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1.  XRCC1 Arg399Gln Gene Polymorphism and the Risk of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in the Polish Population 
DNA and Cell Biology  2012;31(1):50-56.
It has been shown that DNA repair is reduced in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and that the X-ray repair cross-complementing (XRCC1) Arg399Gln (rs25487) polymorphism may contribute to DNA repair. We evaluated the frequency of the XRCC1 Arg399Gln substitution in patients with SLE (n=265) and controls (n=360) in a sample of the Polish population. The odds ratio (OR) for SLE patients with the Gln/Gln versus Gln/Arg or Arg/Arg genotypes was 1.553 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.9573–2.520; p=0.0729). OR for the Gln/Gln or Gln/Arg versus Arg/Arg genotype was 1.551 (95% CI=1.122–2.144, p=0.0077). The OR for the 399 Gln allele in patients with SLE was 1.406 (95% CI=1.111–1.779, p=0.0045). There was also a statistically significant p-value of the χ2 test for the trend observed in the XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism (ptrend=0.0048). We also found a significant contribution of the Gln/Gln or Arg/Gln versus Arg/Arg genotype to the presence of either the malar rash or phototosensitivity manifestations of SLE OR=2.241 (1.328–3.781, p=0.0023, pcorr=0.0414). Moreover, the meta-analysis of Taiwanese Han Chinese, Brazilian, and Polish populations showed that the Gln/Gln or Gln/Arg genotype and Gln allele were associated with SLE incidence. OR for the Gln/Gln or Gln/Arg versus Arg/Arg genotype was 1.440 (95% CI=1.15–1.80, p=0.0019) and OR for the Gln allele was 1.27 (95% CI=1.08–1.51, p=0.0051). Our studies may confirm that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism may increase the risk of incidence of SLE and the occurrence of some SLE manifestations.
PMCID: PMC3246417  PMID: 21682595
2.  Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1− 2518 A/G Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Might Be Associated with Renal Disease and Thrombocytopenia of SLE 
There is conflicting evidence on the contribution of the MCP-1 −2518 A>G (rs 1024611) polymorphism to SLE incidence and clinical manifestations. We examined the prevalence of the MCP-1 −2518 A>G polymorphism in SLE patients (n = 199) and controls (n = 250) in Poland. We did not observe a significant difference in the distribution of MCP-1 −2518 A>G polymorphic variants in patients with SLE and healthy individuals. However, we found an association between the GG versus AG and AA genotypes as well as the AG and GG versus AA genotypes with renal manifestations of SLE OR = 3.614 (1.123–11.631, P = 0.0345) and OR = 2.297 (1.301–4.057, P = 0.0046), respectively. We also observed that the MCP-1 AG and GG -genotypes contribute to the occurrence of thrombocytopenia in SLE patients OR = 2.618 (1.280–5.352, P = 0.0089). Our observations indicate that either MCP-1 −2518 G variant can be associated with some clinical findings in patients with SLE.
PMCID: PMC2858281  PMID: 20414371
3.  T-Cell Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms and Vitamin D Pathway Gene Polymorphisms in End-Stage Renal Disease due to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Nephropathy: Comparisons with Health Status and Other Main Causes of End-Stage Renal Disease 
Journal of Diabetes Research  2014;2014:120317.
Background. T-cell cytokine gene polymorphisms and vitamin D pathway gene polymorphisms were evaluated as possibly associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) resulting from type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) nephropathy. Methods. Studies were conducted among hemodialysis (HD) patients with ESRD due to type 2 DM nephropathy, chronic glomerulonephritis, chronic infective tubulointerstitial nephritis, and hypertensive nephropathy as well as in healthy subjects. A frequency distribution of T-cell-related interleukin (IL) genes (IL18 rs360719, IL12A rs568408, IL12B rs3212227, IL4R rs1805015, IL13 rs20541, IL28B rs8099917, IL28B, and rs12979860) and vitamin D pathway genes (GC genes: rs2298849, rs7041, and rs1155563; VDR genes: rs2228570, rs1544410; and RXRA genes: rs10776909, rs10881578, and rs749759) was compared between groups. Results. No significant differences in a frequency distribution of tested polymorphisms were shown between type 2 DM nephropathy patients and controls. A difference was found in IL18 rs360719 polymorphic distribution between the former group and chronic infective tubulointerstitial nephritic patients (Ptrend = 0.033), which also differed in this polymorphism from controls (Ptrend = 0.005). Conclusion. T-cell cytokine and vitamin D pathway gene polymorphisms are not associated with ESRD due to type 2 DM nephropathy in Polish HD patients. IL18 rs360719 is probably associated with the pathogenesis of chronic infective tubulointerstitial nephritis.
