A new optical trapping design to transport gold nanoparticles using a PANDA ring resonator system is proposed. Intense optical fields in the form of dark solitons controlled by Gaussian pulses are used to trap and transport nanoscopic volumes of matter to the desired destination via an optical waveguide. Theoretically, the gradient and scattering forces are responsible for this trapping phenomenon, where in practice such systems can be fabricated and a thin-film device formed on the specific artificial medical materials, for instance, an artificial bone. The dynamic behavior of the tweezers can be tuned by controlling the optical pulse input power and parameters of the ring resonator system. Different trap sizes can be generated to trap different gold nanoparticles sizes, which is useful for gold nanoparticle therapy. In this paper, we have shown the utility of gold nanoparticle trapping and delivery for therapy, which may be useful for cosmetic therapy and related applications.
gold nanoparticle trapping; particle trapping; therapy; transport
A novel nanomicro syringe system was proposed for drug storage and delivery using a PANDA ring resonator and atomic buffer. A PANDA ring is a modified optical add/drop filter, named after the well known Chinese bear. In principle, the molecule/drug is trapped by the force generated by different combinations of gradient fields and scattering photons within the PANDA ring. A nanomicro needle system can be formed by optical vortices in the liquid core waveguide which can be embedded on a chip, and can be used for long-term treatment. By using intense optical vortices, the required genes/molecules can be trapped and transported dynamically to the intended destinations via the nanomicro syringe, which is available for drug delivery to target tissues, in particular tumors. The advantage of the proposed system is that by confining the treatment area, the effect can be decreased. The use of different optical vortices for therapeutic efficiency is also discussed.
nanomicro syringe; nanomicro needle; molecular therapy; therapeutic efficiency; cancer
De Quervain disease is a mechanical tenosynovitis due to inadequacy volume between abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis and their tunnel. Treatment methods include immobilization, steroid injections, and operation. For the first time Fritz De Quervain described surgical treatment of this disease. Since then, various ways of treatment have been reported. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical outcomes of a longitudinal incision with a transverse incision in De Quervain disease.
This was a randomized controlled clinical trial conducted in three hospitals in Iran, Yazd from March 2003 to September 2008. One hundred-twenty patients with De Quervain disease who did not respond to conservative treatment were operated with two different incisions. The patients were followed for three months to compare the surgical outcomes.
During a three month follow-up, a significant difference was shown between the two methods (p=0.03). Results of surgical treatment with longitudinal incision were excellent (only 5 hypertrophic scars), but there were 13 postoperative complaints with transverse incision.
According to our findings, longitudinal incision in surgical treatment of De Quervain disease is better than transverse incision.
De Quervian disease; Longitudinal incision; Transverse incision; Surgical treatment
We propose a novel drug delivery system (DDS) by using a PANDA ring resonator to form, transmit and receive the microscopic volume by controlling some suitable ring parameters. The optical vortices (gradient optical field/well) can be generated and used to form the trapping tool in the same way as the optical tweezers. The microscopic volume (drug) can be trapped and moved (transported) dynamically within the wavelength router or network. In principle, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons, which has been reviewed. The advantage of the proposed system is that a transmitter and receiver can be formed within the same system, which is called transceiver, in which the use of such a system for microscopic volume (drug volume) trapping and transportation (delivery) can be realized.
(140.7010) Laser trapping; (350.4855) Optical tweezers or optical manipulation; (080.4865) Optical vortices; (140.4780) Optical resonators; (190.4360) Nonlinear optics, devices
Time-periodic perturbation can be used to modify the transport properties of the surface states of topological insulators, specifically their chiral tunneling property. Using the scattering matrix method, we study the tunneling transmission of the surface states of a topological insulator under the influence of a time-dependent potential and finite gate bias voltage. It is found that perfect transmission is obtained for electrons which are injected normally into the time-periodic potential region in the absence of any bias voltage. However, this signature of Klein tunneling is destroyed when a bias voltage is applied, with the transmission probability of normally incident electrons decreasing with increasing gate bias voltage. Likewise, the overall conductance of the system decreases significantly when a gate bias voltage is applied. The characteristic left-handed helicity of the transmitted spin polarization is also broken by the finite gate bias voltage. In addition, the time-dependent potential modifies the large-angle transmission profile, which exhibits an oscillatory or resonance-like behavior. Finally, time-dependent transport modes (with oscillating potential in the THz frequency) can result in enhanced overall conductance, irrespective of the presence or absence of the gate bias voltage.
