Eosinophils function as an effector cell in the development of asthma and allergic disease. Eotaxins are cytokines that promote pulmonary eosinophilia via the receptor CCR3. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CCR3 and eotaxin genes are associated with asthma. In this study, genetic interactions among SNPs of several eotaxin genes and CCR3 were assessed and their relationship with blood eosinophilia in asthma was examined.
A total of 533 asthmatics were enrolled in this study. Asthmatics with eosinophilia (>0.5×109/L) were compared with those without eosinophilia (≤0.5×109/L). Chi-square tests were used to compare SNP frequencies. Two different models were used to evaluate gene-gene interactions: logistic regression and generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR).
EOT2+304C>A (29L>I) was significantly associated with 3 of the 4 CCR3 SNPs among asthmatics with eosinophilia (P=0.037-0.009). EOT2+304C>A (29L>I) and the CCR3 SNPs were also significantly associated with blood eosinophilia in an interaction model constructed by logistic regression (P=0.0087). GMDR analysis showed that the combination of EOT2+304C>A (29L>I) and CCR3-174C>T was the best model (accuracy=0.536, P=0.005, CVC 9/10).
The epistatic influence of CCR3 on eotaxin gene variants indicates that these variants may be candidate markers for eosinophilia in asthma.
Asthma; epistasis; polymorphisms; CCR3; eotaxin
We have previously identified four distinct groups of asthma patients in Korean cohorts using cluster analysis: (A) smoking asthma, (B) severe obstructive asthma, (C) early-onset atopic asthma, and (D) late-onset mild asthma.
Methods and Results
A longitudinal analysis of each cluster in a Korean adult asthma cohort was performed to investigate the clinical significance of asthma clusters over 12 months.
Cluster A showed relatively high asthma control test (ACT) scores but relatively low FEV1 scores, despite a high percentage of systemic corticosteroid use. Cluster B had the lowest mean FEV1, ACT, and the quality of life questionnaire for adult Korean asthmatics (QLQAKA) scores throughout the year, even though the percentage of systemic corticosteroid use was the highest among the four clusters. Cluster C was ranked second in terms of FEV1, with the second lowest percentage of systemic corticosteroid use, and showed a marked improvement in subjective symptoms over time. Cluster D consistently showed the highest FEV1, the lowest systemic corticosteroid use, and had high ACT and QLQAKA scores.
Our asthma clusters had clinical significance with consistency among clusters over 12 months. These distinctive phenotypes may be useful in classifying asthma in real practice.
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are associated with the pathogenesis of various diseases. AGEs induce excess accumulation of extracellular matrix and expression of profibrotic cytokines. In addition, studies on receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) have shown that the ligand-RAGE interaction activates several intracellular signaling cascades associated with several fibrotic diseases. We investigated the expression of AGEs and RAGE in samples from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Lung tissues and plasma samples from patients with IPF (n=10), NSIP (n=10), and control subjects (n=10) were obtained. Expression of AGEs and RAGE was determined by immunofluorescence assay of lung tissue. Circulating AGEs were measured by Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lungs with IPF showed strong expression for both AGEs and RAGE compared to that in NSIP and controls. However, no difference in AGE or RAGE expression was observed in lungs with NSIP compared to that in the controls. Levels of circulating AGEs also increased significantly in lungs of patients with IPF compared to those with NSIP and normal control. Increased AGE-RAGE interaction may play an important role in the pathogenesis of IPF.
Advanced glycation end products; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; receptor for advanced glycation end product
The prevalence of asthma is approximately 5% to 10% in the general population. Of these, approximately 5% to 10% are severe asthmatics who respond poorly to asthmatic drugs, including high-dose inhaled steroids. Severe asthmatics have persistent symptoms, frequent symptom exacerbation, and severe airway obstruction even when taking high-dose inhaled steroids. The medical costs of treating severe asthmatics represent ~50% of the total healthcare costs for asthma. Risk factors for severe asthma are genetic and environmental, including many kinds of aeroallergens, β-blockers, and anti-inflammatory drugs. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and factors such as denial, anxiety, fear, depression, socioeconomic status, and alcohol consumption can exacerbate asthma. Rhinitis and asthma usually occur together. There is increasing evidence that allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis may influence the clinical course of asthma. This review discusses the role of rhinosinusitis in severe asthma.
