Two parallel pathways have been proposed between the hippocampus and neocortex. Recently, the anterior and posterior hippocampus showed distinct connectivity with different cortical areas in an fMRI study. We investigated whether the two parallel pathways could be confirmed in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA) which is a natural lesion model of a perturbation of the hippocampus. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between the location of the hippocampal lesion and various clinical variables.
A consecutive series of 37 patients were identified from the TGA registry database of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Based on the location of the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion along the anterior-posterior axis of the hippocampus, they were divided into the following three groups: head (n = 15), body (n = 15) or tail (n = 7). To evaluate which cortical regions showed hypoperfusion according to the location of the DWI lesion, their SPECT images were compared between two groups using statistical parametric mapping. We performed hierarchical cluster analysis to group demographic and clinical variables, including the location of the DWI lesion, into clusters.
Statistical parametric mapping analyses revealed that more anterior DWI lesions were associated with hypoperfusion of the anterior temporal and frontal areas, whereas more posterior lesions were associated with hypoperfusion of the posterior temporal, parietal, occipital and cerebellar areas. The difference was most prominent between the group of hippocampal lesions on the head and tail. Hierarchical cluster analysis demonstrated that vomiting was related to female gender and hippocampal head lesions, whereas vascular risk factors were related to male gender and hippocampal body lesions.
We confirmed the parallel pathways between the hippocampus and neocortex with DWI and SPECT images of patients with TGA. Patients with hippocampal head lesions and body lesions were clustered within different groups of clinical variables.
The purpose of this study was to compare four graft-tunnel angles (GTA), the femoral GTA formed by three different femoral tunneling techniques (the outside-in, a modified inside-out technique in the posterior sag position with knee hyperflexion, and the conventional inside-out technique) and the tibia GTA in 3-dimensional (3D) knee flexion models, as well as to examine the influence of femoral tunneling techniques on the contact pressure between the intra-articular aperture of the femoral tunnel and the graft.
Materials and Methods
Twelve cadaveric knees were tested. Computed tomography scans were performed at different knee flexion angles (0°, 45°, 90°, and 120°). Femoral and tibial GTAs were measured at different knee flexion angles on the 3D knee models. Using pressure sensitive films, stress on the graft of the angulation of the femoral tunnel aperture was measured in posterior cruciate ligament reconstructed cadaveric knees.
Between 45° and 120° of knee flexion, there were no significant differences between the outside-in and modified inside-out techniques. However, the femoral GTA for the conventional inside-out technique was significantly less than that for the other two techniques (p<0.001). In cadaveric experiments using pressure-sensitive film, the maximum contact pressure for the modified inside-out and outside-in technique was significantly lower than that for the conventional inside-out technique (p=0.024 and p=0.017).
The conventional inside-out technique results in a significantly lesser GTA and higher stress at the intra-articular aperture of the femoral tunnel than the outside-in technique. However, the results for the modified inside-out technique are similar to those for the outside-in technique.
Posterior cruciate ligament; reconstruction; graft-tunnel angle; 3-dimensional
Despite several limitations, the Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) is normally used to evaluate trauma systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventable trauma death rate using the TRISS method in severe trauma patients with traumatic brain injury using our emergency department data.
The use of the TRISS formula has been suggested to consider definitively preventable death (DP); the deaths occurred with a probability of survival (Ps) higher than 0.50 and possible preventable death (PP); the deaths occurred with a Ps between 0.50 and 0.25. Deaths in patients with a calculated Ps of less than 0.25 is considered as no-preventable death (NP). A retrospective case review of deaths attributed to mechanical trauma occurring between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011 was conducted.
A total of 565 consecutive severe trauma patients with ISS>15 or Revised Trauma Score<7 were admitted in our institute. We excluded a total of 24 patients from our analysis : 22 patients younger than 15 years, and 2 patients with burned injury. Of these, 221 patients with head injury were analyzed in the final study. One hundred eighty-two patients were in DP, 13 in PP and 24 in NP. The calculated predicted mortality rates were 11.13%, 59.04%, and 90.09%. The actual mortality rates were 12.64%, 61.547%, and 91.67%, respectively.
Although it needs to make some improvements, the present study showed that TRISS performed well in predicting survival of traumatic brain injured patients. Also, TRISS is relatively exact and acceptable compared with actual data, as a simple and time-saving method.
Traumatic brain injury; TRISS; Survival
Recently, microscope-integrated near infrared indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-VA) has been widely used in cerebrovascular surgery because it provides real-time high resolution images. In our study, we evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative ICG-VA during cerebrovascular surgery.
