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1.  Phospholipase C-Related Catalytically Inactive Protein (PRIP) Regulates Lipolysis in Adipose Tissue by Modulating the Phosphorylation of Hormone-Sensitive Lipase 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e100559.
Phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and perilipin by protein kinase A (PKA) promotes the hydrolysis of lipids in adipocytes. Although activation of lipolysis by PKA has been well studied, inactivation via protein phosphatases is poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP), a binding partner for protein phosphatase 1 and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), is involved in lipolysis by regulating phosphatase activity. PRIP knockout (PRIP-KO) mice displayed reduced body-fat mass as compared with wild-type mice fed with standard chow ad libitum. Most other organs appeared normal, suggesting that mutant mice had aberrant fat metabolism in adipocytes. HSL in PRIP-KO adipose tissue was highly phosphorylated compared to that in wild-type mice. Starvation of wild-type mice or stimulation of adipose tissue explants with the catabolic hormone, adrenaline, translocated both PRIP and PP2A from the cytosol to lipid droplets, but the translocation of PP2A was significantly reduced in PRIP-KO adipocytes. Consistently, the phosphatase activity associated with lipid droplet fraction in PRIP-KO adipocytes was significantly reduced and was independent of adrenaline stimulation. Lipolysis activity, as assessed by measurement of non-esterified fatty acids and glycerol, was higher in PRIP-KO adipocytes. When wild-type adipocytes were treated with a phosphatase inhibitor, they showed a high lipolysis activity at the similar level to PRIP-KO adipocytes. Collectively, these results suggest that PRIP promotes the translocation of phosphatases to lipid droplets to trigger the dephosphorylation of HSL and perilipin A, thus reducing PKA-mediated lipolysis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100559
PMCID: PMC4064000  PMID: 24945349
2.  An Alternative Approach to the Monitoring of Respiration by Dynamic Air-Pressure Sensor 
Anesthesia Progress  2007;54(1):2-6.
Monitoring and assessing of patient respiratory function during conscious sedation are important because many drugs used for conscious sedation produce respiratory depression and subsequent hypoventilation. The purpose of this study is to assess the value of a dynamic air-pressure sensor for respiratory monitoring of clothed patients. Eight clothed adult volunteers were reclined on a dental chair positioned horizontally. The air bag for measuring air-pressure signals corresponding to respiration was placed on the seat back of the dental chair in the central lumbar area of the subject. The subject breathed through a face mask with a respirometer attached for measuring expiratory tidal volume. The air-pressure signals corresponding to respiration were obtained and the time integration values for air pressure during each expiration (∫Pexp) were calculated. The expiratory tidal volume (TVexp) was measured simultaneously by respirometer. The relationship between TVexp and ∫Pexp for each subject was assessed by a Pearson correlation coefficient. A strong correlation between TVexp and ∫Pexp was observed in all subjects. Measuring ∫Pexp by dynamic air-pressure sensor makes it possible to estimate respiratory volume breath by breath, and the respiratory pressure–time integral waveform was useful in visually monitoring the respiration pattern. We believe that in the future this device will be used to monitor respiratory physiology in clothed patients, contributing to safer sedative procedures.
doi:10.2344/0003-3006(2007)54[2:AAATTM]2.0.CO;2
PMCID: PMC1821134  PMID: 17352526
Air-pressure sensor; Respiratory; Monitor; Nonrestrictively
3.  Clinical recovery time from conscious sedation for dental outpatients. 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(4):124-127.
For dental outpatients undergoing conscious sedation, recovery from sedation must be sufficient to allow safe discharge home, and many researchers have defined "recovery time" as the time until the patient was permitted to return home after the end of dental treatment. But it is frequently observed that patients remain in the clinic after receiving permission to go home. The present study investigated "clinical recovery time," which is defined as the time until discharge from the clinic after a dental procedure. We analyzed data from 61 outpatients who had received dental treatment under conscious sedation at the Hiroshima University Dental Hospital between January 1998 and December 2000 (nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation sedation [n = 35], intravenous sedation with midazolam [n = 10], intravenous sedation with propofol [n = 16]). We found that the median clinical recovery time was 40 minutes after nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation, 80 minutes after midazolam sedation, and 52 minutes after propofol sedation. The clinical recovery time was about twice as long as the recovery time described in previous studies. In a comparison of the sedation methods, clinical recovery time differed (P = .0008), being longer in the midazolam sedation group than in the nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation group (P = .018). These results suggest the need for changes in treatment planning for dental outpatients undergoing conscious sedation.
PMCID: PMC2007416  PMID: 12779113
4.  Effect of Donepezil on Group II mGlu Receptor Agonist- or Antagonist-Induced Amnesia on Passive Avoidance in Mice 
Neural Plasticity  2003;10(4):319-325.
We examined the effect of the acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) inhibitor, donepezil hydrocloride (DONP), on group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor agonist- or antagonist-induced amnesia in the step-through passive avoidance task in male mice. DCG-IV, a group II mGlu receptor agonist, at dose of 50 ng and LY341495, a group II mGlu receptor antagonist, at dose of 300 ng, significantly attenuated the latency on the step-through task. The subcutaneous injection of DONP at dose of 1 mg/kg 1 hour before passive avoidance performance ameliorated the amnesia induced by DCG-IV and LY341495, whereas donepezil alone did not affect task latency. The results suggest that activation of group II mGlu receptors and disinhibition of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway (caused by group II mGlu receptor antagonist) have a negative action on step-through passive avoidance memory performance, and that group II mGlu receptors and ACh interact to modulate learning and memory function.
doi:10.1155/NP.2003.319
PMCID: PMC2565428  PMID: 15152985

Results 1-4 (4)