Chikungunya is an arthropod-borne virus endemic to Africa, Southeast Asia and India that causes acute febrile polyarthralgia and arthritis. In this short case series, we discuss six Bangladeshi patients with chikungunya fever. Though Bangladesh is in endemic zone, it is not common here, hence it demands attention for proper diagnosis and management.
The six cases of chikungunya we report occurred in native Bangladeshi women with ages ranging from 20 to 50 years and all having a middle class family background. Three women had severe incapacitating arthralgia as well as a maculo-papular rash and a high fever. The other three had a high grade fever and arthralgia only, but no rash. They were tested for chikungunya immunoglobulin M antibody and found to be positive in all cases. They were treated symptomatically with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and found responsive in most cases.
From this case series, it is evident that chikungunya is not that uncommon in Bangladesh. But the concomitant presence of other arthropod-borne infections with similar courses of illness makes most physicians less aware of this infection. An awareness and clinical knowledge are necessary to diagnose chikungunya infection properly.
Chikungunya fever; Arthropod borne; Arthralgia; IgM antibody
The Glide Scope videolaryngoscope provides a suitable view for intubation, with less force required.
The present study was conducted, to compare postoperative sore throat and hoarseness after laryngoscopy and intubation, by Macintosh blade or Glide Scope video laryngoscope in normal airway patients.
Patients and Methods:
Three hundred patients were randomly allocated into two groups of 150: Macintosh blade laryngoscope or Glide Scope video laryngoscope. The patients were evaluated for 48 hours for sore throat and hoarseness by an interview.
The incidence and severity of sore throat in the Glide Scope group, at 6, 24 and 48 hours after the operation, were significantly lower than in the Macintosh laryngoscope group. In addition, the incidence of hoarseness in the Glide Scope group, at 6 and 24 hours after the operation, were significantly lower than in the Macintosh laryngoscope group. The incidence and severity of sore throat in men, at 6 and 24 hours after the operation, were significantly lower than in the women.
The incidence and severity of sore throat and hoarseness after tracheal intubation by Glide Scope were lower than in the Macintosh laryngoscope. The incidence and severity of sore throat were increased by intubation and longer operation times.
Hoarseness; Intubation; Laryngoscopy; Pharyngitis
Applying Prevention and Control of Infection (PCI) standards in hospitals reduces probable risks to patients, staff and visitors; it also increases efficiency, and ultimately improves productivity of hospitals.
The current study aimed to determine the status quo of international standards of PCI in hospitals located in the north of Iran.
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional study was conducted in 23 hospitals. Data collection tool was a questionnaire with confirmed validity and reliability. . In this regard, 260 managers, section supervisors and infection control nurses participated in the study according to census basis. SPSS software version 16 was employed to analyze the data through descriptive and analytical statistics.
Among the studied hospitals, 18 hospitals were public. Hospitals enjoyed 77.2% of leadership and programming, 80.8% of focus of programs, 67.4% of isolating methods, 88.2% of hand health and protection techniques, 78.8% of improving patient’s safety and quality, 90.3% of training personnel, and 78.7% of the average status quo of PCI standards.
This study revealed that PCI standards were significantly observed in the studied hospitals and that there were necessary conditions for full deployment of nosocomial infection surveillance.
Infection; Prevention; Hospital; Accreditation
In radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, performance degradation of phase locked loops (PLLs) mainly occurs due to high phase noise of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs). This paper proposes a low power, low phase noise ring-VCO developed for 2.42 GHz operated active RFID transponders compatible with IEEE 802.11 b/g, Bluetooth, and Zigbee protocols. For ease of integration and implementation of the module in tiny die area, a novel pseudodifferential delay cell based 3-stage ring oscillator has been introduced to fabricate the ring-VCO. In CMOS technology, 0.18 μm process is adopted for designing the circuit with 1.5 V power supply. The postlayout simulated results show that the proposed oscillator works in the tuning range of 0.5–2.54 GHz and dissipates 2.47 mW of power. It exhibits a phase noise of −126.62 dBc/Hz at 25 MHz offset from 2.42 GHz carrier frequency.