Between August 2011 and April 2012, 188 patients with cerebrovascular disease were surgically treated in our institution. We used ICG-VA in that operations with half of recommended dose (0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg). Postoperative digital subtraction angiography and computed tomography angiography was used to confirm anatomical results.
Intraoperative ICG-VA demonstrated fully occluded aneurysm sack, no neck remnant, and without vessel compromise in 119 cases (93.7%) of 127 aneurysms. Eight clipping (6.3%) of 127 operations were identified as an incomplete aneurysm occlusion or compromising vessel after ICG-VA. In 41 (97.6%) of 42 patients after carotid endarterectomy, the results were the same as that of postoperative angiography with good patency. One case (5.9%) of 17 bypass surgeries was identified as a nonfunctioning anastomosis after ICG-VA, which could be revised successfully. In the two patients of arteriovenous malformation, ICG-VA was useful for find the superficial nature of the feeding arteries and draining veins.
ICG-VA is simple and provides real-time information of the patency of vessels including very small perforators within the field of the microscope and has a lower rate of adverse reactions. However, ICG-VA is not a perfect method, and so a combination of monitoring tools assures the quality of cerebrovascular surgery.
Cerebrovascular surgery; Indocyanine green videoangiography; Intraoperative angiography; Patency of graft; Complete obliteration of aneurysm
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP-2 and MMP-9 have been known to play an important role in secondary inflammatory reaction after spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and to determine their relationship with disruption of endothelial blood-barrier after photochemically induced SCI in rats.
Female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing between 250 and 300 g (aged 8 weeks) received focal spinal cord ischemia by photothrombosis using Rose Bengal. Expressions and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were assessed by Western blot and gelatin zymography at various times from 6 h to 7 days. Endothelial blood-barrier integrity was assessed indirectly using spinal cord water content.
Zymography and Western blot analysis demonstrated rapid up-regulation of MMP-9 protein levels in spinal cord after ischemic onset. Expressions and activities of MMP-9 showed a significant increased at 6 h after the photothrombotic ischemic event, and reached a maximum level at 24 h after the insult. By contrast, activated MMP-2 was not detected at any time point in either the experimental or the control groups. When compared with the control group, a significant increase in spinal cord water content was detected in rats at 24 h after photothrombotic SCI.
Early up-regulation of MMP-9 might be correlated with increased water content in the spinal cord at 24 h after SCI in rats. Results of this study suggest that MMP-9 is the key factor involved in disruption of the endothelial blood-barrier of the spinal cord and subsequent secondary damage after photothrombotic SCI in rats.
Endothelial blood-barrier; Matrix metalloproteinases-9; Photothrombosis; Rat; Spinal cord injury
Pyogenic spondylitis often results in acute neurological deterioration requiring adequate surgical intervention and appropriate antibiotic treatment. The purpose of this study was to conduct an analysis of the clinical effect of continuous irrigation via laminotomy in a series of patients with pyogenic spondylitis in thoracic and lumbar spine.
The authors conducted a retrospective investigation of 31 consecutive patients with pyogenic thoracic and lumbar spondylitis who underwent continuous irrigation through laminotomy from 2004 to 2008. The study included 22 men and 9 women, ranging in age from 38 to 78 years (mean 58.1 years). The average follow-up duration was 13.4 months (range, 8-34 months). We performed debridement and abscess removal after simple laminotomy, and then washed out epidural and disc space using a continuous irrigation system. Broad spectrum antibiotics were administered empirically and changed according to the subsequent culture result. Clinical outcomes were based on the low back outcome scale (LBOS), visual analogue scale (VAS) score, and Frankel grade at the last follow-up. Radiological assessment involved plain radiographs, including functional views.
Common predisposing factors included local injection for pain therapy, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, and liver cirrhosis. Causative microorganisms were identified in 22 cases (70.9%) : Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. were the main organisms. After surgery, LBOS, VAS score, and Frankel grade showed significant improvement in most patients. Spinal stability was maintained during the follow-up period, making secondary reconstructive surgery unnecessary for all patients, except one.
Simple laminotomy with continuous irrigation by insertion of a catheter into intervertebral disc space or epidural space was minimally invasive and effective in the treatment of pyogenic spondylitis. This procedure could be a beneficial treatment option in patients with thoracolumbar spondylitis combined with minimal or moderate destructive change of vertebrae.
