A new optical trapping design to transport gold nanoparticles using a PANDA ring resonator system is proposed. Intense optical fields in the form of dark solitons controlled by Gaussian pulses are used to trap and transport nanoscopic volumes of matter to the desired destination via an optical waveguide. Theoretically, the gradient and scattering forces are responsible for this trapping phenomenon, where in practice such systems can be fabricated and a thin-film device formed on the specific artificial medical materials, for instance, an artificial bone. The dynamic behavior of the tweezers can be tuned by controlling the optical pulse input power and parameters of the ring resonator system. Different trap sizes can be generated to trap different gold nanoparticles sizes, which is useful for gold nanoparticle therapy. In this paper, we have shown the utility of gold nanoparticle trapping and delivery for therapy, which may be useful for cosmetic therapy and related applications.
gold nanoparticle trapping; particle trapping; therapy; transport
A novel nanomicro syringe system was proposed for drug storage and delivery using a PANDA ring resonator and atomic buffer. A PANDA ring is a modified optical add/drop filter, named after the well known Chinese bear. In principle, the molecule/drug is trapped by the force generated by different combinations of gradient fields and scattering photons within the PANDA ring. A nanomicro needle system can be formed by optical vortices in the liquid core waveguide which can be embedded on a chip, and can be used for long-term treatment. By using intense optical vortices, the required genes/molecules can be trapped and transported dynamically to the intended destinations via the nanomicro syringe, which is available for drug delivery to target tissues, in particular tumors. The advantage of the proposed system is that by confining the treatment area, the effect can be decreased. The use of different optical vortices for therapeutic efficiency is also discussed.
nanomicro syringe; nanomicro needle; molecular therapy; therapeutic efficiency; cancer
De Quervain disease is a mechanical tenosynovitis due to inadequacy volume between abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis and their tunnel. Treatment methods include immobilization, steroid injections, and operation. For the first time Fritz De Quervain described surgical treatment of this disease. Since then, various ways of treatment have been reported. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical outcomes of a longitudinal incision with a transverse incision in De Quervain disease.
This was a randomized controlled clinical trial conducted in three hospitals in Iran, Yazd from March 2003 to September 2008. One hundred-twenty patients with De Quervain disease who did not respond to conservative treatment were operated with two different incisions. The patients were followed for three months to compare the surgical outcomes.
During a three month follow-up, a significant difference was shown between the two methods (p=0.03). Results of surgical treatment with longitudinal incision were excellent (only 5 hypertrophic scars), but there were 13 postoperative complaints with transverse incision.
According to our findings, longitudinal incision in surgical treatment of De Quervain disease is better than transverse incision.
De Quervian disease; Longitudinal incision; Transverse incision; Surgical treatment
We propose a novel drug delivery system (DDS) by using a PANDA ring resonator to form, transmit and receive the microscopic volume by controlling some suitable ring parameters. The optical vortices (gradient optical field/well) can be generated and used to form the trapping tool in the same way as the optical tweezers. The microscopic volume (drug) can be trapped and moved (transported) dynamically within the wavelength router or network. In principle, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons, which has been reviewed. The advantage of the proposed system is that a transmitter and receiver can be formed within the same system, which is called transceiver, in which the use of such a system for microscopic volume (drug volume) trapping and transportation (delivery) can be realized.
(140.7010) Laser trapping; (350.4855) Optical tweezers or optical manipulation; (080.4865) Optical vortices; (140.4780) Optical resonators; (190.4360) Nonlinear optics, devices
Cystic malignant pheochromocytomas are uncommon. Differing from solid pheochromocytomas, which produce catecholamines and present adrenergic syndrome, cystic pheochromocytomas, may not produce these. Preoperative diagnosis may be difficult. Ct scan is useful for preoperative management. In this report, we describe a case of a giant malignant cystic pheochromocytoma in a young woman (17 years old) which presented as giant abdominal mass. The malignancy was confirmed by the presence of liver metastasis. Two years after curative resection, the patient is in good health with no recurrence.
