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1.  Effect of Rosemarinus officinalis L. on MMP-9, MCP-1 Levels, and Cell Migration in RAW 264.7 and Smooth Muscle Cells 
Journal of Medicinal Food  2012;15(10):879-886.
Abstract
Atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease. Novel anti-inflammatory therapies may have promise as treatment strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction. Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, epilepsy, poor circulation, and many other ailments. It was found that rosemary could act as a stimulant and mild analgesic and could reduce inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic effects of rosemary need more study. This study investigated effects of the rosemary components, carnosic acid (CA), and carnosol (CAR), on cell migration. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were determined by Western blot and gelatin zymography, respectively, in RAW 264.7 macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMC migration was assessed by a Matrigel migration assay. Active compounds of rosemary extracts were also analyzed using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. MMP-9 and MCP-1 activities were markedly diminished with methanol extract (RM), n-hexane fraction (RH), and CA in RAW 264.7 cells. RM, RH, CA, and CAR suppressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha–induced VSMC migration by inhibiting MMP-9 expression. Chromatograms of RM- and RH-containing CA and CAR revealed higher CA contents of RM (9.4%, 93.85 μg/mg dry wt.) and, especially, RH (18.4%, 184.00 μg/mg dry wt.), which were appreciably elevated compared with the similar CAR content in RM and RH (3.7%, 37.30 μg/mg dry wt.; and 2.5%, 25.05 μg/mg dry wt., respectively). Rosemary, especially its CA component, has potential antiatherosclerosis effects related to cell migration.
doi:10.1089/jmf.2012.2162
PMCID: PMC3466913  PMID: 22985398
Rosemarinus officinalis L.; rosemary; matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9); monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1); migration; RAW 264.7 macrophages; vascular smooth muscle cell
2.  Antioxidant Effects of Fermented Red Ginseng Extracts in Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats 
Journal of Ginseng Research  2011;35(2):129-137.
The antioxidant activities of fermented red ginseng (FRG) were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The contents of total polyphenol and total flavonoid in FRG extracts were 17.01±2.00 μg/mg and 18.42±3.97 μg/mg, respectively. These extracts were capable of directly scavenging α, α-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl free radicals. The antioxidative effects of the FRG extracts in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were also investigated. The activities of plasma alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and γ-glutamyltransferase were significantly decreased by extract administration as compared to an STZ control group. Hepatic glutathione content depleted by STZ treatment was significantly increased by treatment of the FRG extracts, but the elevation of lipid peroxide content induced by STZ was significantly decreased by the extracts. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase decreased after STZ-treatment were recovered by the treatment of the FRG extracts. These results indicate that FRG extracts have antioxidative effets in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
doi:10.5142/jgr.2011.35.2.129
PMCID: PMC3659529  PMID: 23717054
Panax ginseng; Red ginseng; Fermentation; Antioxidant effect; Streptozotocin
3.  Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil of Silver Fir (Abies alba) 
The essential oil of silver fir (Abies alba) is known to help respiratory system and have easing and soothing effect for muscle. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and its biological activities of silver fir (Abies alba) essential oil. The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), α-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18%), β-phellandrene (2.13%), borneol (1.74%), bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene,2,3-dimethyl (1.64%) and α-terpinene (1.24%) were the major components in the oil. The results tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that the oil showed no cytotoxic effect, at concentrations of 1 and 5%, for as long as 24 and 3 h, respectively. The antiradical capacity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oil on the 2,20-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The oil was able to reduce the both radicals dose-dependently, and the concentration required for 50% reduction (RC50) against DPPH radicals (2.7 ± 0.63%) was lower than ABTS radicals (8.5 ± 0.27%). The antibacterial activity of the oil was also evaluated using disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Listeria monocytogenes, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticcus. The oil exhibited no antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains tested except S. aureus of mild activity.
doi:10.3164/jcbn.08-240
PMCID: PMC2675024  PMID: 19430614
silver fir essential oil; Abies alba; GC-MS; antiradical; antibacterial

Results 1-3 (3)