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1.  A revised classification of the cleft lip and palate 
Submucous cleft palate is characterized by muscular diastasis of the velum in the presence of intact mucosa with variable combinations of bifid uvula and hard palatal defect. Submucous cleft palate is indicated as a separate entity in most previous classifications but it has never been properly classified on an anatomical basis.
To revise the Smith-modified Kernahan ‘Y’ classification of cleft lip and palate deformities, and to describe the different anatomical subtypes of submucous cleft palate.
The present study was conducted in Hayatabad Medical Complex, Abasin Hospital and Aman Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan, from November 2010 to December 2011. All patients who presented to the outpatient departments with cleft lip and palate, with the exception of previously operated cases, were included. All cases were described according to the Smith-modified Kernahan ‘Y’ classification and the authors’ revised Smith-modified Kernahan ‘Y’ classification. All of the data were organized and analyzed using SPSS version 17 (IBM Corporation, USA).
A total of 163 cases of cleft lip and palate deformities were studied, of which 59.5% were male and 40.5% were female. Smith modification of the Kernahan ‘Y’ classification completely described the cleft deformities in 93.9% of patients. However, while the Kernahan ‘Y’ classification represented the submucous cleft palate, it did not describe its different anatomical subtypes in 6.13% of patients. The revised Smith-modified Kernahan ‘Y’ classification completely described the cleft deformities of the entire study population, including the different submucous cleft palate patients.
The Smith alphanumeric modification of the Kernahan ‘Y’ classification of cleft lip and palate came into existence after a long search and a series of modifications over the past century. This classification system describes the cleft region, site of the cleft, degree of the cleft, rare and asymmetrical clefts, and are computer database friendly. However, this classification did not describe the different anatomical subtypes of submucous cleft palate that have variable relationships with velopharyngeal insufficiency.
The revised Smith-modified Kernahan ‘Y’ classification described in the present study can describe all types of cleft lip and palate deformities in addition to the different types of submucous cleft palate deformities.
PMCID: PMC3891101  PMID: 24431938
Cleft lip; Cleft palate; Submucous cleft palate; Velopharyngeal insufficiency
3.  Whipple’s disease with constrictive pericarditis: A rare disease with a rare presentation 
Whipple’s disease is a multisystem disease that can affect the heart with predominantly endocardial and pericardial involvement and, less often, myocardial inflammation. Previously diagnosed at autopsy, cardiac involvement in Whipple’s disease is being recognized clinically more often. A 58-year-old man with Whipple’s-related constrictive pericarditis, arthralgias and lymphadenopathy is described. He underwent antibiotic treatment and pericardiectomy with improvement in his clinical state.
PMCID: PMC2691706  PMID: 19279994
Constrictive pericarditis; Jejunal biopsy; Lymphadenopathy; Pericardiectomy; Whipple’s disease
4.  Is iron overload in alcohol-related cirrhosis mediated by hepcidin? 
In this case report we describe the relationship between ferritin levels and hepcidin in a patient with alcohol-related spur cell anemia who underwent liver transplantation. We demonstrate a reciprocal relationship between serum or urinary hepcidin and serum ferritin, which indicates that inadequate hepcidin production by the diseased liver is associated with elevated serum ferritin. The ferritin level falls with increasing hepcidin production after transplantation. Neither inflammatory indices (IL6) nor erythropoietin appear to be related to hepcidin expression in this case. We suggest that inappropriately low hepcidin production by the cirrhotic liver may contribute substantially to elevated tissue iron stores in cirrhosis and speculate that hepcidin replacement in these patients may be of therapeutic benefit in the future.
PMCID: PMC2791283  PMID: 19998511
Alcohol; Iron; Anaemia; Hepcidin; Cirrhosis
5.  SELDI-TOF-MS determination of hepcidin in clinical samples using stable isotope labelled hepcidin as an internal standard 
Proteome Science  2008;6:28.
Hepcidin is a 25-residue peptide hormone crucial to iron homeostasis. It is essential to measure the concentration of hepcidin in cells, tissues and body fluids to understand its mechanisms and roles in physiology and pathophysiology. With a mass of 2791 Da hepcidin is readily detectable by mass spectrometry and LC-ESI, MALDI and SELDI have been used to estimate systemic hepcidin concentrations by analysing serum or urine. However, peak heights in mass spectra may not always reflect concentrations in samples due to competition during binding steps and variations in ionisation efficiency. Thus the purpose of this study was to develop a robust assay for measuring hepcidin using a stable isotope labelled hepcidin spiking approach in conjunction with SELDI-TOF-MS.
We synthesised and re-folded hepcidin labelled with 13C/15N phenylalanine at position 9 to generate an internal standard for mass spectrometry experiments. This labelled hepcidin is 10 Daltons heavier than the endogenous peptides and does not overlap with the isotopic envelope of the endogenous hepcidin or other common peaks in human serum or urine mass spectra and can be distinguished in low resolution mass spectrometers. We report the validation of adding labelled hepcidin into serum followed by SELDI analysis to generate an improved assay for hepcidin.
We demonstrate that without utilising a spiking approach the hepcidin peak height in SELDI spectra gives a good indication of hepcidin concentration. However, a stable isotope labelled hepcidin spiking approach provides a more robust assay, measures the absolute concentration of hepcidin and should facilitate inter-laboratory hepcidin comparisons.
PMCID: PMC2571088  PMID: 18854031
6.  Increased hepcidin expression in colorectal carcinogenesis 
AIM: To investigate whether the iron stores regulator hepcidin is implicated in colon cancer-associated anaemia and whether it might have a role in colorectal carcinogenesis.
METHODS: Mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and SELDI-TOF MS) was employed to measure hepcidin in urine collected from 56 patients with colorectal cancer. Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR was utilized to determine hepcidin mRNA expression in colorectal cancer tissue. Hepcidin cellular localization was determined using immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: We demonstrate that whilst urinary hepcidin expression was not correlated with anaemia it was positively associated with increasing T-stage of colorectal cancer (P < 0.05). Furthermore, we report that hepcidin mRNA is expressed in 34% of colorectal cancer tissue specimens and was correlated with ferroportin repression. This was supported by hepcidin immunoreactivity in colorectal cancer tissue.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that systemic hepcidin expression is unlikely to be the cause of the systemic anaemia associated with colorectal cancer. However, we demonstrate for the first time that hepcidin is expressed by colorectal cancer tissue and that this may represent a novel oncogenic signalling mechanism.
PMCID: PMC2693679  PMID: 18322945
Iron; Hepcidin; Colon; Cancer; Anaemia; Mass spectrometry

Results 1-6 (6)