Asthma; Rhinitis; Sinusitis
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is one of the central players in asthma and allergic diseases. Although the serum IgE level, a useful endophenotype, is generally increased in patients with asthma, genetic factors influencing IgE regulation in asthma are still not fully understood. To identify the genetic variations associated with total serum and mite-specific IgEs in asthmatics, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 657,366 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed in 877 Korean asthmatics. This study found that several new genes might be associated with total IgE in asthmatics, such as CRIM1 (rs848512, P = 1.18×10−6; rs711254, P = 6.73×10−6), ZNF71 (rs10404342, P = 7.60×10−6), TLN1 (rs4879926, P = 7.74×10−6), and SYNPO2 (rs1472066, P = 8.36×10−6; rs1038770, P = 8.66×10−6). Regarding the association of specific IgE to house dust mites, it was observed that intergenic SNPs nearby to OPRK1 and LOC730217 might be associated with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D.p.) and Dermatophagoides farinae (D.f.) in asthmatics, respectively. In further pathway analysis, the phosphatidylinositol signaling system and adherens junction pathways were estimated to play a role in the regulation of total IgE levels in asthma. Although functional evaluations and replications of these results in other populations are needed, this GWAS of serum IgE in asthmatics could facilitate improved understanding of the role of the newly identified genetic variants in asthma and its related phenotypes.
The genetic basis for the underlying individual susceptibility to chlorine-induced acute lung injury is unknown. To uncover the genetic basis and pathophysiological processes that could provide additional homeostatic capacities during lung injury, 40 inbred murine strains were exposed to chlorine, and haplotype association mapping was performed. The identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations were evaluated through transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling. Using ≥ 10% allelic frequency and ≥ 10% phenotype explained as threshold criteria, promoter SNPs that could eliminate putative transcriptional factor recognition sites in candidate genes were assessed by determining transcript levels through microarray and reverse real-time PCR during chlorine exposure. The mean survival time varied by approximately 5-fold among strains, and SNP associations were identified for 13 candidate genes on chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 9, and 15. Microarrays revealed several differentially enriched pathways, including protein transport (decreased more in the sensitive C57BLKS/J lung) and protein catabolic process (increased more in the resistant C57BL/10J lung). Lung metabolomic profiling revealed 95 of the 280 metabolites measured were altered by chlorine exposure, and included alanine, which decreased more in the C57BLKS/J than in the C57BL/10J strain, and glutamine, which increased more in the C57BL/10J than in the C57BLKS/J strain. Genetic associations from haplotype mapping were strengthened by an integrated assessment using transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling. The leading candidate genes associated with increased susceptibility to acute lung injury in mice included Klf4, Sema7a, Tns1, Aacs, and a gene that encodes an amino acid carrier, Slc38a4.
ARDS; countermeasures; glutamine; genetics; metabolomics
Capillary hemangioma of the tracheobronchial tree is an extremely rare benign tumor in adults, especially those located in the bronchus. Characteristics and treatment of capillary hemangiomas of adult tracheobronchial trees have not been well known. We present a 61-year-old man with hemoptysis, which was caused by a small tiny nodule in the left lingular segmental bronchus. The nodule was removed by a forcep biopsy, via flexible bronchoscopy, and it was revealed to be capillary hemangioma. A small isolated endobronchial capillary hemangioma can be treated with excisional forcep biopsy, but a risk of massive bleeding should not be overlooked.
Hemangioma, Capillary; Bronchi; Hemoptysis; Bronchoscopy
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of patients with unstable thoracolumbar fracture (UTLF) who were treated by percutaneous long-segmental posterior fixation (PLSPF) by two vertebrae cranial to the fracture with two vertebrae caudal.
Overview of Literature
To the best of our knowledge, PLSPF for stabilization of UTLF has not been reported.