Neuroendocrine tumors; Malignant Pheochromocytoma; Adrenalectomy; Chemotherapy
Megakaryocyte is the naturally polyploid cell that gives rise to platelets. Polyploidization occurs by endomitosis, a process corresponding to a late failure of cytokinesis with a backward movement of the daughter cells. Generally, a pure defect in cytokinesis produces a multinucleated cell, but megakaryocytes are characterized by a single polylobulated nucleus with a 2N ploidy. Here, we show the existence of a defect in karyokinesis during the endomitotic process. From late telophase until the reversal of cytokinesis, some dipolar mitosis/endomitosis and most multipolar endomitosis present a thin DNA link between the segregated chromosomes surrounded by an incomplete nuclear membrane formation, which implies that sister chromatid separation is not complete. This observation may explain why polyploid megakaryocytes display a single polylobulated nucleus along with an increase in ploidy.
megakaryocyte; endomitosis; polyploidy; karyokinesis; cytokinesis
To determine the bionomics and susceptibility status of the malarial vector Anopheles superpictus (An. superpictus) to different insecticides in the Sistan-Baluchestan province which has the highest malarial prevalence in Iran.
Different sampling methods, in addition to scoring abdominal conditions, were used to define the seasonal activity and endo/exophilic behavior of this species. In addition, the standard WHO susceptibility tests were applied on adult field strains.
Most adult mosquitoes were collected from outdoor shelters. The peak of seasonal activity of An. superpictus occurred at the end of autumn. Most larvae were collected from natural and permanent breeding places with full sunlight and no vegetation. Blood feeding activities occurred around midnight. Compared with the abdominal conditions of adult mosquitoes collected indoors, the abdominal conditions of adult mosquitoes collected outdoors were gravid and semigravid. This species was suspected to be resistant to DDT, but was susceptible to other insecticides.
An. superpictus was present in almost all outdoor shelters, and the ratios of gravid, semigravid/unfed, and freshly fed confirmed that this species had a higher tendency to rest outdoors than indoors. This behavior can protect An. superpictus from indoor residual spraying in this malarious area. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the susceptibility status of An. superpictus in Southeastern Iran. We do not suggest the use of DDT for indoor residual spraying in southeast Iran.
Anopheles superpictus; Malaria; Iran
Background. Several remedial modalities for the treatment of tinnitus have been proposed, but an effective standard treatment is still to be confirmed. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy on tinnitus accompanied by noise-induced hearing loss. Methods. This was a double-blind randomized clinical trial on subjects suffering from tinnitus accompanied by noise-induced hearing loss. The study intervention was 20 sessions of low-level laser therapy every other day, 20 minutes each session. Tinnitus was assessed by three methods (visual analog scale, tinnitus handicap inventory, and tinnitus loudness) at baseline, immediately and 3 months after the intervention. Results. All subjects were male workers with age range of 30–51 years. The mean tinnitus duration was 1.85 ± 0.78 years. All three measurement methods have shown improved values after laser therapy compared with the placebo both immediately and 3 months after treatment. Laser therapy revealed a U-shaped efficacy throughout the course of follow-up. Nonresponse rate of the intervention was 57% and 70% in the two assessment time points, respectively. Conclusion. This study found low-level laser therapy to be effective in alleviating tinnitus in patients with noise-induced hearing loss, although this effect has faded after 3 months of follow-up. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand clinical trials registry with identifier ACTRN12612000455864).
A significant barrier to effective immune clearance of cancer is loss of antitumor cytotoxic T cell activity. Antibodies to block pro-apoptotic/downmodulatory signals to T cells are currently being tested. Because invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT) can regulate the balance of Th1/Th2 cellular immune responses, we characterized the frequencies of circulating iNKT cell subsets in 21 patients with melanoma who received the anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody tremelimumab alone and 8 patients who received the antibody in combination with MART-126–35 peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (MART-1/DC). Blood T cell phenotypes and functionality were characterized by flow cytometry before and after treatment. iNKT cells exhibited the central memory phenotype and showed polyfunctional cytokine production. In the combination treatment group, high frequencies of pro-inflammatory Th1 iNKT CD8+ cells correlated with positive clinical responses. These results indicate that iNKT cells play a critical role in regulating effective antitumor T cell activity.
Pap cytology is known to be more specific but less sensitive than testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections, can provide high sensitivity for CIN2+ in screening while maintaining high specificity. Results were compared with Pap cytology and HPV testing.
A total of 27349 women 18 years or older attending routine cervical cancer screening were prospectively enrolled in five European countries. Pap cytology, p16/Ki-67 immunostaining, and HPV testing were performed on all women. Positive test results triggered colposcopy referral, except for women younger than 30 years with only positive HPV test results. Presence of CIN2+ on adjudicated histology was used as the reference standard. Two-sided bias-corrected McNemar P values were determined.
