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Applied and Environmental Microbiology (1)
Frontiers in Microbiology (1)
PLoS ONE (1)
Ivanikova, Natalia (2)
Bullerjahn, George S. (1)
Daraselia, Nikolai (1)
Ivanikova, Natalia V. (1)
Kalinin, Andrey (1)
Kotelnikova, Ekaterina (1)
McKay, R. Michael L. (1)
Pinevich, Alexander (1)
Popels, Linda C. (1)
Velichko, Natalia (1)
Yuryev, Anton (1)
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Cyanobacteria of the Genus Prochlorothrix†
Frontiers in Microbiology
Green cyanobacteria differ from the blue–green cyanobacteria by the possession of a chlorophyll-containing light-harvesting antenna. Three genera of the green cyanobacteria namely Acaryochloris, Prochlorococcus, and Prochloron are unicellular and inhabit marine environments. Prochlorococcus marinus attracts most attention due to its prominent role in marine primary productivity. The fourth genus Prochlorothrix is represented by the filamentous freshwater strains. Unlike the other green cyanobacteria, Prochlorothrix strains are remarkably rare: to date, living isolates have been limited to two European locations. Taking into account fluctuating blooms, morphological resemblance to Planktothrix and Pseudanabaena, and unsuccessful attempts to obtain enrichments of Prochlorothrix, the most successful strategy to search for this cyanobacterium involves PCR with environmental DNA and Prochlorothrix-specific primers. This approach has revealed a broader distribution of Prochlorothrix. Marker genes have been found in at least two additional locations. Despite of the growing evidence for naturally occurring Prochlorothrix, there are only a few cultured strains with one of them (PCC 9006) being claimed to be axenic. In multixenic cultures, Prochlorothrix is accompanied by heterotrophic bacteria indicating a consortium-type association. The genus Prochlorothrix includes two species: P. hollandica and P. scandica based on distinctions in genomic DNA, cell size, temperature optimum, and fatty acid composition of membrane lipids. In this short review the properties of cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorothrix are described. In addition, the evolutionary scenario for green cyanobacteria is suggested taking into account their possible role in the origin of simple chloroplast.
cyanobacteria; Prochlorothrix; Prochlorophytes
Atlas of Signaling for Interpretation of Microarray Experiments
Microarray-based expression profiling of living systems is a quick and inexpensive method to obtain insights into the nature of various diseases and phenotypes. A typical microarray profile can yield hundreds or even thousands of differentially expressed genes and finding biologically plausible themes or regulatory mechanisms underlying these changes is a non-trivial and daunting task. We describe a novel approach for systems-level interpretation of microarray expression data using a manually constructed “overview” pathway depicting the main cellular signaling channels (Atlas of Signaling). Currently, the developed pathway focuses on signal transduction from surface receptors to transcription factors and further transcriptional regulation of cellular “workhorse” proteins. We show how the constructed Atlas of Signaling in combination with an enrichment analysis algorithm allows quick identification and visualization of the main signaling cascades and cellular processes affected in a gene expression profiling experiment. We validate our approach using several publicly available gene expression datasets.
Lake Superior Supports Novel Clusters of Cyanobacterial Picoplankton▿ †
Popels, Linda C.
McKay, R. Michael L.
Bullerjahn, George S.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Very little is known about the biodiversity of freshwater autotrophic picoplankton (APP) in the Laurentian Great Lakes, a system comprising 20% of the world's lacustrine freshwater. In this study, the genetic diversity of Lake Superior APP was examined by analyzing 16S rRNA gene and cpcBA PCR amplicons from water samples. By neighbor joining, the majority of 16S rRNA gene sequences clustered within the “picocyanobacterial clade” consisting of freshwater and marine Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus. Two new groups of Synechococcus spp., the pelagic Lake Superior clusters I and II, do not group with any of the known freshwater picocyanobacterial clusters and were the most abundant species (50 to 90% of the sequences) in samples collected from offshore Lake Superior stations. Conversely, at station Portage Deep (PD), located in a nearshore urbanized area, only 4% of the sequences belonged to these clusters and the remaining clones reflected the freshwater Synechococcus diversity described previously at sites throughout the world. Supporting the 16S rRNA gene data, the cpcBA library from nearshore station PD revealed a cosmopolitan diversity, whereas the majority of the cpcBA sequences (97.6%) from pelagic station CD1 fell within a unique Lake Superior cluster. Thus far, these picocyanobacteria have not been cultured, although their phylogenetic assignment suggests that they are phycoerythrin (PE) rich, consistent with the observation that PE-rich APP dominate Lake Superior picoplankton. Lastly, flow cytometry revealed that the summertime APP can exceed 105 cells ml−1 and suggests that the APP shifts from a community of PE and phycocyanin-rich picocyanobacteria and picoeukaryotes in winter to a PE-rich community in summer.
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