PMCID: PMC4284966  PMID: 25587543
4.  Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene (MCP-1-2518 A/G) polymorphism and serological markers of hepatitis B virus infection in hemodialysis patients 
The role of MCP1-2518 A/G in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is controversial. Our aim was to evaluate the frequency distribution of MCP1-2518 A/G (rs1024611) polymorphic variants in hemodialysis (HD) patients without or with type 2 diabetes in relation to serological markers of HBV infection.
HD patients (n=170, 48 with diagnosis of type 2 diabetes), who tested positive for total antibodies to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc), underwent MCP1 genotyping using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Anti-HBc was accompanied by antibodies to HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs) in 127 individuals. In anti-HBc-positive/anti-HBs-negative patients, HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was shown in 15 patients and isolated anti-HBc were present in 28 patients. The distribution of MCP1 genotypes in anti-HBc-positive patients was compared to that in healthy subjects (n=437) and anti-HBc-negative HD patients (n=754).
There were no significant differences (Ptrend >0.05) in distribution of MCP1 genotypes between anti-HBc-positive patients, anti-HBc-negative subjects, and controls, regardless of anti-HBs or diabetic status. The MCP1-2518G allele prevalence was higher in HBsAg-positive/anti-HBs-negative patients defined as HBV carriers compared to MCP1-2518G allele frequency shown in groups composed of HBsAg-negative HD individuals and controls (50% vs. 28%, Ptrend 0.022).
A frequency distribution of MCP1 polymorphic variants is not associated with anti-HBs development in response to HBV infection in HD patients, independent of diabetic status, but the MCP1-2518G allele may predispose to HBsAg persistence (HBV carrier status).
PMCID: PMC4087078  PMID: 24975639
Chemokine CCL2; Diabetes Complications; Dialysis; Hepatitis B Antibodies; Polymorphism; Genetic
5.  Nucleotide variants of the cancer predisposing gene CDH1 and the risk of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate 
Familial Cancer  2014;13(3):415-421.
The CDH1 gene plays an important role during carcinogenesis and craniofacial morphogenesis. Germline mutations in this gene have been described in families presenting syndromic diffuse gastric cancer and orofacial clefts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between nucleotide variants of CDH1 and the risk of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P). Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CDH1 gene (rs16260, rs9929218, rs7186053, rs4783573, rs16958383, and rs1801552) were genotyped using the TaqMan SNP genotyping assays in 250 patients with NSCL/P and 540 controls from the Polish population. Comparison between patient and control groups showed that the CDH1 rs1801552 variant, under the assumption of recessive model, was associated with a two-fold decrease in the risk of NSCL/P (ORTT vs CT + CC = 0.481, 95 % CI 0.281–0.824, p = 0.007). This association remained statistically significant even after the multiple testing correction. No significant associations with NSCL/P risk were found for the other five tested SNPs. We found a strong association between the cancer predisposing gene CDH1 and the risk of NSCL/P in the Polish population. This result, together with previous observations of co-occurrence of orofacial clefts and a variety of cancer types, suggests the need for replication studies testing rs1801552 in NSCL/P cohorts with a known cancer history.
PMCID: PMC4164844  PMID: 24838934
NSCL/P; CDH1; Cancer
6.  Expression and DNA methylation levels of prolyl hydroxylases PHD1, PHD2, PHD3 and asparaginyl hydroxylase FIH in colorectal cancer 
BMC Cancer  2013;13:526.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common and comprehensively studied malignancies. Hypoxic conditions during formation of CRC may support the development of more aggressive cancers. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), a major player in cancerous tissue adaptation to hypoxia, is negatively regulated by the family of prolyl hydroxylase enzymes (PHD1, PHD2, PHD3) and asparaginyl hydroxylase, called factor inhibiting HIF (FIH).