The p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology positivity rates were comparable with the prevalence of abnormal Pap cytology results and less than 50% of the positivity rates observed for HPV testing. In women of all ages, dual-stained cytology was more sensitive than Pap cytology (86.7% vs 68.5%; P < .001) for detecting CIN2+, with comparable specificity (95.2% vs 95.4%; P = .15). The relative performance of the tests was similar in both groups of women: younger than age 30 and 30 years or older. HPV testing in women 30 years or older was more sensitive than dual-stained cytology (93.3% vs 84.7%; P = .03) but less specific (93.0% vs 96.2%; P < .001).
The p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology combines superior sensitivity and noninferior specificity over Pap cytology for detecting CIN2+. It suggests a potential role of dual-stained cytology in screening, especially in younger women where HPV testing has its limitations.
Liposarcomas are common soft tissue of the retroperitoneum and the limbs. They are rarely found in the greater omentum. Once in the peritoneum, these can become enormous and can be mistaken for ovarian mass. The authors report a case of giant omental liposarcoma revealed by an abdominal mass and genital prolapse due to the compression syndrome. A complete macroscopic resection of the omental tumour was performed. A post operative chemotherapy was also prescribed. A description of this clinical presentation in the preoperative assessment, the characteristics of this tumour, together with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy are discussed in this report.
Liposarcoma; Great omentum; Surgery; Chemotherapy
Complex regional pain syndrome secondary to brachial plexus injury is often severe, debilitating and difficult to manage. Percuteneous radiofrequency sympathectomy is a relatively new technique, which has shown promising results in various chronic pain disorders. We present four consecutive patients with complex regional pain syndrome secondary to brachial plexus injury for more than 6 months duration, who had undergone percutaneous T2 and T3 radiofrequency sympathectomy after a diagnostic block. All four patients experienced minimal pain relief with conservative treatment and stellate ganglion blockade. An acceptable 6 month pain relief was achieved in all 4 patients where pain score remained less than 50% than that of initial score and all oral analgesics were able to be tapered down. There were no complications attributed to this procedure were reported. From this case series, percutaneous T2 and T3 radiofrequency sympathectomy might play a significant role in multi-modal approach of CRPS management.
brachial plexus neuropathies; CRPS; radiofrequency; sympathectomy; thoracic
This study aimed to assess the combined effect of dismantling before sterilization and aging on the accuracy (±10% of the target torque) of spring-style mechanical torque devices (S-S MTDs).
Twenty new S-SMTDs from two different manufacturers (Nobel Biocare and Straumann: 10 of each type) were selected and divided into two groups, namely, case (group A) and control (group B). For sterilization, 100 cycles of autoclaving were performed in 100 sequences. In each sequence, 10 repetitions of peak torque values were registered for aging. To measure and assess the output of each device, a Tohnichi torque gauge was used (P<0.05).
Before steam sterilization, all of the tested devices stayed within 10% of their target values. After 100 cycles of steam sterilization and aging with or without dismantling of the devices, the Nobel Biocare devices stayed within 10% of their target torque. In the Straumann devices, despite the significant difference between the peak torque and target torque values, the absolute error values stayed within 10% of their target torque.
Within the limitations of this study, there was no significant difference between the mean and absolute value of error between Nobel Biocare and Straumann S-S MTDs.
Dental implants; Safety; Sterilization; Torque
This randomized trial was undertaken to investigate the effect of experimentally induced allergy on orthodontic induced root resorption.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 30 Wistar rats were divided randomly into test and control groups. Starting from the first 3 days, the rats in the test group were injected intra-peritoneally by 2 mg ovalbumin as allergen and 0.5 mg Alume as adjuvant. Afterward only allergen was injected once a week. The control group was injected by normal saline. After 21 days, Wistar immunoglobulin E was measured and peripheral matured eosinophil was counted. A total of 50 g nickel-titanium closed coil spring was ligated between right incisor and first molar. All animals were sacrificed after 14 days. The mesial root of the right and left first molar was dissected in a horizontal plane. The specimens were divided into four groups considering whether force and/or ovalbumin was applied or not. Root resorption was measured and compared among these groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Bonferoni tests were used to analyze the data. The level of significance was determined at 0.05.