The study involved retrospective analysis and investigation from the results of 27 patients who had undergone PLSPF for stabilization of a UTLF with partial neurologic deficit, over a follow-up period of two years. Kyphotic angle (KA), anterior vertebral height percentage (AVHP) and cross-sectional ratio of the displaced fragment within the spinal canal were evaluated with simple radiographs and axial computed tomography scans preoperatively and two years postoperatively. The clinical outcome for pain was assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and Denis' scale, and the degree of neurologic deficit was measured by modified Frankel classification.
Five patients had minor complications. The KA, AVHP, and cross-sectional ratio of the displaced fragment improved significantly after surgery (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.003, respectively). Neurologic recovery of one or more for the Frankel grade was seen in 19 patients with an average improvement of 1.7. The VAS and Denis' score improved significantly at a two year follow-up (p=0.02, p=0.012, respectively).
The technique of PLSPF is useful for the treatment of UTLF with partial neurologic deficit, and produces decreased morbidity and fewer complications.
Spinal fracture; Fracture fixation, Internal
It has been well known that mesalazine can cause the interstitial lung disease, such as Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP), Non-Specific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP), or eosinophilic pneumonia. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), mesalazine, and sulfasalazine are important drugs for treating inflammatory bowel disease. Topical products of these limited systemic absorption and have less frequent side effects, therefore suppository form of these drugs have been used more than systemic drug. Most cases of measalzine-induced lung toxicity develop from systemic use of the drug. A 30-year-old woman had an interstitial lung disease after using mesalazine suppository because of ulcerative colitis. The lung biopsy demonstrated eosinophilic pneumonia combined with BOOP. She was recovered after stopping of mesalazine suppository and treatment with systemic steroid.
Eosinophilic pneumonia; Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia; Mesalazine; Suppository
Ozone is an environmentally reactive oxidant, and pycnogenol is a mixture of flavonoid compounds extracted from pine tree bark that have antioxidant activity. We investigated the effects of pycnogenol on reactive nitrogen species, antioxidant responses, and airway responsiveness in BALB/c mice exposed to ozone.
Antioxidant levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Nitric oxide (NO) metabolites in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from BALB/c mice in filtered air and 2 ppm ozone with pycnogenol pretreatment before ozone exposure (n = 6) were quantified colorimetrically using the Griess reaction.
Uric acid and ascorbic acid concentrations were significantly higher in BAL fluid following pretreatment with pycnogenol, whereas γ-tocopherol concentrations were higher in the ozone exposed group but were similar in the ozone and pycnogenol pretreatment groups. Retinol and γ-tocopherol concentrations tended to increase in the ozone exposure group but were similar in the ozone and pycnogenol pretreatment groups following ozone exposure. Malonylaldehyde concentrations increased in the ozone exposure group but were similar in the ozone and pycnogenol plus ozone groups. The nitrite and total NO metabolite concentrations in BAL fluid, which parallel the in vivo generation of NO in the airways, were significantly greater in the ozone exposed group than the group exposed to filtered air, but decreased with pycnogenol pretreatment.
Pycnogenol may increase levels of antioxidant enzymes and decrease levels of nitrogen species, suggesting that antioxidants minimize the effects of acute ozone exposure via a protective mechanism.
Antioxidants; Nitric oxide; Reactive nitrogen species; Ozone
The inhalation of silica particles induces silicosis, an inflammatory and fibrotic lung disease characterized by the early accumulation of macrophages and neutrophils in the airspace and subsequent appearance of silicotic nodules as a result of progressive fibrosis. This study evaluated whether apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) protects against ongoing fibrosis and promotes the resolution of established experimental lung silicosis. Crystallized silica was intratracheally administered to 6- to 8-week-old transgenic mice expressing human ApoA1 in their alveolar epithelial cells (day 0). ApoA1 was overexpressed beginning on day 7 (ApoA1_D7 group) or day 15 (ApoA1_D15 group). The mice were sacrificed on day 30 for an evaluation of lung histology; the measurement of collagen, transforming growth factor-b1 and lipoxin A4; and a TUNEL assay for apoptotic cells. The ApoA1_D7 and D15 groups showed significant reductions in the silica-induced increase in inflammatory cells, silicotic nodule area, and collagen deposition compared with the silica-treated ApoA1 non-overexpressing mice. The level of transforming growth factor-b1 decreased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, whereas lipoxin A4 was increased in the ApoA1_D7 and D15 groups compared with the silica-treated ApoA1 non-overexpressing mice. The silica-induced increase in the number of apoptotic cells was significantly reduced in the lungs of mice overexpressing ApoA1. Overexpression of ApoA1 decreased silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrotic nodule formation. The restoration of lipoxin A4 may contribute to the protective effect of ApoA1 overexpression against silica-induced lung fibrosis.
Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) results in a severe asthma attack after aspirin ingestion in asthmatics. The filamin A interacting protein 1 (FILIP1) may play a crucial role in AERD pathogenesis by mediating T cell activation and membrane rearrangement. We investigated the association of FILIP1 variations with AERD and the fall rate of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1).
A total of 34 common FILIP1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 592 Korean asthmatic subjects that included 163 AERD patients and 429 aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) controls.
This study found that 5 SNPs (P=0.006-0.01) and 2 haplotypes (P=0.01-0.03) of FILIP1 showed nominal signals; however, corrections for the multiple testing revealed no significant associations with the development of AERD (Pcorr>0.05). In addition, association analysis of the genetic variants with the fall rate of FEV1, an important diagnostic marker of AERD, revealed no significant evidence (Pcorr>0.05).
Although further replications and functional evaluations are needed, our preliminary findings suggest that genetic variants of FILIP1 might be not associated with the onset of AERD.
Filamin A interacting protein 1; single nucleotide polymorphism; haplotype; asthma; aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease
Cold urticaria; Cholinergic urticaria
A number of lentiviral vector systems have been developed for gene delivery and therapy by eliminating and/or modifying viral genetic elements. However, all lentiviral vector systems derived from HIV-1 must have a viral packaging signal sequence, Psi (Ψ), which is placed downstream of 5′ long terminal repeat in a transgene plasmid to effectively package and deliver transgene mRNA. In this study, we examined feasible regions or sequences around Psi that could be manipulated to further modify the packaging sequence. Surprisingly, we found that the sequences immediately upstream of the Psi are highly refractory to any modification and resulted in transgene vectors with very poor gene transduction efficiency. Analysis around the Psi region revealed that there are a few sites that can be used for manipulation of the Psi sequence without disturbing the virus production as well as the efficiency of transgene RNA packaging and gene transduction. By exploiting this new vector system, we investigated the requirement of each of four individual stem-loops of the Psi sequence by deletion mapping analysis and found that all stem-loops, including the SL4 region, are needed for efficient transgene RNA packaging and gene delivery. These results suggest a possible frame of the lentiviral vector that might be useful for further modifying the region/sequence around the packaging sequence as well as directly on the Psi sequence without destroying transduction efficiency.
Vitamin D can translocate a vitamin D receptor (VDR) from the nucleus to the cell membranes. The meaning of this translocation is not elucidated in terms of a role in pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) till now. VDR deficient mice are prone to develop emphysema, suggesting that abnormal function of VDR might influence a generation of COPD. The blood levels of vitamin D have known to be well correlated with that of lung function in patients with COPD, and smoking is the most important risk factor in development of COPD. This study was performed to investigate whether cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) can inhibit the translocation of VDR and whether mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in this inhibition.
Human alveolar basal epithelial cell line (A549) was used in this study. 1,25-(OH2)D3 and/or MAPKs inhibitors and antioxidants were pre-incubated before stimulation with 10% CSE, and then nucleus and microsomal proteins were extracted for a Western blot of VDR.
Five minutes treatment of 1,25-(OH2)D3 induced translocation of VDR from nucleus to microsomes by a dose-dependent manner. CSE inhibited 1,25-(OH2)D3-induced translocation of VDR in both concentrations of 10% and 20%. All MAPKs inhibitors did not suppress the inhibitory effects of CSE on the 1,25-(OH2)D3-induced translocation of VDR. Quercetin suppressed the inhibitory effects of CSE on the 1,25-(OH2)D3-induced translocation of VDR, but not in n-acetylcysteine.
CSE has an ability to inhibit vitamin D-induced VDR translocation, but MAPKs are not involved in this inhibition.