PHD1, PHD2, PHD3 and FIH gene expression was evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting in primary colonic adenocarcinoma and adjacent histopathologically unchanged colonic mucosa from patients who underwent radical surgical resection of the colon (n = 90), and the same methods were used for assessment of PHD3 gene expression in HCT116 and DLD-1 CRC cell lines. DNA methylation levels of the CpG island in the promoter regulatory region of PHD1, PHD2, PHD3 and FIH were assessed using bisulfite DNA sequencing and high resolution melting analysis (HRM) for patients and HRM analysis for CRC cell lines.
We found significantly lower levels of PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3 transcripts (p = 0.00026; p < 0.00001; p < 0.00001) and proteins (p = 0.004164; p = 0.0071; p < 0.00001) in primary cancerous than in histopathologically unchanged tissues. Despite this, we did not observe statistically significant differences in FIH transcript levels between cancerous and histopathologically unchanged colorectal tissue, but we found a significantly increased level of FIH protein in CRC (p = 0.0169). The reduced PHD3 expression was correlated with significantly increased DNA methylation in the CpG island of the PHD3 promoter regulatory region (p < 0.0001). We did not observe DNA methylation in the CpG island of the PHD1, PHD2 or FIH promoter in cancerous and histopathologically unchanged colorectal tissue. We also showed that 5-Aza-2’-deoxycytidine induced DNA demethylation leading to increased PHD3 transcript and protein level in HCT116 cells.
We demonstrated that reduced PHD3 expression in cancerous tissue was accompanied by methylation of the CpG rich region located within the first exon and intron of the PHD3 gene. The diminished expression of PHD1 and PHD2 and elevated level of FIH protein in cancerous tissue compared to histopathologically unchanged colonic mucosa was not associated with DNA methylation within the CpG islands of the PHD1, PHD2 and FIH genes.
PMCID: PMC3828400  PMID: 24195777
7.  Association of the interleukin-12 polymorphic variants with the development of antibodies to surface antigen of hepatitis B virus in hemodialysis patients in response to vaccination or infection 
Molecular Biology Reports  2013;40(12):6899-6911.
Cytokines, involved in the T-helper 1 system, play a role in the regulation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) clearance and the immune response to HBV antigens during natural infection or planned vaccination. Our aim was to examine whether the polymorphic variants of IL-12 are equally associated with development of antibodies to HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs) in hemodialysis (HD) patients in the case of HBV vaccination or HBV infection. The IL-12A rs568408 and IL-12B rs3212227 polymorphisms were analyzed in relation to anti-HBs development in 602 HD patients with negative antibodies to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) who were hepatitis B vaccinated (group I) as well as in 237 anti-HBc positive HD patients who were infected with HBV in the past (group II). In group I, 199 patients did not develop an anti-HBs titre >10 IU/L (subgroup Ia), whereas in group II, 55 patients did not develop an anti-HBs titre >10 IU/L (subgroup IIa). Patients of groups I and II that developed an anti-HBs >10 IU/L were included into subgroups Ib and IIb, respectively. In hepatitis B vaccinated HD patients, development of a protective anti-HBs titre was positively associated with vintage of renal replacement therapy (RRT), chronic glomerulonephritis as a cause of RRT, and GA rs 568408 IL-12A (OR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.0–2.5, P = 0.035), but a frequency distribution of this genotype between responders and non-responders was not significant when the Bonferroni correction was applied. In HBV infected HD patients, anti-HBs development was positively associated with AC rs3212227 IL-12B (OR 8.0, 95 % CI 2.6–24.9, P < 0.001), whereas HBsAg positivity, AA rs3212227 IL-12B (OR 0.3, 95 % CI 0.1–0.7, P = 0.007), and CC rs3212227 IL-12B (OR 0.1, 95 % CI 0.03–0.6, P = 0.011) were negative predictors of positive anti-HBs phenotype. When the Bonferroni correction was applied, if appropriate, these associations remained significant. In HD patients, the studied IL-12 polymorphic variants seem to be associated with the anti-HBs phenotype (a) with borderline significance for IL-12A in hepatitis B vaccinated patients, and (b) significantly for IL-12B in patients who underwent natural HBV infection.
PMCID: PMC3835950  PMID: 24158609
Anti-HBs; Gene polymorphism; Hemodialysis; Infection; Interleukin-12; Vaccination
8.  Involvement of PARP-1 Val762Ala Polymorphism in the Onset of Cervical Cancer in Caucasian Women 
Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy  2013;17(4):239-245.
