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author:("jalili, M")
1.  Antibacterial activity and composition of essential oils from Pelargonium graveolens L'Her and Vitex agnus-castus L 
Iranian Journal of Microbiology  2012;4(4):171-176.
Background and Objectives
Essential oils are volatile compounds that have been used since Middle Ages as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, sedative, local anesthetic and food flavoring agents.
In the current study, essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens L'Her and Vitex agnus-castus L. were analyzed for their antibacterial activities.
Materials and Methods
The chemical compositions of essential oils were characterized by GC-MS. Disc diffusion method was used to study antimicrobial activity.
Results and Conclusion
Inhibition zones showed that the essential oils of the two plants were active against all of the studied bacteria (except Listeria monocytogenes). The susceptibility of the strains changed with the dilution of essential oils in DMSO. The pure essential oils showed the most extensive inhibition zones and they were very effective antimicrobial compounds compared to chloramphenicol and amoxicillin. The most susceptible strain against these two essential oils was Staphylococcus aureus. It seems that β-citronellol is a prominent part of P. graveolens volatile oil and caryophyllene oxide is a famous and important part of V. agnus-castus volatile oil and their probable synergistic effect with other constituents are responsible for the antibacterial effects of these oils. However further studies must be performed to confirm the safety of these oils for use as antimicrobial agents and natural preservatives in different products.
PMCID: PMC3507305  PMID: 23205247
Antibacterial activity; GC-MS; Essential oils; Pelargonium graveolens L'Her; Vitex agnus-castus L
2.  Antimicrobial evaluation of some novel derivatives of 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-one 
The antimicrobial activity of thirty six novel dihydropyrimidine derivatives was evaluated against common pathogenic bacteria. Significant antimicrobial activity (MIC=32, 64 μg/ml) was observed. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as Gram-negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus as Gram-positive bacteria were determined to be the most susceptible pathogens in this study. The highest inhibitory activity was observed against Gram-negative microorganisms. The widest spectrum of antibacterial activity was exerted by C6 and C22. Most of the compounds had remarkable antifungal activity (MIC=32 μg/ml).
PMCID: PMC3523416  PMID: 23248675
Antibacterial; Antifungal; 3,4-Dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-one
3.  Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: an increasingly common cause for testicular pain and swelling 
INTRODUCTION
Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is now a well established method for kidney procurement from living donors. In our centre, LDN is currently offered only to donors suitable for a left nephrectomy. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of testicular pain and swelling following LDN.
METHODS
A total of 25 left-sided LDN male patients were assessed in a prospective structured interview together with a control cohort of 25 male patients who had undergone left-sided open donor nephrectomy (ODN).
RESULTS
Data were collected on testicular pain, swelling, numbness, urinary symptoms and sexual dysfunction from all 50 patients (100% response rate). Of the 25 LDN patients, 11 (44%) experienced ipsilateral testicular pain and/or swelling. In most instances, pain was of immediate onset, mild to moderate in severity, lasted for a few days to several weeks and was associated with testicular swelling (10 of 11 cases). However, testicular pain and/or swelling were not apparent in ODN patients, with only 2 of 25 (8%) experiencing mild testicular pain, 1 of whom also had swelling.
CONCLUSIONS
Testicular pain and swelling following LDN is a common problem. It is underreported in the literature and should be included in the differential diagnoses of testicular pain and swelling. Further investigation is required to confirm our findings.
doi:10.1308/003588412X13171221592177
PMCID: PMC3954321  PMID: 22943330
Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy; Live donor; Open donor nephrectomy; Renal transplant; Testicular pain/swelling
4.  Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic evaluation of some new quinazolinone derivatives 
Quinazolinone ring system is renown because of its wide spectrum of pharmacological activities due to various substitutions on this ring system. In this study, the minimum inhibitory concentration of the synthesized compounds in our laboratory was determined by micro dilution Alamar Blue® Assay against six strains of bacteria (three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative) and three strains of fungi. Following a broth micro dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test, Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) tests were performed. Cytotoxic effects of the compounds were measured using the MTT colorimetric assay on HeLa cell line. Results of antimicrobial screening showed that compounds had better bacteriostatic activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Results from MBC revealed that these compounds had more significant bacteriostatic than bactericidal activities. Nearly all screened compounds showed good activity against C. albicans and A. niger. Results from MFC indicated that these compounds had better fungistatic rather than fungicidal activities. The synthesized target molecules were found to exhibit different cytotoxicity in the range of 10 to 100 μM on HeLa cell line. Compounds 6 and 7 exhibited acceptable cytotoxicity approximately 50% at 10 μM concentration.