Mechanical torque limiting devices (MTLDs) are necessary tools to control a peak torque and achieving target values of screw component of dental implants. Due to probable effect of autoclaving and number of use on the accuracy of these devices, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of sterilization and number of use on the accuracy of friction-style mechanical torque limiting devices (F-S MTLDs) in achieving their target torque values.
Materials and Methods:
Peak torque measurements of 15 new F-S MTLDs from three different manufacturers (Astra Tech, BioHorizons, Dr. Idhe) were measured ten times before and after 100 steam sterilization using a digital torque gauge. To simulate the clinical situation of aging (number of use) target torque application process was repeated 10 times after each sterilization cycle and the peak torque values were registered. Comparison of the mean differences with target torque in each cycle was performed using one sample t test. Considering the type of MTLDs as inter subject comparison, One-way repeated measure ANOVA was used to evaluate the absolute values of differences between devices of each manufacturer in each group (α = 0.05).
The results of this study in Dr. Idhe group showed that, mean of difference values significantly differed from the target torque (P = 0.002) until 75 cycles. In Astra Tech group, also mean of difference values with under estimation trend, showed a significant difference with the target torque (P < 0.001). Mean of difference values significantly differed from the target torque with under estimation trend during all the 100 cycles in BioHorizons group (P < 0.05).
The torque output of each individual device stayed in 10% difference from target torque values before 100 sterilization cycles, but more than 10% difference from the target torque was seen in varying degrees during these consequent cycles.
Calibration; dental implants; equipment failure; torque
Preeclampsia is the most common serious disorder during pregnancy and studies show several immune-related processes in its pathophysiology. The role of cytokines and their expression remains controversial in this field. One of the cytokines of interest in recent studies has been TNF-α, which has been shown to have a higher level in maternal plasma of preeclamptic women.
This study was designed to evaluate the role of TNF-α polymorphism at position -238 in the risk of developing preeclampsia during pregnancy.
Patients and Methods:
One hundred fifty three preeclamptic cases and 140 healthy pregnant women were retrieved from two major hospitals of Mashhad, Iran. Methods a case-control study were designed. Anyone with a history of inflammatory disease, hypertension, or chronic kidney disease was excluded. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Both groups were genotyped for the polymorphism of the TNF-α gene at position -238 by the RFLP method with Ava II enzyme. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared using one-way ANOVA and the Fisher’s exact test.
There were significant differences between the two groups in TNF-α genotype at position -238 (P < 0.001). In the preeclamptic group, the frequency of the AA genotype was higher (P < 0.001) and the frequency of the GG genotype was lower (P < 0.001). The overall prevalence of the A allele at position -238 was higher in preeclamptic cases (P < 0.001).
In this study group, TNF-α -238 polymorphism was shown to be different in preeclamptic and non-preeclamptic pregnant women. The AA genotype and the A allele may carry an increased risk for developing of preeclampsia.
Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha; Pre-Eclampsia; Polymorphism, Genetic
Noise most frequently affects hearing system, as it may typically cause a bilateral, progressive sensorineural hearing loss at high frequencies.
This study was designed to compare three different methods to evaluate noise-induced hearing loss (conventional audiometry, high-frequency audiometry, and distortion product otoacoustic emission).
Material and Methods:
This was a cross-sectional study. Data was analyzed by SPSS (ver. 19) using chi square, T test and repeated measures analysis. Study samples were workers from tile and ceramic industry.
We found that conventional audiometry, extended high-frequency audiometry, low-tone distortion product otoacoustic emission and high-tone distortion product otoacoustic emission had abnormal findings in 29 %, 69 %, 22 %, and 52 % of participants. Most frequently affected frequencies were 4000 and 6000Hz in conventional audiometry, and 14000 and 16000 in extended high-frequency audiometry.