In general, the differences were insignificant (P < 0.05). As the only exception, the group in which both ovalbumin and force were applied had significantly more root resorption than the group in which neither force nor ovalbumin was applied (P > 0.001).
Allergy may increase the susceptibility to root resorption. Application of light force, periodical monitoring of root resorption and control of allergy are advisable.
Allergy; orthodontic tooth movement; ovalbumin; rat; root resorption
Objective(s): More than 1500 registered mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene are responsible for dysfunction of an ion channel protein and a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This study was performed to investigate the frequency of a number of well-known CFTR mutations in North Eastern Iranian CF patients.
Material and Methods: A total number of 56 documented CF patients participated in this study. Peripheral blood was obtained and DNA extraction was done by the use of routin methods. Three steps were taken for determining the target mutations: ARMS-PCR was performed for common CFTR mutations based on previous reports in Iran and neighboring countries. PCR-RFLP was done for detection of R344W and R347P, and PCR-Sequencing was performed for exon 11 in patients with unidentified mutation throughout previous steps. Samples which remained still unknown for a CFTR mutation were sequenced for exon 12.
Results: Among 112 alleles, 24 mutated alleles (21.42%) were detected: ΔF508 (10.71%), 1677delTA (3.57%), S466X (3.57%), N1303K (0.89%), G542X (0.89%), R344W (0.89%), L467F (0.89%). Eight out of 56 individuals analyzed, were confirmed as homozygous and eight samples showed heterozygous status. No mutations were detected in exon 12 of sequenced samples.
Conclusion: Current findings suggest a selected package of CFTR mutations for prenatal, neonatal and carrier screening along with diagnosis and genetic counseling programs in CF patients of Khorasan.
CFTR; Cystic Fibrosis; Mutation; Sequencing; PCR
Individuals with lower limb amputation need a secure suspension system for their prosthetic devices. A new coupling system was developed that is capable of suspending the prosthesis. The system's safety is ensured through an acoustic alarm system. This article explains how the system works and provides an in vivo evaluation of the device with regard to pistoning during walking. The system was designed to be used with silicone liners and is based on the requirements of prosthetic suspension systems. Mechanical testing was performed using a universal testing machine. The pistoning during walking was measured using a motion analysis system. The new coupling device produced significantly less pistoning compared to a common suspension system (pin/lock). The safety alarm system would buzz if the suspension was going to fail. The new coupling system could securely suspend the prostheses in transtibial amputees and produced less vertical movement than the pin/lock system.
Secondary adaptation to aquatic life occurred independently in several amniote lineages, including reptiles during the Mesozoic and mammals during the Cenozoic. These evolutionary shifts to aquatic environments imply major morphological modifications, especially of the feeding apparatus. Mesozoic (250–65 Myr) marine reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, mosasaurid squamates, crocodiles, and turtles, exhibit a wide range of adaptations to aquatic feeding and a broad overlap of their tooth morphospaces with those of Cenozoic marine mammals. However, despite these multiple feeding behavior convergences, suction feeding, though being a common feeding strategy in aquatic vertebrates and in marine mammals in particular, has been extremely rarely reported for Mesozoic marine reptiles.
A relative of fossil protostegid and dermochelyoid sea turtles, Ocepechelon bouyai gen. et sp. nov. is a new giant chelonioid from the Late Maastrichtian (67 Myr) of Morocco exhibiting remarkable adaptations to marine life (among others, very dorsally and posteriorly located nostrils). The 70-cm-long skull of Ocepechelon not only makes it one of the largest marine turtles ever described, but also deviates significantly from typical turtle cranial morphology. It shares unique convergences with both syngnathid fishes (unique long tubular bony snout ending in a rounded and anteriorly directed mouth) and beaked whales (large size and elongated edentulous jaws). This striking anatomy suggests extreme adaptation for suction feeding unmatched among known turtles.
The feeding apparatus of Ocepechelon, a bony pipette-like snout, is unique among tetrapods. This new taxon exemplifies the successful systematic and ecological diversification of chelonioid turtles during the Late Cretaceous. This new evidence for a unique trophic specialization in turtles, along with the abundant marine vertebrate faunas associated to Ocepechelon in the Late Maastrichtian phosphatic beds of Morocco, further supports the hypothesis that marine life was, at least locally, very diversified just prior to the Cretaceous/Palaeogene (K/Pg) biotic crisis.
