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Frontiers in Physiology (1)
Infection and Drug Resistance (1)
Ito, Yusuke (2)
Esaki, Masahiro (1)
Hirokawa, Masashi (1)
Hirose, Shigehisa (1)
Hoshijima, Kazuyuki (1)
Kaku, Yoichiro (1)
Koga, Chie (1)
Matsumoto, Keita (1)
Nakamura, Nobuhiro (1)
Natori, Hiroki (1)
Saito, Kaori (1)
Sasaki, Jun (1)
Tajiri, Morihiro (1)
Yokoyama, Toshinobu (1)
Zhao, Boqiang (1)
Year of Publication
A necrotic lung ball caused by co-infection with Candida and Streptococcus pneumoniae
Infection and Drug Resistance
A necrotic lung ball is a rare radiological feature that is sometimes seen in cases of pulmonary aspergillosis. This paper reports a rare occurrence of a necrotic lung ball in a young male caused by Candida and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
A 28-year-old male with pulmonary candidiasis was found to have a lung ball on computed tomography (CT) of the chest. The patient was treated with β-lactams and itraconazole and then fluconazole, which improved his condition (as found on a following chest CT scan) and serum β-D-glucan level. The necrotic lung ball was suspected to have been caused by coinfection with Candida and S. pneumoniae.
A necrotic lung ball can result from infection by Candida and/or S. pneumoniae, indicating that physicians should be aware that patients may still have a fungal infection of the lungs that could result in a lung ball, even when they do not have either Aspergillus antibodies or antigens.
lung ball; necrotic lung ball; Candida; Streptococcus pneumoniae
Identification of Zebrafish Fxyd11a Protein that is Highly Expressed in Ion-Transporting Epithelium of the Gill and Skin and its Possible Role in Ion Homeostasis
Frontiers in Physiology
FXYD proteins, small single-transmembrane proteins, have been proposed to be auxiliary regulatory subunits of Na+–K+-ATPase and have recently been implied in ion osmoregulation of teleost fish. In freshwater (FW) fish, numerous ions are actively taken up through mitochondrion-rich cells (MRCs) of the gill and skin epithelia, using the Na+ electrochemical gradient generated by Na+–K+-ATPase. In the present study, to understand the molecular mechanism for the regulation of Na+–K+-ATPase in MRCs of FW fish, we sought to identify FXYD proteins expressed in MRCs of zebrafish. Reverse-transcriptase PCR studies of adult zebrafish tissues revealed that, out of eight fxyd genes found in zebrafish database, only zebrafish fxyd11 (zfxyd11) mRNA exhibited a gill-specific expression. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that zFxyd11 is abundantly expressed in MRCs rich in Na+–K+-ATPase (NaK-MRCs) but not in those rich in vacuolar-type H+-transporting ATPase. An in situ proximity ligation assay demonstrated its close association with Na+–K+-ATPase in NaK-MRCs. The zfxyd11 mRNA expression was detectable at 1 day postfertilization, and its expression levels in the whole larvae and adult gills were regulated in response to changes in environmental ionic concentrations. Furthermore, knockdown of zFxyd11 resulted in a significant increase in the number of Na+–K+-ATPase–positive cells in the larval skin. These results suggest that zFxyd11 may regulate the transport ability of NaK-MRCs by modulating Na+–K+-ATPase activity, and may be involved in the regulation of body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis.
calcium; Danio renio; FXYD-domain ion transport regulator; mitochondria-rich cell; Na+–K+-ATPase; osmoregulation; salinity; teleost
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