Extended high-frequency audiometry was the most sensitive test for detection of hearing loss in workers exposed to hazardous noise compared with conventional audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic.
Audiometry; Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous; Hearing Loss; Noise
This study was carried out to investigate the fit between university student's anthropometry and classroom furniture dimensions.
Method: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analyzing study conducted in 2012, a
total of 194 students (aged 18 through 30 years), were recruited randomly from Tabriz University of Medical Science community.
The body size of each student was assessed using anthropometric measurements including shoulder height, elbow height, popliteal
height, buttock-popliteal length, hip breadth and distance between elbows. Combinational equations defined the acceptable furniture
dimensions according to anthropometry and match percentages were computed, according to either the existing situations assuming that
they could use the most appropriate of the sizes available.
Results: Desk and seat height were higher than the accepted limits for most
students (92.5% and 98.4%, respectively), while seat depth was appropriate for only 84.6% of students. The data indicate a mismatch
between the students’ bodily dimensions and the classroom furniture available to them. The chairs are too high and too deep and desks
are also too high for the pupils. This situation may have negative effects on the sitting posture of the students especially when
reading and writing.
Conclusion: High mismatch percentages were found between furniture and students' anthropometry. The results
confirm that furniture for university students should be selected and designed busied on their anthropometric dimensions.
Body dimensions; Furniture; Anthropometry; Ergonomics
Introduction. Noise as a common physical hazard may lead to noise-induced hearing loss, an irreversible but preventable disorder. Annual audiometric evaluations help detect changes in hearing status before clinically significant hearing loss develops. This study was designed to track hearing threshold changes during 2-year follow-up among tile and ceramic workers. Methods. This follow-up study was conducted on 555 workers (totally 1110 ears). Subjects were divided into four groups according to the level of noise exposure. Hearing threshold in conventional audiometric frequencies was measured and standard threshold shift was calculated for each ear. Results. Hearing threshold was increased during 2 years of follow-up. Increased hearing threshold was most frequently observed at 4000, 6000, and 3000 Hz. Standard threshold shift was observed in 13 (2.34%), 49 (8.83%), 22 (3.96%), and 63 (11.35%) subjects in the first and second years of follow-up in the right and left ears, respectively. Conclusions. This study has documented a high incidence of noise-induced hearing loss in tile and ceramic workers that would put stress on the importance of using hearing protection devices.
Common infectious diseases, such as diarrhea, are still the major cause of death in children under 5-years-old, particularly in developing countries. It is known that there is a close relationship between nutrition and immune function. To evaluate the effect of a growing-up milk containing synbiotics on immune function and child growth, we conducted a cluster randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial in children between 18 and 36 months of age in Vietnam. Eligible children from eight and seven kindergartens were randomly assigned to receive test and isocaloric/ isoproteic control milk, respectively, for 5 months. We found that the blood immunoglobulin A (IgA) level and growth parameters were increased in the test group. Compared to the control group, there was also a trend of decreased vitamin A deficiency and fewer adverse events in the test group. These data suggest that a growing-up milk containing synbiotics may be useful in supporting immune function and promoting growth in children.
synbiotics; growing-up milk; immune function; nutrition status; growth
Cystic malignant pheochromocytomas are uncommon. Differing from solid pheochromocytomas, which produce catecholamines and present adrenergic syndrome, cystic pheochromocytomas, may not produce these. Preoperative diagnosis may be difficult. Ct scan is useful for preoperative management. In this report, we describe a case of a giant malignant cystic pheochromocytoma in a young woman (17 years old) which presented as giant abdominal mass. The malignancy was confirmed by the presence of liver metastasis. Two years after curative resection, the patient is in good health with no recurrence.