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy of women worldwide. Radiotherapy consists of a vital element in the treatment of breast cancer but relative side effects and different radioactive responses are limiting factors for a successful treatment. Doxorubicin has been used to treat cancers for over 30 years and is considered as the most effective drug in the treatment of breast cancer. There are also many chronic side effects that limit the amount of doxorubicin that can be administered. The combined radio-drug treatment, with low doses, can be an approach for reducing side effects from single modality treatments instead of suitable cure rates.
We have studied the effect of 1, 1.5, and 2 Gy doses of 9 MV X-rays along with 1 µM doxorubicin on inducing cell death, apoptosis and also p53 and PTEN gene expression in T47D and SKBR3 breast cancer cells.
Doxorubicin treatment resulted in upregulation of radiation-induced levels of p53 and downregulation of PTEN at 1 and 1.5 Gy in T47D breast cancer cells, as well as downregulation of p53 mRNA level of expression and upregulation of PTEN mRNA level of expression in SKBR3 breast cancer cell line. In addition, doxorubicin in combination with radiation decreased the viability of breast cancer cell lines in the both cell lines.
Low doses of doxorubicin, with least cell toxicity, may be an effective treatment for breast cancer when used in conjunction with ionizing radiation.
Breast neoplasms; Cell line; Combined modality therapy; Doxorubicin; Ionizing radiation
Occupational burns are among the important causes of work-related fatalities and absenteeism. Epidemiologic assessment of these injuries is important to define high-risk jobs. We designed this study to evaluate the epidemiology of occupational burns in Yazd, an industrial province in Iran.
This is a prospective study on work-related burns in a 1-year period (2008-2009). A questionnaire was completed for them about the characteristics of the burn injury.
Three Hundred and Thirty Eight patients with occupational burns were identified. Their mean age was 29.64 years. Most burn victims were male workers in the metal industry. The most common job was smelting. Most burns were happened in the morning. Thermal burns were observed more than chemical and electrical burns. Mean total body surface area burned was 6.5%. The most common cause of burn was hot fluid, followed by hot object and flame. There was no any significant relationship between burn type, and burn degree or burned body surface.
The highest incidence of occupational burns was in 21-30 year-old workers. There was a male preponderance in work-related burns. Metal industry had the most injured workers and among them, smelters were more frequently injured.
Epidemiology; metal industry; occupational burn; thermal burn
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases affecting about 1% of western populations. New eating behaviors might contribute to the global emergence of IBD. Although the immunoregulatory effects of omega-3 fatty acids have been well characterized in vitro, their role in IBD is controversial.
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of increased fish oil intake on colonic gene expression, eicosanoid metabolism and development of colitis in a mouse model of IBD. Rag-2 deficient mice were fed fish oil (FO) enriched in omega-3 fatty acids i.e. EPA and DHA or control diet for 4 weeks before colitis induction by adoptive transfer of naïve T cells and maintained in the same diet for 4 additional weeks. Onset of colitis was monitored by colonoscopy and further confirmed by immunological examinations. Whole genome expression profiling was made and eicosanoids were measured by HPLC-MS/MS in colonic samples.
A significant reduction of colonic proinflammatory eicosanoids in FO fed mice compared to control was observed. However, neither alteration of colonic gene expression signature nor reduction in IBD scores was observed under FO diet.
Thus, increased intake of dietary FO did not prevent experimental colitis.
Inflammation; Inflammatory bowel disease; Eicosanoids; Eicosapentaenoic acid; Docosahexaenoic acid; Omega-3 fatty acids
Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) is a good predictor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is characterized by a chronic limitation of airflow. This study was designed to compare the effects and complications of theophylline alone, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) alone, and a combination of the two drugs on the rates of FEV1 in patients with COPD who were candidates for off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
This clinical trial was performed on 100 patients who had a smoking history of 27 pack years with a range of 20 to 40 pack years but were not heavy smokers and were candidates for elective off-pump CABG surgery in Afshar Cardiovascular Hospital, Yazd, Iran. The patients with a history of asthma and bronchospasm and non-COPD respiratory disorders were excluded. There were three groups, that is, the theophylline group (n=33) that received theophylline 10 mg/kg TDS after consumption of food, NAC group (n=33) who received NAC 10-15 mg/kg BD after consumption of food, and the combined group (n=32) who received theophylline and NAC together. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), Chi-square, and exact test for quantitative and qualitative variables.