PMCID: PMC3501904  PMID: 23181085
Antibacterial; Antifungal; Cytotoxicity; Gram-negative; Gram-positive
5.  Stability evaluation of freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in oral capsules 
Freeze-drying is a common preservation technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Various studies have investigated the effect of different cryoprotectants on probiotics during freeze-drying. However, information on the effect of cryoprotectants on the stability of some Lactobacillus strains during freeze-drying seems scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish production methods for preparation of oral capsule probiotics containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus. It was also of interest to examine the effect of various formulations of cryoprotectant media containing skim milk, trehalose and sodium ascorbate on the survival rate of probiotic bacteria during freeze-drying at various storage temperatures. Without any cryoprotectant, few numbers of microorganisms survived. However, microorganisms tested maintained higher viability after freeze-drying in media containing at least one of the cryoprotectants. Use of skim milk in water resulted in an increased viability after lyophilization. Media with a combination of trehalose and skim milk maintained a higher percentage of live microorganisms, up to 82%. In general, bacteria retained a higher number of viable cells in capsules containing freeze-dried bacteria with sodium ascorbate after three months of storage. After this period, a marked decline was observed in all samples stored at 23°C compared to those stored at 4°C. The maximum survival rate (about 72-76%) was observed with media containing 6% skim milk, 8% trehalose and 4% sodium ascorbate.
PMCID: PMC3500555  PMID: 23181077
Probiotics; Lactobacillus delbrueckii; Lactobacillus paracasei; Freeze-drying
6.  Serum Zinc Levels in Children and Adolescents with Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus 
Background
There have been very few studies, with contradictory results, on the zinc status of children and adolescents with type-1 diabetes mellitus. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine zinc status based on the serum zinc concentration in type-1 diabetic children and adolescents and compare it with that of healthy controls.
Methods:
Thirty children and adolescents with type-1 diabetes mellitus, aged 6 to 18 years, and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Serum zinc, fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c and serum albumin were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, enzymatic colorimetry, ion-exchange chromatography and colorimetry using bromocresol green methods, respectively.
Results:
No statistically significant difference was found in the mean serum zinc concentration between diabetic patients and healthy controls (111.0 ± 3.1 and 107.1 ± 3.8 mg/dl respectively, P= 0.4). No correlations were found between the serum zinc levels and fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, or the duration of the disease in the patients.
Conclusion:
The zinc levels of diabetic children and adolescents are not noticeably different compared to those of healthy controls and are independent of glycemic control and the duration of the disease.
PMCID: PMC3481736  PMID: 23113106
Zinc; Type-1 diabetes mellitus; Children; Adolescents; Hemoglobin A1c
7.  Solubility of pioglitazone hydrochloride in ethanol, N-methyl pyrrolidone, polyethylene glycols and water mixtures at 298.20 °K 
Background and the purpose of the study
Solubility of pharmaceuticals is still a challenging subject and solubilization using cosolvents is the most common technique used in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study was reporting and modeling the experimental molar solubility of pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGZ-HCl) in binary and ternary mixtures of ethanol (EtOH), N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP), polyethylene glycols (PEGs) 200, 400, 600 and water along with the density of saturated solutions at 298.2 °K.
Methods
To provide a computational method, the Jouyban-Acree model was fitted to the solubilities of the binary solvents, and solubilities of the ternary solvents were back-calculated by employing the solubility data in mono-solvents. In the next step, the ternary interaction terms were added to the model and the prediction overall mean percentage deviation (MPD) of the ternary data was reduced. Also a previously proposed version of the model was used to predict the solubility of PGZ-HCl in binary and ternary mixtures employing the experimental solubility data in mono-solvents.
Results
The overall MPD of the model for fitting the binary data and predicted data of ternary solvents were 2.0 % and 50.5 %, respectively. The overall MPD of the predicted solubilities in ternary solvents using the ternary interaction terms in the model was 34.2 %, and by using the proposed version of the Jouyban-Acree model for binary and ternary data the overall correlation and prediction errors were 18.0 and 15.0 %, respectively.
Conclusion
The solubility of PGZ-HCl was increased by addition of EtOH, NMP, PEGs 200, 400 and 600 to aqueous solutions. The reported data extended the available solubility data of pharmaceuticals which are crucial in formulation of liquid dosage forms. The constants of the Jouyban-Acree model using the generated data are also reported which provides the possibility of solubility prediction in other solvent mixtures and temperatures.
PMCID: PMC3436081  PMID: 23008690
Cosolvency; Jouyban-Acree model; Solubilization prediction; Pharmaceuticals

Results 1-8 (8)