Neuroendocrine tumors; Malignant Pheochromocytoma; Adrenalectomy; Chemotherapy
Megakaryocyte is the naturally polyploid cell that gives rise to platelets. Polyploidization occurs by endomitosis, a process corresponding to a late failure of cytokinesis with a backward movement of the daughter cells. Generally, a pure defect in cytokinesis produces a multinucleated cell, but megakaryocytes are characterized by a single polylobulated nucleus with a 2N ploidy. Here, we show the existence of a defect in karyokinesis during the endomitotic process. From late telophase until the reversal of cytokinesis, some dipolar mitosis/endomitosis and most multipolar endomitosis present a thin DNA link between the segregated chromosomes surrounded by an incomplete nuclear membrane formation, which implies that sister chromatid separation is not complete. This observation may explain why polyploid megakaryocytes display a single polylobulated nucleus along with an increase in ploidy.
megakaryocyte; endomitosis; polyploidy; karyokinesis; cytokinesis
To determine the bionomics and susceptibility status of the malarial vector Anopheles superpictus (An. superpictus) to different insecticides in the Sistan-Baluchestan province which has the highest malarial prevalence in Iran.
Different sampling methods, in addition to scoring abdominal conditions, were used to define the seasonal activity and endo/exophilic behavior of this species. In addition, the standard WHO susceptibility tests were applied on adult field strains.
Most adult mosquitoes were collected from outdoor shelters. The peak of seasonal activity of An. superpictus occurred at the end of autumn. Most larvae were collected from natural and permanent breeding places with full sunlight and no vegetation. Blood feeding activities occurred around midnight. Compared with the abdominal conditions of adult mosquitoes collected indoors, the abdominal conditions of adult mosquitoes collected outdoors were gravid and semigravid. This species was suspected to be resistant to DDT, but was susceptible to other insecticides.
An. superpictus was present in almost all outdoor shelters, and the ratios of gravid, semigravid/unfed, and freshly fed confirmed that this species had a higher tendency to rest outdoors than indoors. This behavior can protect An. superpictus from indoor residual spraying in this malarious area. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the susceptibility status of An. superpictus in Southeastern Iran. We do not suggest the use of DDT for indoor residual spraying in southeast Iran.
Anopheles superpictus; Malaria; Iran
Objective(s): Bacterial infection contributes substantially to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is difficult because clinical signs are non-specific. We have evaluated serum IL-6, 8 and 10 as potential early diagnostic markers of neonatal infection and their relationship to mortality rate and poor prognosis.
Materials and Methods
: A total of 84 infants, aged ≥ 72 hr were enrolled in this prospective case-control trial. The case group (n=41) included babies with clinical and laboratory findings compatible with sepsis and/or positive blood or cerebrospinal fluid cultures. The control group (n=43) included healthy infants. IL-6, 8 and 10 were measured for all infants. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used for the determination of thresholds.
: Statistically significant differences were observed between control and case groups for serum median level of IL-6, 8 and 10 (P<0.001). IL-6 cut-off values of 10.85 Pg/ml for discriminating between cases and controls and 78.2 Pg/ml for predicting mortality are suggested. IL-8 at a cut-off value of 60.05 Pg/ml was valuable for differentiation of definite versus indefinite infection.
: Evaluating the IL-6, 8 and 10 simultaneously, could improve the sensitivity and specificity of early diagnosis of the neonatal sepsis. Regarding our results, interleukin 6 had the greatest value for predicting infection and possible mortality, whereas IL-8 was valuable for diagnosing definitive infection.
Infection; Interleukin-6; Interleukin-8; Interleukin-10; Newborn; Sepsis
Background. Several remedial modalities for the treatment of tinnitus have been proposed, but an effective standard treatment is still to be confirmed. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy on tinnitus accompanied by noise-induced hearing loss. Methods. This was a double-blind randomized clinical trial on subjects suffering from tinnitus accompanied by noise-induced hearing loss. The study intervention was 20 sessions of low-level laser therapy every other day, 20 minutes each session. Tinnitus was assessed by three methods (visual analog scale, tinnitus handicap inventory, and tinnitus loudness) at baseline, immediately and 3 months after the intervention. Results. All subjects were male workers with age range of 30–51 years. The mean tinnitus duration was 1.85 ± 0.78 years. All three measurement methods have shown improved values after laser therapy compared with the placebo both immediately and 3 months after treatment. Laser therapy revealed a U-shaped efficacy throughout the course of follow-up. Nonresponse rate of the intervention was 57% and 70% in the two assessment time points, respectively. Conclusion. This study found low-level laser therapy to be effective in alleviating tinnitus in patients with noise-induced hearing loss, although this effect has faded after 3 months of follow-up. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand clinical trials registry with identifier ACTRN12612000455864).