One hundred patients with COPD enrolled in this study as possible candidates for CABG surgery. Average age of the patients was 60.36±10.21 years. Of the participants, 83 (83.3%) were male and 17 (17%) were female. Rate of postoperative FEV1 to basal FEV1 was 0.76±0.32, 0.66±0.22, and 0.69±0.24 in the treatments with theophylline, NAC, and the combination, respectively. Theophylline, NAC, and a combination of these drugs can decrease the rate of postoperative FEV1 compared to basal FEV1 significantly. (P=0.0001)
Theophylline alone, NAC alone, and a combination of these drugs improve pulmonary function, and there are no significant differences between these protocols. Stomach discomfort and cardiac complications in treatment with theophylline alone is significantly higher than NAC alone and the combination.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; elective off-pump coronary artery bypass graft; N-acetylcysteine; theophylline
Matrix metalloproteinases are important factors in the molecular mechanisms leading to neuronal injury in many neurological disorders. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is up-regulated after cerebral ischemia and neuroinflammation and is actively involved in blood–brain barrier disruption. Current methods of measuring MMP-9 activity, such as gelatin-substrate zymography, are unspecific and arduous. Here we developed an immunocapture assay with high efficiency, specificity, and sensitivity for quantifying endogenously active as well as total MMP-9 activity.
A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptide-based immunocapture assay was developed that enables the accurate assessment of total and active forms of MMP-9 in complex biological samples. The FRET assay demonstrated correct and efficient binding of MMP-9 to a mouse monoclonal MMP-9 antibody and high specificity of the immunocapture antibody for MMP-9. Total and active levels of MMP-9 were measured in rat brain homogenates, plasma, human HT-1080 conditioned media, and RBE4 endothelial cell lysates. The FRET immunocapture assay yielded highly similar results for total MMP-9 activity when compared to gelatin-substrate zymography.
We suggest that the new FRET peptide-based immunocapture assay is a viable replacement of zymography for sensitive and high throughput quantification of MMP-9 activity in biological samples.
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity; Fluorescence resonance energy transfer peptide; Immunocapture assay; Focal cerebral ischemia
Regulation of the extracellular matrix by proteases and protease inhibitors is a fundamental biological process for normal growth, development and repair in the central nervous system. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are the major extracellular-degrading enzymes. Two other enzyme families, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM), and the serine proteases, plasminogen/plasminogen activator (P/PA) system, are also involved in extracellular matrix degradation. Normally, the highly integrated action of these enzyme families remodel all of the components of the matrix and perform essential functions at the cell surface involved in signaling, cell survival, and cell death. During the inflammatory response induced in infection, autoimmune reactions and hypoxia/ischemia, abnormal expression and activation of these proteases lead to breakdown of the extracellular matrix, resulting in the opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), preventing normal cell signaling, and eventually leading to cell death. There are several key MMPs and ADAMs that have been implicated in neuroinflammation: gelatinases A and B (MMP-2 and -9), stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), membrane-type MMP (MT1-MMP or MMP-14), and tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE). In addition, TIMP-3, which is bound to the cell surface, promotes cell death and impedes angiogenesis. Inhibitors of metalloproteinases are available, but balancing the beneficial and detrimental effects of these agents remains a challenge.
blood-brain barrier; stroke; gelatinases; stromelysin-1; extracellular matrix; MMP inhibitors
In developing countries, Helicobacter pylori infection is mainly acquired during childhood and may be a predisposing factor for peptic ulcer or gastric cancer later in life. Noninvasive diagnostic tools are particularly useful in children for screening tests and epidemiological studies. We aimed to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection among Kurdish children in Sanandaj, West Iran.
We used a Helicobacter Pylori Stool Antigen (HpSA) test to detect H. pylori infection. A questionnaire was used to collect data about age, sex, duration of breastfeeding, and family size. A total of 458 children aged 4 months to 15 years were enrolled in this study.
The mean age of enrolled children was 5.6±5.4 years. Stool samples were positive for H. pylori in 294 (64.2%) children. The prevalence of H. pylori infection increased with age (P<0.001). We found a significant increase in the infection rate as the family size grew (P=0.005). There was no correlation between a positive H. pylori status and gender (P=0.6) or the duration of breastfeeding (P=0.8).
It seems that the prevalence of H. pylori infection is very high in children in Sanandaj. It begins at early infancy (before 4th month of age) and cumulatively increases with age.
Helicobacter Pylori; Prevalence; Children; Iran