Vitamin D; Receptors, Calcitriol; Extracelular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; Antioxidants; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
A respiratory irritant, acrolein is generated by overheating cooking oils or by domestic cooking using biomass fuels, and is in tobacco smoke, an occupational health hazard in the restaurant workplace. To better understand the metabolic role of the lung and to generate insights into the pathogenesis of acrolein-induced acute lung injury, SM/J (sensitive) and 129×1/SvJ (resistant) inbred mouse strains were exposed and the lung metabolome was integrated with the transcriptome profile. A total of 280 small molecules were identified and mean values (log 2 >0.58 or <−0.58, .p<0.05) were considered different for between-strain comparisons or within-strain responses to acrolein treatment. At baseline, 24 small molecules increased and 33 small molecules decreased in the SM/J mouse lung as compared to 129×1/SvJ mouse lung. Notable among the increased compounds was malonyl carnitine. Following acrolein exposure, several compounds indicative of glycolysis and branched chain amino acid metabolism increased similarly in both strains, whereas SM/J mice were less effective in generating metabolites related to fatty acid β-oxidation. These findings suggest management of energetic stress varies between these strains, and that the ability to evoke auxiliary energy generating pathways rapidly and effectively may be critical in enhancing survival during acute lung injury in mice.
ARDS; Smoke Inhalation; Protein Folding; Mitochondrion; Beta-oxidation
Ozone; Ceil proliferation
Strategy, Management and Health PolicyVenture Capital Enabling TechnologyPreclinical ResearchPreclinical Development Toxicology, Formulation Drug Delivery, PharmacokineticsClinical Development Phases I-III Regulatory, Quality, ManufacturingPostmarketing Phase IV
The effects of structural modifications of adenine nucleotides previously shown to enhance either agonist (2-thioether groups) or antagonist (additional phosphate moieties at the 3′- or 2′-position) properties at P2Y1 receptors were examined at recombinant rat P2X1, P2X2, P2X3, and P2X4 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The potency of P2Y1 agonists HT-AMP (2-(hexylthio)adenosine-5′-monophosphate) and PAPET (2-[2-(4-aminophenyl)ethylthio]adenosine-5′-triphosphate) was examined at P2X receptors. Both nucleotides showed a preference for the Group I (α,β-meATP-sensitive, fast-inactivating) P2X sub-units. HT-AMP was 5-fold more potent than ATP at P2X3 receptors and a partial agonist at all except P2X2 receptors, at which it was a full agonist. The efficacy of HT-AMP was as low as 23% at P2X4 receptors. PAPET was a weak partial agonist at rat P2X4 receptors and a nearly full agonist at the other subtypes. At rat P2X3 receptors, PAPET was more potent than any other known agonist (EC50 = 17 ± 3 nM). MRS 2179 (N6-methyl-2′-deoxyadenosine 3′, 5-bisphosphate, a potent P2Y1 receptor antagonist) inhibited ATP-evoked responses at rat P2X1 receptors with an IC50 value of 1.15 ± 0.21 μM. MRS 2179 was a weak antagonist at rat P2X3 receptors, with an IC50 value of 12.9 ± 0.1 μM, and was inactive at rat P2X2 and P2X4 receptors. Thus, MRS 2179 was 11-fold and 130-fold selective for P2Y1 receptors vs. P2X1 and P2X3 receptors, respectively. MRS 2209, the corresponding 3′-deoxy-2′-phosphate isomer, was inactive at rat P2X1 receptors, thus demonstrating its greater selectivity as a P2Y1 receptor antagonist. Various adenine bisphosphates in the family of MRS 2179 containing modifications of either the adenine (P2Y1 antagonists with 2- and 6-substitutions), the phosphate (a 3′,5′-cyclic diphosphate, inactive at P2Y1 receptors), or the ribose moieties (antagonist carbocyclic analogue), were inactive at both rat P2X1 and P2X3 receptors. An anhydrohexitol derivative (MRS 2269) and an acyclic derivative (MRS 2286), proved to be selective antagonists at P2Y1 receptors, since they were inactive as agonist or antagonist at P2X1 and P2X3 receptors.
ion channel; oocytes; purines; ATP derivatives; bisphosphates; deoxyadenosine derivatives
Rationale: Because acute lung injury is a sporadic disease produced by heterogeneous precipitating factors, previous genetic analyses are mainly limited to candidate gene case-control studies.