Background and Objective
Data on the Val762Ala (rs1136410) polymorphism in the poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) gene as a risk factor for various types of cancers in different ethnicities are inconsistent. We studied this association in a Caucasian population.
Using high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRM), we studied the distribution of the PARP-1 Val762Ala polymorphism in patients with cervical cancer (n = 446) and in controls (n = 491).
Logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, tobacco smoking, and menopausal status demonstrated that the PARP-1 Val762Ala polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for patients with the Ala/Val genotype versus the Val/Val genotype was 1.381 (95 % CI = 1.025–1.859, p = 0.033), and the adjusted OR for the Ala/Ala or Ala/Val genotype versus the Val/Val genotype was 1.403 (95 % CI = 1.057–1.863, p = 0.019). The p value from the chi-square test of the trend observed for the PARP-1 Val762Ala polymorphism was statistically significant (ptrend = 0.0123). Stratified analyses of the PARP-1 Val762Ala genotype distribution and cervical cancer risk showed that the age-adjusted OR of Ala/Ala or Ala/Val vs Val/Val for pregnancy was 1.388 (95 % CI = 1.027–1.877, p = 0.0328), 1.773 (95 % CI = 1.145–2.745, p = 0.0100) for contraceptive use, and 1.604 (95 % CI = 1.132–2.272, p = 0.0077) for postmenopausal women. The age-adjusted OR of Ala/Val vs Val/Val for contraceptive use was 1.769 (95 % CI = 1.114–2.809, p = 0.0154) and for postmenopausal women was 1.577 (95 % CI = 1.094–2.272, p = 0.0143).
Our studies suggest that the PARP-1 Val762Ala polymorphism may be a genetic risk factor for cervical cancer.
PMCID: PMC3715681  PMID: 23633189
9.  The FCRL3 −169T>C polymorphism and the risk of endometriosis-related infertility in a Polish population 
Recently, the FCRL3 −169T>C (rs7528684) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been demonstrated to be a risk factor of endometriosis related infertility. We studied whether the FCRL −169T>C SNP can be associated with endometriosis-related infertility in a sample of the Polish population
Using PCR–RFLP analysis we genotyped 141 infertile women with endometriosis and 519 fertile women. FCRL3 transcript levels were determined by reverse transcription and real-time quantitative PCR analysis in CD19+ B cells from women with endometriosis-associated infertility and fertile women
We found a significantly increased frequency of the FCRL3 C/C genotype in women with endometriosis-associated infertility than controls [OR = 1.681 (95 % CI = 1.120–2.522, p = 0.0116, pcorr = 0.0348)]. There was also a statistically increased frequency of the C/C and C/T genotypes in patients compared with controls [OR = 2.009 (95 % CI = 1.214–3.324, p = 0.0059, pcorr = 0.0177)]. The p value of the χ2 test for the trend observed for the FCRL3 −169T>C polymorphism was also statistically significant (ptrend = 0.0012, pcorr = 0.0036). We also found significantly increased FCRL3 transcript levels in carriers of the FCRL3 −169 CC vs TT and CT vs TT genotype both in women with endometriosis-related infertility (p = 0.012; p = 0.015) and fertile women (p = 0.017; p = 0.032)
FCRL3 −169T>C polymorphism alters the expression of FCRL3 and can be a risk factor of endometriosis-related infertility.
PMCID: PMC3778220  PMID: 23553198
Polymorphisms; Endometriosis; Infertility
10.  rs12976445 variant in the pri-miR-125a correlates with a lower level of hsa-miR-125a and ERBB2 overexpression in breast cancer patients 
Oncology Letters  2012;5(2):569-573.
Expression of MIR125A is diminished in breast tumors, however the reason for the hsa-mir-125a decrease in the cancer is not known. HER2 is encoded by ERBB2, a target for hsa-miR-125a which interacts with the 3′UTR of ERBB2 mRNA. The present study reveals that a polymorphism (rs12976445) within the pri-miR-125a sequence correlates with the amount of mature hsa-miR-125a in breast tumor samples. miRNA, RNA and DNA were extracted from breast cancer samples obtained from 26 patients. Following immunohistological evaluation of the samples, the ERBB2, PGR and ESR1 mRNA profiles were also analyzed using real-time PCR. Genomic DNA was sequenced using MIR125A flanking primers. PCR products were analyzed using a BaeGI restriction enzyme specific to the rs12976445 variant. The rs12976445 variant (C/T and C/C) correlated with a lower level of hsa-miR-125a in comparison with the T/T variant. The expression of HER2 mRNA was increased in tumors with the rs12976445 variant (C/T and C/C) compared with T/T. We conclude that rs12976445 may be a potential prognostic marker of HER2 expression in breast cancer. Its predictive value on the efficacy of trastuzumab treatment in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer warrants further study.