A significant barrier to effective immune clearance of cancer is loss of antitumor cytotoxic T cell activity. Antibodies to block pro-apoptotic/downmodulatory signals to T cells are currently being tested. Because invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT) can regulate the balance of Th1/Th2 cellular immune responses, we characterized the frequencies of circulating iNKT cell subsets in 21 patients with melanoma who received the anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody tremelimumab alone and 8 patients who received the antibody in combination with MART-126–35 peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (MART-1/DC). Blood T cell phenotypes and functionality were characterized by flow cytometry before and after treatment. iNKT cells exhibited the central memory phenotype and showed polyfunctional cytokine production. In the combination treatment group, high frequencies of pro-inflammatory Th1 iNKT CD8+ cells correlated with positive clinical responses. These results indicate that iNKT cells play a critical role in regulating effective antitumor T cell activity.
Pap cytology is known to be more specific but less sensitive than testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections, can provide high sensitivity for CIN2+ in screening while maintaining high specificity. Results were compared with Pap cytology and HPV testing.
A total of 27349 women 18 years or older attending routine cervical cancer screening were prospectively enrolled in five European countries. Pap cytology, p16/Ki-67 immunostaining, and HPV testing were performed on all women. Positive test results triggered colposcopy referral, except for women younger than 30 years with only positive HPV test results. Presence of CIN2+ on adjudicated histology was used as the reference standard. Two-sided bias-corrected McNemar P values were determined.
The p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology positivity rates were comparable with the prevalence of abnormal Pap cytology results and less than 50% of the positivity rates observed for HPV testing. In women of all ages, dual-stained cytology was more sensitive than Pap cytology (86.7% vs 68.5%; P < .001) for detecting CIN2+, with comparable specificity (95.2% vs 95.4%; P = .15). The relative performance of the tests was similar in both groups of women: younger than age 30 and 30 years or older. HPV testing in women 30 years or older was more sensitive than dual-stained cytology (93.3% vs 84.7%; P = .03) but less specific (93.0% vs 96.2%; P < .001).
The p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology combines superior sensitivity and noninferior specificity over Pap cytology for detecting CIN2+. It suggests a potential role of dual-stained cytology in screening, especially in younger women where HPV testing has its limitations.
Liposarcomas are common soft tissue of the retroperitoneum and the limbs. They are rarely found in the greater omentum. Once in the peritoneum, these can become enormous and can be mistaken for ovarian mass. The authors report a case of giant omental liposarcoma revealed by an abdominal mass and genital prolapse due to the compression syndrome. A complete macroscopic resection of the omental tumour was performed. A post operative chemotherapy was also prescribed. A description of this clinical presentation in the preoperative assessment, the characteristics of this tumour, together with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy are discussed in this report.
Liposarcoma; Great omentum; Surgery; Chemotherapy
Complex regional pain syndrome secondary to brachial plexus injury is often severe, debilitating and difficult to manage. Percuteneous radiofrequency sympathectomy is a relatively new technique, which has shown promising results in various chronic pain disorders. We present four consecutive patients with complex regional pain syndrome secondary to brachial plexus injury for more than 6 months duration, who had undergone percutaneous T2 and T3 radiofrequency sympathectomy after a diagnostic block. All four patients experienced minimal pain relief with conservative treatment and stellate ganglion blockade. An acceptable 6 month pain relief was achieved in all 4 patients where pain score remained less than 50% than that of initial score and all oral analgesics were able to be tapered down. There were no complications attributed to this procedure were reported. From this case series, percutaneous T2 and T3 radiofrequency sympathectomy might play a significant role in multi-modal approach of CRPS management.
brachial plexus neuropathies; CRPS; radiofrequency; sympathectomy; thoracic