Irrigation; Laminotomy; Pyogenic; Spondylitis; Thoracolumbar
Posttraumatic cerebral infarction (PTCI), an infarction in well-defined arterial distributions after head trauma, is a known complication in patients with severe head trauma. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical and radiographic characteristics of PTCI, and to assess the effect on outcome of decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) in patients with PTCI.
We present a retrospective analysis of 20 patients with PTCI who were treated between January 2003 and August 2005. Twelve patients among them showed malignant PTCI, which is defined as PTCI including the territory of Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA). Medical records and radiologic imaging studies of patients were reviewed.
Infarction of posterior cerebral artery distribution was the most common site of PTCI. Fourteen patients underwent DHC an average of 16 hours after trauma. The overall mortality rate was 75%. Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) of survivors showed that one patient was remained in a persistent vegetative state, two patients were severely disabled and only two patients were moderately disabled at the time of discharge. Despite aggressive treatments, all patients with malignant PTCI had died. Malignant PTCI was the indicator of poor clinical outcome. Furthermore, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) at the admission was the most valuable prognostic factor. Significant correlation was observed between a GCS less than 5 on admission and high mortality (p<0.05).
In patients who developed non-malignant PTCI and GCS higher than 5 after head injury, early DHC and duroplasty should be considered, before occurrence of irreversible ischemic brain damage. High mortality rate was observed in patients with malignant PTCI or PTCI with a GCS of 3-5 at the admission. A large prospective randomized controlled study will be required to justify for aggressive treatments including DHC and medical treatment in these patients.
Brain trauma; Cerebral infarction; Decompressive craniectomy
Surgery for thoracic disc herniations is still challenging, and the disc excision via a posterior laminectomy is considered risky. A variety of dorsolateral and ventral approaches have been developed. However, the lateral extracavitary and transthoracic approach require extensive surgical exposure. Therefore, we adopted a posterior transdural approach for direct visualization without entry into the thoracic cavity. Three cases that illustrate this procedure are reported here with the preoperative findings, radiological findings and surgical techniques used. After the laminectomy, at the involved level, the dorsal dura was opened with a longitudinal paramedian incision. The cerebrospinal fluid was drained to gain more operating space. After sectioning of the dentate ligaments, gentle retraction was applied to the spinal cord. Between the rootlets above and below, the ventral dural bulging was clearly observed. A small paramedian dural incision was made over the disc space and the protruded disc fragment was removed. Neurological symptoms were improved, and no surgery-related complication was encountered. The posterior transdural approach may offer an alternative surgical option for selected patients with thoracic paracentral soft discs, while limiting the morbidity associated with the exposure.
Disc herniation; Transdural approach; Thoracic
Although the vertebral artery injuries (VAI) associated with cervical spine trauma are usually clinically occult, they may cause fatal ischemic damage to the brain stem and cerebellum.
We performed a prospective study using computed tomographic angiography (CTA) to determine the frequency of VAI associated with cervical spine injuries and investigate the clinical and radiological characteristics. Between January 2005 and August 2007, 99 consecutive patients with cervical spine fractures and/or dislocations were prospectively evaluated for patency of the VA, using the CTA, at the time of injury.
Complete disruption of blood flow through the VA was demonstrated in seven patients with unilateral occlusion (7.1%). There were four men and three women with a mean age of 43 (range, 33-55 years). Unilateral occlusion of the right vertebral artery occurred in four patients and of the left in three. Regarding the cervical injury type, two cases were cervical burst fractures (C6 and C7), two had C4-5 fracture/dislocations, two had a unilateral transverse foraminal fracture, and one had dens type III fracture. All patients presented with good patency of the contralateral VA. None of the patients developed secondary neurological deterioration due to vertebrobasilar ischemia during the follow-up period with a mean duration of 23 months.
VAI should be suspected in patients with cervical trauma that have cervical spine fractures and/or dislocations or transverse foramen fractures. CTA was useful as a rapid diagnostic method for ruling out VAI after cervical spine trauma.
Cervical spine; computed tomographic angiography; injury; vertebral artery
Disc herniations at the L1-L2 and L2-L3 levels are different from those at lower levels of the lumbar spine with regard to clinical characteristics and surgical outcome. Spinal canals are narrower than those of lower levels, which may compromise multiple spinal nerve roots or conus medullaris. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and surgical outcomes of upper lumbar disc herniations.