PMCID: PMC3573016  PMID: 23420759
miR-125a; breast cancer; HER2; ERBB2
11.  Vitamin D receptor gene BsmI, FokI, ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus 
Molecular Biology Reports  2012;40(2):803-810.
Recently, several studies have demonstrated the role of vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); however, these results are inconsistent between different cohorts. Therefore, we studied the prevalence of the VDR FokI (rs2228570), BsmI (rs1544410), ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236) genotypes and alleles in SLE patients (n = 258) and healthy individuals (n = 545) in a Polish population. We did not observe significant differences for either the VDR FokI, BsmI, ApaI and TaqI genotype and allele frequencies in patients with SLE and healthy individuals. However, the frequency of the VDR F/F and F/f genotypes of FokI was statistically different between patients with renal disease and patients without this symptom OR = 3.228 (1.534–6.792, p = 0.0014), pcorr = 0.0476)]. There was no association of the studied VDR BsmI, ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms with clinical manifestations and laboratory profiles in patients with SLE. Our study indicates that the studied VDR FokI variant might increase the risk of some clinical presentations in patients with SLE.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11033-012-2118-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC3538008  PMID: 23065277
VDR polymorphism; SLE; PCR–RFLP
12.  Contribution of toll-like receptor 9 gene single-nucleotide polymorphism to systemic lupus erythematosus 
Rheumatology International  2012;33(5):1121-1125.
There are several studies on the association of TLR9 polymorphisms with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in different ethnicities; however, the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we studied the distribution of the TLR9 C > T (rs352140) polymorphism in patients with SLE (n = 254) and controls (n = 521) in a Polish population. We did not observe significant differences in the prevalence of the TLR9 C > T genotype and alleles between patients with SLE and controls. However, we found a contribution of the T/T and T/C genotypes to renal [OR = 2.949 (95 % CI = 1.523–5.711, p = 0.001), (pcorr = 0.017)] and immunologic disorders [OR = 2.938 (95 % CI 1.500–5.755, p = 0.0012), (pcorr = 0.0204)] in SLE patients. Moreover, we observed a significant association between the TLR9 T/T and T/C genotypes and the presence of anti-dsDNA Ab [OR = 3.682 (1.647–8.230, p = 0.001), (pcorr = 0.017)]. Our studies suggest that the TLR9 C > T (rs352140) polymorphism might contribute to renal and immunologic disorders and to the presence of anti-dsDNA Ab.
PMCID: PMC3632719  PMID: 22948541
TLR9; Polymorphisms; SLE
13.  Antibodies to hepatitis B virus surface antigen and interleukin 12 and interleukin 18 gene polymorphisms in hemodialysis patients 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:75.
The interleukin (IL)18 rs360719 CC genotype is associated with the development of antibodies to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBs) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. IL18 shares biological properties with IL12 in promoting the T-hepler 1 (Th1) system. We studied whether polymorphisms in the IL12A 3` untranslated region (UTR) and IL12B 3`UTR may contribute to anti-HBs development (titre ≥ 10 IU/L) in HD patients either individually or jointly with the IL18 polymorphism.
In 518 HD patients and 240 controls the IL12A rs568408 3’UTR G > A polymorphism was genotyped by high-resolution melting curve analysis. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to detect the IL12B rs3212227 3’UTR A > C and IL18 -1297 T > C rs360719 polymorphisms. The associations between the IL12A, IL12B and IL18 genotypes and the risk of impaired anti-HBs development were estimated by computing the odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression analysis.