Objectives: To develop a genome-wide strategy in which single nucleotide polymorphism associations are assessed for functional consequences to survival during acute lung injury in mice.
Methods: To identify genes associated with acute lung injury, 40 inbred strains were exposed to acrolein and haplotype association mapping, microarray, and DNA-protein binding were assessed.
Measurements and Main Results: The mean survival time varied among mouse strains with polar strains differing approximately 2.5-fold. Associations were identified on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 11, and 12. Seven genes (Acvr1, Cacnb4, Ccdc148, Galnt13, Rfwd2, Rpap2, and Tgfbr3) had single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations within the gene. Because SNP associations may encompass “blocks” of associated variants, functional assessment was performed in 91 genes within ± 1 Mbp of each SNP association. Using 10% or greater allelic frequency and 10% or greater phenotype explained as threshold criteria, 16 genes were assessed by microarray and reverse real-time polymerase chain reaction. Microarray revealed several enriched pathways including transforming growth factor-β signaling. Transcripts for Acvr1, Arhgap15, Cacybp, Rfwd2, and Tgfbr3 differed between the strains with exposure and contained SNPs that could eliminate putative transcriptional factor recognition sites. Ccdc148, Fancl, and Tnn had sequence differences that could produce an amino acid substitution. Mycn and Mgat4a had a promoter SNP or 3′untranslated region SNPs, respectively. Several genes were related and encoded receptors (ACVR1, TGFBR3), transcription factors (MYCN, possibly CCDC148), and ubiquitin-proteasome (RFWD2, FANCL, CACYBP) proteins that can modulate cell signaling. An Acvr1 SNP eliminated a putative ELK1 binding site and diminished DNA–protein binding.
Conclusions: Assessment of genetic associations can be strengthened using a genetic/genomic approach. This approach identified several candidate genes, including Acvr1, associated with increased susceptibility to acute lung injury in mice.
acute respiratory distress syndrome; smoke inhalation; carboxyl stress; transforming growth factor-&beta signaling; ubiquitination
Inhaled glucocorticosteroids are currently the most effective anti-inflammatory controller medications for treating persistent asthma. The efficacies of glucocorticoids include reducing asthma symptoms, reducing exacerbation frequency, improving quality of life, improving lung function, decreasing airway hyperresponsiveness, controlling airway inflammation, and reducing mortality. However, the treatment response to glucocorticosteroids in asthmatics varies, and certain subtypes of asthma, such as refractory asthma, respond poorly to high-dose inhaled glucocorticoid and systemic steroids. The medical costs of treating refractory asthmatics represent about 50% of the total healthcare cost for asthma. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms of glucocorticoid action, patient responses to glucocorticoids, and steroid resistance observed in refractory asthmatics is necessary for the targeted development of therapeutic drugs. This review discusses the characteristics of severe refractory asthmatics and the mechanisms of steroid response and resistance in asthma treatment.
Glucocorticoids; Drug resistance; Asthma
An integral membrane protein, Claudin 5 (CLDN5), is a critical component of endothelial tight junctions that control pericellular permeability. Breaching of endothelial barriers is a key event in the development of pulmonary edema during acute lung injury (ALI). A major irritant in smoke, acrolein can induce ALI possibly by altering CLDN5 expression. This study sought to determine the cell signaling mechanism controlling endothelial CLDN5 expression during ALI. To assess susceptibility, 12 mouse strains were exposed to acrolein (10 ppm, 24 h), and survival monitored. Histology, lavage protein, and CLDN5 transcripts were measured in the lung of the most sensitive and resistant strains. CLDN5 transcripts and phosphorylation status of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) and catenin (cadherin-associated protein) beta 1 (CTNNB1) proteins were determined in control and acrolein-treated human endothelial cells. Mean survival time (MST) varied more than 2-fold among strains with the susceptible (BALB/cByJ) and resistant (129X1/SvJ) strains (MST, 17.3 ± 1.9 h vs. 41.4 ± 5.1 h, respectively). Histological analysis revealed earlier perivascular enlargement in the BALB/cByJ than in 129X1/SvJ mouse lung. Lung CLDN5 transcript and protein increased more in the resistant strain than in the susceptible strain. In human endothelial cells, 30 nM acrolein increased CLDN5 transcripts and increased p-FOXO1 protein levels. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 diminished the acrolein-induced increased CLDN5 transcript. Acrolein (300 nM) decreased CLDN5 transcripts, which were accompanied by increased FOXO1 and CTNNB1. The phosphorylation status of these transcription factors was consistent with the observed CLDN5 alteration. Preservation of endothelial CLDN5 may be a novel clinical approach for ALI therapy.