We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features of 41 patients who had undergone surgery for single disc herniations at the L1-L2 and L2-3 levels from 1998 to 2007. The affected levels were L1-L2 in 14 patients and L2-L3 in 27 patients. Presenting symptoms and signs, patient characteristics, radiologic findings, operative methods, and surgical outcomes were investigated.
The mean age of patients with upper lumbar disc was 55.5 years (ranged 31 to 78). The mean follow-up period was 16.6 months. Most patients complained of back and buttock pain (38 patients, 92%), and radiating pain in areas such as the anterior or anterolateral aspect of the thigh (32 patients, 78%). Weakness of lower extremities was observed in 16 patients (39%) and sensory disturbance was presented in 19 patients (46%). Only 6 patients (14%) had undergone previous lumbar disc surgery. Discectomy was performed using three methods : unilateral laminectomy in 27 cases, bilateral laminectomy in 3 cases, and the transdural approach in 11 cases, which were performed through total laminectomy in 10 cases and unilateral laminectomy in 1 case. With regard to surgical outcomes, preoperative symptoms improved significantly in 33 patients (80.5%), partially in 7 patients (17%), and were aggravated in 1 patient (2.5%).
Clinical features of disc herniations at the L1-L2 and L2-L3 levels were variable, and localized sensory change or pain was rarely demonstrated. In most cases, the discectomy was performed successfully by conventional posterior laminectomy. On the other hand, in large central broad based disc herniation, when the neural elements are severely compromised, the posterior transdural approach could be an alternative.
Clinical feature; Disc herniation; Transdural; Upper lumbar
We recently experienced a case of synovial sarcoma in the posterior neck, which involved adjacent bony structures. Synovial sarcoma is rare, malignant soft tissue tumor that occur predominantly in the lower extremities. Wide surgical excision with involved tissue is the treatment of first choice, because most synovial sarcomas reveal aggressive features. We removed the tumor with involved bony structures and patient was given postoperative radiation therapy. Despite these treatment options, the patient died 1 year after surgery. We report this case with a review of the literature.
Synovial sarcoma; Posterior neck; Bony involvement
A mouse model of spinal cord injury (SCI) could further increase our basic understanding of the mechanisms involved in injury and repair of the nervous system. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether methods used to produce and evaluate photochemical graded ischemic SCI in rats, could be successfully adapted to mice, in a reliable and reproducible manner.
Thirty female imprinting control region mice (weighting 25-30 g, 8 weeks of age) were used in this study. Following intraperitoneal injection of Rose bengal, the translucent dorsal surface of the T8-T9 vertebral laminae of the mice were illuminated with a fiber optic bundle of a cold light source. The mice were divided into three groups; Group 1 (20 mg/kg Rose bengal, 5 minutes illumination), Group 2 (20 mg/kg Rose bengal, 10 minutes illumination), and Group 3 (40 mg/kg Rose bengal, 10 minutes illumination). The locomotor function, according to the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale, was assessed at three days after the injury and then once per week for four weeks. The animals were sacrificed at 28 days after the injury, and the histopathology of the lesions was assessed.
The mice in group 1 had no hindlimb movement until seven days after the injury. Most mice had later recovery with movement in more than two joints at 28 days after injury. There was limited recovery of one joint, with only slight movement, for the mice in groups 2 and 3. The histopathology showed that the mice in group 1 had a cystic cavity involving the dorsal and partial involvement of the dorsolateral funiculi. A larger cavity, involving the dorsal, dorsolateral funiculi and the gray matter of the dorsal and ventral horns was found in group 2. In group 3, most of the spinal cord was destroyed and only a thin rim of tissue remained.
The results of this study show that the photochemical graded ischemic SCI model, described in rats, can be successfully adapted to mice, in a reliable and reproducible manner. The functional deficits are correlated an increase in the irradiation time and, therefore, to the severity of the injury. The photothrombotic model of SCI, in mice with 20 mg/kg Rose bengal for 5 minutes illumination, provides an effective model that could be used in future research. This photochemical model can be used for investigating secondary responses associated with traumatic SCI.
Photochemical; Spinal cord Injury; Mouse
The controlled patterning of nanomaterials presents a major challenge to the field of nanolithography because of differences in size, shape and solubility of these materials. Matrix-assisted dip-pen nanolithography and polymer pen lithography provide a solution to this problem by utilizing a polymeric matrix that encapsulates the nanomaterials and delivers them to surfaces with precise control of feature size.
Dip-Pen Nanolithography; Polymer Pen Lithography; Nanomaterials; Poly(ethylene glycol)