In the logistic regression analysis, the higher frequency of rs360719 CC individually (2.9% in 207 patients without anti-HBs development vs 8.0% in 311 patients with anti-HBs development, p = 0.009) and of rs360719 CC combined with rs568408 GG (p = 0.048), rs568408 GA (p = 0.035), rs568408 GG/AA (p = 0.034) or rs3212227 AA (p = 0.046) was associated with an increased chance for the development of anti-HBs in HD patients. Patients bearing both rs568408 AA and rs360719 TT had a 10.9-fold or 8.9-fold lower chance, respectively, to develop anti-HBs compared with those carrying any other genotype (p = 0.005) or those who had both wild-type rs568408 GG and rs360719 TT (p = 0.011). Carriers of both rs3212227 CC and rs360719 TC had a 4.6-fold lower chance for anti-HBs development than carriers of any other genotype (p = 0.042).
Development of anti-HBs in HD patients is associated with gene polymorphisms of interleukins involved in the Th1 system.
PMCID: PMC3468411  PMID: 22863216
Antibodies to surface antigen of hepatitis B virus; Gene polymorphisms; Hemodialysis; Interleukin 12; Interleukin 18
14.  Contribution of STAT4 gene single-nucleotide polymorphism to systemic lupus erythematosus in the Polish population 
Molecular Biology Reports  2012;39(9):8861-8866.
The STAT4 has been found to be a susceptible gene in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in various populations. There are evident population differences in the context of clinical manifestations of SLE, therefore we investigated the prevalence of the STAT4 G > C (rs7582694) polymorphism in patients with SLE (n = 253) and controls (n = 521) in a sample of the Polish population. We found that patients with the STAT4 C/G and CC genotypes exhibited a 1.583-fold increased risk of SLE incidence (95 % CI = 1.168–2.145, p = 0.003), with OR for the C/C versus C/G and G/G genotypes was 1.967 (95 % CI = 1.152–3.358, p = 0.0119). The OR for the STAT4 C allele frequency showed a 1.539-fold increased risk of SLE (95 % CI = 1.209–1.959, p = 0.0004). We also observed an increased frequency of STAT4 C/C and C/G genotypes in SLE patients with renal symptoms OR = 2.259 (1.365–3.738, p = 0.0014), (pcorr = 0.0238) and in SLE patients with neurologic manifestations OR = 2.867 (1.467–5.604, p = 0.0016), (pcorr = 0.0272). Moreover, we found a contribution of STAT4 C/C and C/G genotypes to the presence of the anti-snRNP Ab OR = 3.237 (1.667–6.288, p = 0.0003), (pcorr = 0.0051) and the presence of the anti-Scl-70 Ab OR = 2.665 (1.380–5.147, p = 0.0028), (pcorr = 0.0476). Our studies confirmed an association of the STAT4 C (rs7582694) variant with the development of SLE and occurrence of some clinical manifestations of the disease.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11033-012-1752-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC3404285  PMID: 22729903
SLE; STAT4; Polymorphism
15.  Expression of HOXA11 in the mid-luteal endometrium from women with endometriosis-associated infertility 
A decrease in HOXA11 expression in eutopic mid-secretory endometrium has been found in women with endometriosis-associated infertility.
Using Real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) and western blotting analysis we studied the HOXA11 transcript and protein levels in mid-luteal eutopic endometrium from eighteen infertile women with minimal endometriosis, sixteen healthy fertile women and sixteen infertile women with fallopian tubal occlusion from the Polish population. We also evaluated transcript levels of DNA methyltransferases DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B in these groups of women.
There were significantly lower levels of HOXA11 transcripts (p = 0.003, p = 0.041) and protein (p = 0.004, p = 0.001) in women with endometriosis as compared to fertile women and infertile women with tubal occlusion. Moreover, we found significantly higher methylation levels of the CpG region in the first exon of HOXA11 in infertile women with endometriosis compared with fertile women (p < 0.001) and infertile women with tubal occlusion (p < 0.001). We also observed significantly increased levels of DNMT3A transcript in women with endometriosis than fertile women (p = 0.044) and infertile women with tubal occlusion (p = 0.047). However, we did not observe significant differences in DNMT1 and DNMT3B transcript levels between these investigated groups of women.
We confirmed that reduced HOXA11 expression may contribute to endometriosis-associated infertility. Moreover, we found that DNA hypermethylation can be one of the possible molecular mechanisms causing a decrease in HOXA11 expression in the eutopic mid-secretory endometrium in infertile women with endometriosis.
PMCID: PMC3275521  PMID: 22233680

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