ARDS; perivascular edema; vascular permeability; smoke inhalation; carboxyl stress
We conducted a pilot study of the infusion of intravenous autologous cord blood (CB) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) to assess the safety and feasibility of the procedure as well as its potential efficacy in countering neurological impairment.
Patients diagnosed with CP were enrolled in this study if their parents had elected to bank their CB at birth. Cryopreserved CB units were thawed and infused intravenously over 10~20 minutes. We assessed potential efficacy over 6 months by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and various evaluation tools for motor and cognitive functions.
Twenty patients received autologous CB infusion and were evaluated. The types of CP were as follows: 11 quadriplegics, 6 hemiplegics, and 3 diplegics. Infusion was generally well-tolerated, although 5 patients experienced temporary nausea, hemoglobinuria, or urticaria during intravenous infusion. Diverse neurological domains improved in 5 patients (25%) as assessed with developmental evaluation tools as well as by fractional anisotropy values in brain MRI-DTI. The neurologic improvement occurred significantly in patients with diplegia or hemiplegia rather than quadriplegia.
Autologous CB infusion is safe and feasible, and has yielded potential benefits in children with CP.
Cerebral palsy; Cord blood; Mononuclear cells; Cell therapy
This retrospective study evaluated the transplantation outcomes of patients with adult lymphoid malignancies who received chemotherapy-based conditioning with busulfan and fludarabine (BuFlu) and busulfan and cyclophosphamide (BuCy2).
Thirty-eight patients (34 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 4 with lymphoblastic lymphoma) were included in the current study. The conditioning regimen was BuCy2 for 14 patients and BuFlu for the remaining 24 patients. Eight and 13 patients were high risk disease in the BuCy2 and BuFlu groups, respectively.
The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 56.5% and 55.2% and that of extensive chronic GVHD 17.0% and 55.6% (p = 0.018) for the BuFlu and BuCy2 groups, respectively. The 3-year relapse rate was 27.8% and 31.4% and 3-year overall survival 34.3% and 46.8% for the BuFlu and BuCy2 groups, respectively. Treatment-related mortality (TRM) was significantly lower in the BuFlu group (16.9%) than in the BuCy2 group (57.1%, p = 0.010). In multivariate analyses, the BuFlu regimen was identified as an independent favorable risk factor for TRM (hazard ratio [HR], 0.036; p = 0.017) and extensive chronic GVHD (HR, 0.168; p = 0.034).
Our BuFlu regimen would appear to be an acceptable conditioning option for lymphoid malignancies, including high-risk diseases. It was safely administered with a lower TRM rate than BuCy2 conditioning.
Precursor cell lymphoblastic leukemia-lymphoma; Busulfan; Drug therapy; Fludarabine
Cough variant asthma (CVA) is one of the most common causes of chronic cough. It may have been thought to be as a pre-asthmatic condition. Some CVA patients show decreased lung function after diagnosed as a CVA. This study aimed to see differences of clinical characteristics between CVA with preserved FEV1 and CVA with reduced FEV1 after diagnosis of CVA.
We searched medical records from January 2007 to May 2011. Thousand six hundred sixty two patients were diagnosed as CVA. Among 1662 CVA patients, 284 patients were revisited to hospital with symptom of chest tightness.
Among 284, fifty two (18.3%) patients showed reduced FEV1. Mean interval between diagnosis of CVA and reducing of FEV1 was 305.5 days. There was no significant difference of level of PC20 or other pulmonary functional values between FEV1-reduced group and -preserved group.
Only small portion of CVA patients was transformed to asthma with reduced FEV1, and most of CVA still preserved their lung function.