesis during differentiation. The IRES activity of p27Kip1 mRNA in HL60 cells was increased by TPA treatment (with a concomitant increase in PTB protein levels), but the levels of p27Kip1 mRNA remained unchanged. Together, these data suggest that PTB modulates cell cycle and differentiation, at least in part, by enhancing the IRES activity of p27Kip1 mRNA.
doi:10.1128/MCB.25.4.1283-1297.2005
PMCID: PMC548013  PMID: 15684381
21.  A Cellular RNA-Binding Protein Enhances Internal Ribosomal Entry Site-Dependent Translation through an Interaction Downstream of the Hepatitis C Virus Polyprotein Initiation Codon 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2004;24(18):7878-7890.
Translational initiation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) mRNA occurs by internal entry of ribosomes into an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) at the 5′ nontranslated region. A region encoding the N-terminal part of the HCV polyprotein has been shown to augment the translation of HCV mRNA. Here we show that a cellular protein, NS1-associated protein 1 (NSAP1), augments HCV mRNA translation through a specific interaction with an adenosine-rich protein-coding region within the HCV mRNA. The overexpression of NSAP1 specifically enhanced HCV IRES-dependent translation, and knockdown of NSAP1 by use of a small interfering RNA specifically inhibited the translation of HCV mRNA. An HCV replicon RNA capable of mimicking the HCV proliferation process in host cells was further used to confirm that NSAP1 enhances the translation of HCV mRNA. These results suggest the existence of a novel mechanism of translational enhancement that acts through the interaction of an RNA-binding protein with a protein coding sequence.
doi:10.1128/MCB.24.18.7878-7890.2004
PMCID: PMC515056  PMID: 15340051
22.  Identification of cellular proteins enhancing activities of internal ribosomal entry sites by competition with oligodeoxynucleotides 
Nucleic Acids Research  2004;32(4):1308-1317.
The translation of numerous eukaryotic mRNAs is mediated by internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs). IRES-dependent translation requires both canonical translation initiation factors and IRES-specific trans-acting factors (ITAFs). Here we report a strategy to identify and characterize ITAFs required for IRES-dependent translation. This process involves steps for identifying oligodeoxynucleotides affecting IRES-dependent translation, purifying proteins interacting with the inhibitory DNA, identifying the specific proteins with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and confirming the roles of these proteins in IRES-dependent translation by depletion and repletion of proteins from an in vitro translation system. Using this strategy, we show that poly(rC)-binding proteins 1 and 2 enhance translation through polioviral and rhinoviral IRES elements.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkh300
PMCID: PMC390288  PMID: 14981151
23.  Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein C Modulates Translation of c-myc mRNA in a Cell Cycle Phase-Dependent Manner 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2003;23(2):708-720.
The c-myc proto-oncogene plays a key role in the proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and regulation of the cell cycle. Recently, it was demonstrated that the 5′ nontranslated region (5′ NTR) of human c-myc mRNA contains an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). In this study, we investigated cellular proteins interacting with the IRES element of c-myc mRNA. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNP C) was identified as a cellular protein that interacts specifically with a heptameric U sequence in the c-myc IRES located between two alternative translation initiation codons CUG and AUG. Moreover, the addition of hnRNP C1 in an in vitro translation system enhanced translation of c-myc mRNA. Interestingly, hnRNP C was partially relocalized from the nucleus, where most of the hnRNP C resides at interphase, to the cytoplasm at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Coincidently, translation mediated through the c-myc IRES was increased at the G2/M phase when cap-dependent translation was partially inhibited. On the other hand, a mutant c-myc mRNA lacking the hnRNP C-binding site, showed a decreased level of translation at the G2/M phase compared to that of the wild-type message. Taken together, these findings suggest that hnRNP C, via IRES binding, modulates translation of c-myc mRNA in a cell cycle phase-dependent manner.
doi:10.1128/MCB.23.2.708-720.2003
PMCID: PMC151538  PMID: 12509468
24.  Translation of Polioviral mRNA Is Inhibited by Cleavage of Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Proteins Executed by Polioviral 3Cpro 
Journal of Virology  2002;76(5):2529-2542.
The translation of polioviral mRNA occurs through an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). Several RNA-binding proteins, such as polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) and poly(rC)-binding protein (PCBP), are required for the poliovirus IRES-dependent translation. Here we report that a poliovirus protein, 3Cpro (and/or 3CDpro), cleaves PTB isoforms (PTB1, PTB2, and PTB4). Three 3Cpro target sites (one major target site and two minor target sites) exist in PTBs. PTB fragments generated by poliovirus infection are redistributed to the cytoplasm from the nucleus, where most of the intact PTBs are localized. Moreover, these PTB fragments inhibit polioviral IRES-dependent translation in a cell-based assay system. We speculate that the proteolytic cleavage of PTBs may contribute to the molecular switching from translation to replication of polioviral RNA.
PMCID: PMC135932  PMID: 11836431
25.  La autoantigen enhances translation of BiP mRNA 
Nucleic Acids Research  2001;29(24):5009-5016.
Translational initiation of the human BiP mRNA is directed by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) located in the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR). In order to understand the mechanism of the IRES-dependent translation of BiP mRNA, cellular proteins interacting with the BiP IRES were investigated. La autoantigen, which augments the translation of polioviral mRNA and hepatitis C viral mRNA, bound specifically to the second half of the 5′-UTR of the BiP IRES and enhanced translation of BiP mRNA in both in vitro and in vivo assays. This finding suggests that cellular and viral IRESs containing very different RNA sequences may share a common mechanism of translation.
PMCID: PMC97601  PMID: 11812831

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